Padartha, Padārtha, Pada-artha: 21 definitions
Padartha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Padarth.
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Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Padārtha (पदार्थ, “basic categories”):—The physician, in order to understand the science of life, should know the six padārthas—
- Sāmānya (‘similarity’),
- Viśeṣa (‘dissimilarity’),
- Dravy (‘substance’),
- Guṇa (‘quality’),
- Karma (‘action’)
- and Samavāya (‘inherence’).
Of them dravy is the central pivot in which guṇa and karma reside with inherence and which acts by the law of sāmānya and viśeṣa.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Padārtha (पदार्थ):—[padārthaḥ] 1. the meaning of a word or group of words; 2. substance which exists, has anomenclature and is a subject of Knowledge. This whole universe is categorised in six padarthas. Ayurveda uses the term Karana (cause) for Padartha
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)Source: archive.org: Saptapadarthi
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—A padārtha is what is knowable and nameable—i.e., the ultimate of intellectual analysis. Padārtha has its nearest equivalent in English in ‘Category’. The categories are the objects of right knowledge. This means that right knowledge fulfils its function in comprehending these categories.Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika
Vaiśeṣika: According to the Vaisheshika school, all things which exist, which can be cognised, and which can be named are padārthas (literal meaning: the meaning of a word), the objects of experience.
All objects of experience can be classified into six categories,
- dravya (substance),
- guṇa (quality),
- karma (activity),
- sāmānya (generality),
- viśeṣa (particularity)
- and samavāya (inherence).
Later Vaiśeṣikas (Śrīdhara and Udayana and Śivāditya) added one more category abhava (non-existence).Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)
Padārtha (पदार्थ, “categories”).—According to Kaṇāda, all object of knowledge or all real comes under padārtha. He mentions in his Vaiśeṣikasūtra only six categories. These are:
- dravya (substance),
- guṇa (quality),
- karma (action),
- sāmānya (generality),
- viśeṣa (particularity),
- samavāya (inherence).
Kaṇāda does not mention abhāva (negation) as a separate category (padārtha), but later Vaiśeṣikas recognize abhāva as the seventh category. Śrīdhara, in his Nyāyakaṇḍalī, clarifies this point by saying that Kaṇāda did not mention abhāva separately because abhāva depends on bhāva (existence). That means non-existence depends on existence for its knowledge and therefore, there is no need to state abhāva separately. But the later Nyāyavaiśeṣika writers adopt the seven categories of the Vaiśeṣikas.
Now though these seven categories (padārtha) are accepted by the Vaiśeṣikas, these are also in accord with the postulation of the Naiyāyikas. This is established from the commentary of Vātsyāyana. Viśvanāth Nyāyapañcānana also mentions this. Vātsyāyana speaks of the Vaiśeṣika categories in reference to prameyas.
Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: WikiPedia: Nyāya
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—The Nyāya metaphysics recognizes sixteen padarthas or categories and includes all six (or seven) categories of the Vaiśeṣika in the second one of them, called prameya.
These sixteen categories are
- pramāṇa (valid means of knowledge),
- prameya (objects of valid knowledge),
- saṃśaya (doubt),
- prayojana (aim),
- dṛṣṭānta (example),
- siddhānta (conclusion),
- avayava (members of syllogism),
- tarka (hypothetical reasoning),
- nirṇaya (settlement),
- vāda (discussion),
- jalpa (wrangling),
- vitaṇḍā (cavilling),
- hetvābhāsa (fallacy),
- chala (quibbling),
- jāti (sophisticated refutation)
- and nigrahasthāna (point of defeat).
Padārtha (पदार्थ, “categories”).—Literally, the term padārtha means the meaning of a word (padasya arthaḥ) or an object signified by a word. Padārtha is that which is an object of cognition and which can be named (abhidheya). It means all objects of experience. According to the Annaṃbhaṭṭa, all things of the world and their relationship with one another come under the seven independent categories.
