Padartha, aka: Padārtha, Pada-artha; 7 Definition(s)

Introduction

Padartha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Padārtha (पदार्थ, “basic categories”):—The physician, in order to understand the science of life, should know the six padārthas

  1. Sāmānya (‘similarity’),
  2. Viśeṣa (‘dissimilarity’),
  3. Dravy (‘substance’),
  4. Guṇa (‘quality’),
  5. Karma (‘action’)
  6. and Samavāya (‘inherence’).

Of them dravy is the central pivot in which guṇa and karma reside with inherence and which acts by the law of sāmānya and viśeṣa.

(Source): Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Vaiśeṣika (school of philosophy)

Padārtha (पदार्थ).—A padārtha is what is knowable and nameable—i.e., the ultimate of intellectual analysis. Padārtha has its nearest equivalent in English in ‘Category’. The categories are the objects of right knowledge. This means that right knowledge fulfils its function in comprehending these categories.

(Source): archive.org: Saptapadarthi

Vaiśeṣika: According to the Vaisheshika school, all things which exist, which can be cognised, and which can be named are padārthas (literal meaning: the meaning of a word), the objects of experience.

All objects of experience can be classified into six categories,

  1. dravya (substance),
  2. guṇa (quality),
  3. karma (activity),
  4. sāmānya (generality),
  5. viśeṣa (particularity)
  6. and samavāya (inherence).

Later Vaiśeṣikas (Śrīdhara and Udayana and Śivāditya) added one more category abhava (non-existence).

(Source): Wikipedia: Vaisheshika
Vaiśeṣika book cover
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Vaiśeṣika (वैशेषिक, vaisheshika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (āstika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upaniṣads. Vaiśeṣika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similair to Buddhism in nature

Nyāya (school of philosophy)

Padārtha (पदार्थ).—The Nyāya metaphysics recognizes sixteen padarthas or categories and includes all six (or seven) categories of the Vaiśeṣika in the second one of them, called prameya.

These sixteen categories are

  1. pramāṇa (valid means of knowledge),
  2. prameya (objects of valid knowledge),
  3. saṃśaya (doubt),
  4. prayojana (aim),
  5. dṛṣṭānta (example),
  6. siddhānta (conclusion),
  7. avayava (members of syllogism),
  8. tarka (hypothetical reasoning),
  9. nirṇaya (settlement),
  10. vāda (discussion),
  11. jalpa (wrangling),
  12. vitaṇḍā (cavilling),
  13. hetvābhāsa (fallacy),
  14. chala (quibbling),
  15. jāti (sophisticated refutation)
  16. and nigrahasthāna (point of defeat).
(Source): WikiPedia: Nyāya
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Nyāya (न्याय) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (āstika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upaniṣads. The Nyāya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaiśeṣika in terms of metaphysics.

Arthaśāstra (politics and welfare)

Padārtha (पदार्थ) refers to “the meaning of a word” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra
Arthaśāstra book cover
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Arthaśāstra (अर्थशास्त्र, artha-shastra) literature concers itself with subjects such as statecraft, economics politics and military tactics. The term arthaśāstra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kauṭilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

padārtha (पदार्थ).—m (S) A thing, any material form of being. 2 A nice-dish; a confection; a delicacy; any dainty preparation of food. 3 Meaning of a sentence. 4 A category or predicament in logic. Seven are enumerated;--substance, quality, action, generic property or character, specific or individual property or character, constant and intimate relation, non-existence or nihility (dravya, guṇa, karma, sāmānya, viśēṣa, samavāya, abhāva). 5 Used (as Thing in English) of whatever will admit affirmation or denial. 6 Applied contemptuously, as Thing, creature. Ex. tū kāya pa0 āhēsa? tyācā kāya pa0?

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

padārtha (पदार्थ).—m A thing, any material form of being. A nice dish; a delicacy. Meaning of a sentence. A category or predicament in logic. Used (as Thing in English) of whatever will admit affirmation or denial. Applied contemptuously, as Thing, creature. Ex. tūṃ kāya pa?B āhēsa? tyācā kāya pa?

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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