Padartha, aka: Padārtha, Pada-artha; 10 Definition(s)

Introduction

Padartha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Padārtha (पदार्थ, “basic categories”):—The physician, in order to understand the science of life, should know the six padārthas

  1. Sāmānya (‘similarity’),
  2. Viśeṣa (‘dissimilarity’),
  3. Dravy (‘substance’),
  4. Guṇa (‘quality’),
  5. Karma (‘action’)
  6. and Samavāya (‘inherence’).

Of them dravy is the central pivot in which guṇa and karma reside with inherence and which acts by the law of sāmānya and viśeṣa.

(Source): Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Padārtha (पदार्थ).—A padārtha is what is knowable and nameable—i.e., the ultimate of intellectual analysis. Padārtha has its nearest equivalent in English in ‘Category’. The categories are the objects of right knowledge. This means that right knowledge fulfils its function in comprehending these categories.

(Source): archive.org: Saptapadarthi

Vaiśeṣika: According to the Vaisheshika school, all things which exist, which can be cognised, and which can be named are padārthas (literal meaning: the meaning of a word), the objects of experience.

All objects of experience can be classified into six categories,

  1. dravya (substance),
  2. guṇa (quality),
  3. karma (activity),
  4. sāmānya (generality),
  5. viśeṣa (particularity)
  6. and samavāya (inherence).

Later Vaiśeṣikas (Śrīdhara and Udayana and Śivāditya) added one more category abhava (non-existence).

(Source): Wikipedia: Vaisheshika
Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Padārtha (पदार्थ).—The Nyāya metaphysics recognizes sixteen padarthas or categories and includes all six (or seven) categories of the Vaiśeṣika in the second one of them, called prameya.

These sixteen categories are

  1. pramāṇa (valid means of knowledge),
  2. prameya (objects of valid knowledge),
  3. saṃśaya (doubt),
  4. prayojana (aim),
  5. dṛṣṭānta (example),
  6. siddhānta (conclusion),
  7. avayava (members of syllogism),
  8. tarka (hypothetical reasoning),
  9. nirṇaya (settlement),
  10. vāda (discussion),
  11. jalpa (wrangling),
  12. vitaṇḍā (cavilling),
  13. hetvābhāsa (fallacy),
  14. chala (quibbling),
  15. jāti (sophisticated refutation)
  16. and nigrahasthāna (point of defeat).
(Source): WikiPedia: Nyāya
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Padārtha (पदार्थ) refers to “the meaning of a word” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra
Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Padārtha (पदार्थ).—Meaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् (jātyākhyāyāmekasmin bahuvacanamanyatarasyām) I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ (sarūpāṇāmekaśeṣa ekavibhaktau) I. 2.64; cf. किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ आहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । आकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते (kiṃ punarākṛtiḥ padārtha āhosvid dravyam | ubhayamityāha | kathaṃ jñāyate | ubhayathā hyācāryeṇa sūtrāṇi praṇītāni | ākṛtiṃ padārthe matvā jātyākhyāyāmityucyate) | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष आरभ्यते (dravyaṃ padārthe matvā sarūpāṇāmityekaśeṣa ārabhyate), M. Bh. in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; cf. स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्द-संज्ञा (svaṃ rūpaṃ śabdasyāśabda-saṃjñā), P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता (śabdapadārthakatā) as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता (arthapadārthakatā); cf. सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदा-र्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते (sosau gośabdaḥ svasmātpadārthāt pracyuto yāsau arthapadā-rthakatā tasyāḥ śabdapadārthakaḥ saṃpadyate) M. Bh. I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ (padārtha) means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one stroke.

(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

padārtha (पदार्थ).—m (S) A thing, any material form of being. 2 A nice-dish; a confection; a delicacy; any dainty preparation of food. 3 Meaning of a sentence. 4 A category or predicament in logic. Seven are enumerated;--substance, quality, action, generic property or character, specific or individual property or character, constant and intimate relation, non-existence or nihility (dravya, guṇa, karma, sāmānya, viśēṣa, samavāya, abhāva). 5 Used (as Thing in English) of whatever will admit affirmation or denial. 6 Applied contemptuously, as Thing, creature. Ex. tū kāya pa0 āhēsa? tyācā kāya pa0?

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

padārtha (पदार्थ).—m A thing, any material form of being. A nice dish; a delicacy. Meaning of a sentence. A category or predicament in logic. Used (as Thing in English) of whatever will admit affirmation or denial. Applied contemptuously, as Thing, creature. Ex. tūṃ kāya pa?B āhēsa? tyācā kāya pa?

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Padārtha (पदार्थ).—

1) the meaning of a word.

2) a thing or object.

3) a head or topic (of which the Naiyāyikas enumerate 16 subheads).

4) anything which can be named (abhidheya), a category or predicament; the number of such categories, according to the Vaiśeṣikas, is seven; according to the Sāṅkhyas, twentyfive (or twenty-seven according to the followers of Patañjali), and two according to the Vedāntins.

5) the sense of another word which is not expressed but has to be supplied. °अनुसमयः (anusamayaḥ) preforming one detail with reference to all things or persons concerned; then doing the second, then the third and so on (see anusamaya). Hence पदार्थानुसमयन्याय (padārthānusamayanyāya) means: A rule of interpretation according to which, when several details are to be performed with reference to several things or persons, they should be done each to each at a time.

Derivable forms: padārthaḥ (पदार्थः).

Padārtha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pada and artha (अर्थ).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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