Gautama (in his fundamental work of Nyāya philosophy) enumerates sixteen padārthas. These are:
- pramāṇa (means of valid knowledge),
- prameya (the object of valid knowledge),
- saṃśaya (doubt),
- prayojana (purpose or aim),
- dṛṣṭānta (example),
- siddhānta (doctrine),
- avayava (members of a syllogism),
- tarka (confutation),
- nirṇaya (ascertainment),
- vāda (discussion),
- jalpa (wrangling),
- vitaṇḍā (cavil),
- hetvābhāsa (fallacy),
- chala (quibble),
- jāti (futility),
- nigrahasthāna (ground of defeat).
The later commentators accept these sixteen categories (padārtha) in their works and explain them accordingly. Vātsyāyana in his Nyāyabhāṣya has justified the gradual order of these categories enumerated by Gautama. Viśvanātha also supports this in his Nyāyasūtravṛtti. Vidyabhusana points out, “The categories are, according to the commentaries on the Nyāyasūtra, supposed to represent stages in the course of a debate between a disputant and his respondent”.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Arthashastra (politics and welfare)Source: Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra
Padārtha (पदार्थ) refers to “the meaning of a word” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.
Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—Meaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् (jātyākhyāyāmekasmin bahuvacanamanyatarasyām) I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ (sarūpāṇāmekaśeṣa ekavibhaktau) I. 2.64; cf. किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ आहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । आकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते (kiṃ punarākṛtiḥ padārtha āhosvid dravyam | ubhayamityāha | kathaṃ jñāyate | ubhayathā hyācāryeṇa sūtrāṇi praṇītāni | ākṛtiṃ padārthe matvā jātyākhyāyāmityucyate) | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष आरभ्यते (dravyaṃ padārthe matvā sarūpāṇāmityekaśeṣa ārabhyate), M. Bh. in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; cf. स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्द-संज्ञा (svaṃ rūpaṃ śabdasyāśabda-saṃjñā), P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता (śabdapadārthakatā) as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता (arthapadārthakatā); cf. सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदा-र्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते (sosau gośabdaḥ svasmātpadārthāt pracyuto yāsau arthapadā-rthakatā tasyāḥ śabdapadārthakaḥ saṃpadyate) M. Bh. I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ (padārtha) means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one stroke.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—See under Pañcabhūta.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
padārtha (पदार्थ).—m (S) A thing, any material form of being. 2 A nice-dish; a confection; a delicacy; any dainty preparation of food. 3 Meaning of a sentence. 4 A category or predicament in logic. Seven are enumerated;--substance, quality, action, generic property or character, specific or individual property or character, constant and intimate relation, non-existence or nihility (dravya, guṇa, karma, sāmānya, viśēṣa, samavāya, abhāva). 5 Used (as Thing in English) of whatever will admit affirmation or denial. 6 Applied contemptuously, as Thing, creature. Ex. tū kāya pa0 āhēsa? tyācā kāya pa0?Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
padārtha (पदार्थ).—m A thing, any material form of being. A nice dish; a delicacy. Meaning of a sentence. A category or predicament in logic. Used (as Thing in English) of whatever will admit affirmation or denial. Applied contemptuously, as Thing, creature. Ex. tūṃ kāya pa?B āhēsa? tyācā kāya pa?
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) the meaning of a word.
2) a thing or object.
3) a head or topic (of which the Naiyāyikas enumerate 16 subheads).
4) anything which can be named (abhidheya), a category or predicament; the number of such categories, according to the Vaiśeṣikas, is seven; according to the Sāṅkhyas, twentyfive (or twenty-seven according to the followers of Patañjali), and two according to the Vedāntins.
5) the sense of another word which is not expressed but has to be supplied. °अनुसमयः (anusamayaḥ) preforming one detail with reference to all things or persons concerned; then doing the second, then the third and so on (see anusamaya). Hence पदार्थानुसमयन्याय (padārthānusamayanyāya) means: A rule of interpretation according to which, when several details are to be performed with reference to several things or persons, they should be done each to each at a time.
Derivable forms: padārthaḥ (पदार्थः).
Padārtha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pada and artha (अर्थ).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-rthaḥ) 1. Thing, substantial or material form of being. 2. A category of predicament in Logic, of which seven are enumerated; viz:—substance, quality, action, identity, variety, relation and non-existence or annihilation. They are sixteen according to Nyaya Philosophy six according to the Vaiseshika, twenty-five according to Sankhya, twenty six according to Patanjala, and two according to Vaidantica. 3. The meaning of a word or sentence. 4. A head, a topic. E. pada word, thing, and artha meaning.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—i. e. pada-artha, m. 1. The meaning of a word, Nyāya S. 2, 131. 2. Substance, thing, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 11, 2. 3. A category, Bhāṣāp. 1.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—[masculine] the meaning of a word or the thing corresponding to it; thing, object, matter; man, person; category or predicament (ph.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Padārtha (पदार्थ):—[from pada > pad] m. the meaning of a word, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya; Prabodha-candrodaya; Bhāgavata-purāṇa] etc. (ifc. also -ka, [Patañjali])
2) [v.s. ...] that which corresponds to the m° of a w°, a thing, material object, man, person, [Varāha-mihira; Kāvya literature; Purāṇa]
3) [v.s. ...] a head, subject (16 with Naiyāyikas)
4) [v.s. ...] a category, predicament (7 with Vaiśeṣikas, 25 with Sāṃkhyas, 7 with Vedāntins)
5) [v.s. ...] a principle (-tritaya n. a triad of principles, [Religious Thought and Life in India 119])Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Padārtha (पदार्थ):—[padā+rtha] (rthaḥ) 1. m. Thing; essence; meaning; objects of natural science; category.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Padārtha (पदार्थ):—(pada + artha) m.
1) die einem Worte entsprechende Sache, Ding, Gegenstand [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 2, 21.] jātyākṛtivyaktayastu padārthaḥ [Gotama’s Nyāyasūtrāṇi.2,131.] [Kapila.1,24.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 2.] [BHAṬṬOTPALA] zu [15,1.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī.3,218.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa.3,11,2.5,20,35.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 44,8.] [Prabodhacandrodaja 27,7.] [KULĀRṆAVAT.] in [Oxforder Handschriften 91,b,18.] [Kullūka] zu [Manu’s Gesetzbuch.5,42.6,14. Scholiast] zu [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 83,14. 15. 87,21. 24. 88,3—5. 10—13. 18. 20. 89,7. fgg. 90,1. 2. 17 - 24. 131,3. 91,2. 7. 214,20. 21. 354,11.] Schol. zu [Kapila.1,77.] [Scholiast] zu [Bhartṛhari.3,65.] —
2) Kategorie [TARKAS. 1, 59.] na vayaṃ ṣaṭpadārthavādino vaiśeṣikādivat [Kapila 1, 25.] [COLEBR. Misc. I, 264. 272.] [MÜLLER] in [morgenländischen Gesellschaft VI, 4. 10. 32. fg.] sapta [Bhāṣāpariccheda 1.] ṣaṣṭi [Sânkhya Philosophy 45.] Die Naiyāyika nehmen 16 padārtha an [Madhusūdanasarasvatī’s Prasthānabheda] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 18]; vgl. [Gotama’s Nyāyasūtrāṇi 1, 1.] [MÜLLER] in [morgenländischen Gesellschaft VI, 4] findet den von [WEBER] gebrauchten Ausdruck Kategorie hier unpassend und setzt statt dessen Ding, das aber auch nicht genügt. Die Scholien zu [Kapila 1, 25] stellen die 16 padārtha der Naiyāyika den 6 padārtha der Vaiśeṣika an die Seite und [BALLANTYNE] setzt beide Male dafür categories. [COLEBROOKE] [?(Misc. Ess. I, 264. fg. 272)] giebt padārtha der Vaiśeṣika durch predicaments, objects of proof, categories, padārtha der Naiyāyika durch heads und topics wieder. Wir könnten dafür etwa Gegenstand der Betrachtung, Vorwurf sagen; diese Bed. hat das Wort auch in der folgenden Stelle: evaṃ vaiṣṇavaṃ nāradādibhiḥ kṛtaṃ pañcarātram . tatra vāsudevasaṃkarṣapradyumnāniruddhāścatvāraḥ padārthā nirūpitāḥ . [Madhusūdanasarasvatī’s Prasthānabheda] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 23.] —
3) Wortbedeutung: anyatamo mukundātko nāma loke bhagavatpadārthaḥ [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 18, 21.] padārthānavajñānādvākyārtho nāvagamyate [Prabodhacandrodaja 114, 14.] [Scholiast] zu [Prātiśākhya zur Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 4, 179.]  zu [Bṛhadāranyakopaniṣad S. 55.] [Madhusūdanasarasvatī’s Prasthānabheda] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 20, 6.] [Kullūka] zu [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 211.] Davon nom. abstr. tva n. [MADHYAM. 136.]
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2) hundert bei einigen Jaina [WILSON, Sel. Works 1, 284.]
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1) padārthānāmanityatā [Hemacandra] [Yogaśāstra 4, 56.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
Padārtha (पदार्थ):—m. —
1) die einem Worte entsprechende Sache , Ding , Gegenstand. —
2) Gegenstand der Betrachtung , Vorwurf. —
3) in der Philosophie Hauptbegriff , Kategorie. —
4) Wortbedeutung. [Pāṇini. 1,4,96] wird das Wort unnöthiger Weise durch Bedeutung eines nicht beigefügten Wortes erklärt. Ding , Gegenstand genügt.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Padārtha (पदार्थ) [Also spelled padarth]:—(nm) meaning of a term; matter, substance; an object; article.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+25): Padartha-tika, Padarthabhaskara, Padarthabodha, Padarthacandrika, Padarthacandrikaprabhasa, Padarthadarsha, Padarthadharmasamgraha, Padarthadipaka, Padarthadipika, Padarthadipika karkanuga, Padarthadipini, Padarthagunacintamani, Padarthaka, Padarthakaumudi, Padarthakaumudikosha, Padarthakaumudisarakosha, Padarthakhandana, Padarthakhandanatippanavyakhya, Padarthamala, Padarthamaladipika.
Ends with (+1): Ahampadartha, Amalipadartha, Amatapadartha, Anyapadartha, Apadartha, Ayuktapadartha, Bhavapadartha, Dravyapadartha, Kahpadartha, Mayeca Padartha, Pramanapadartha, Samanyapadartha, Sandhica Padartha, Saptapadartha, Shatapadartha, Shodasha Padartha, Svapadartha, Tatpadartha, Tvampadartha, Vishapadartha.
Search found 31 books and stories containing Padartha, Padārtha, Pada-artha; (plurals include: Padarthas, Padārthas, arthas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
The validity of Anumana (inference) in Nyaya system (by Babu C. D)
Philosophy of Charaka-samhita (by Asokan. G)
Fundamental Categories (padārtha or tattva) [in Charaka philosophy] < [Chapter 2 - Fundamental Categories]
Analytical devices (tantrayukis) < [Chapter 7 - Logic and Dialectical Speculations]
A study of the philosophy of Jainism (by Deepa Baruah)
Chapter III.a - The Nature Of Substance (Dravya) < [Chapter III - Categories]
Chapter V.b - Jaina theory of Karman < [Chapter V - Bondage and Liberation]
Chapter I.g - A brief description of Prameyakamalamārtaṇḍa < [Chapter I - Introduction]
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter LXV - The Technical terms used in the treatise < [Canto V - Tantra-bhusana-adhyaya (embellishing chapters)]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 9 - The six Padārthas: Dravya, Guṇa, Karma, Sāmānya, Viśeṣa, Samavāya < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]
Part 22 - Īśvara and Salvation < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]
Part 8 - The main doctrine of the Nyaya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]