Padartha, Padārtha, Pada-artha: 29 definitions
Padartha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Padarth.
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Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Padārtha (पदार्थ, “basic categories”):—The physician, in order to understand the science of life, should know the six padārthas—
- Sāmānya (‘similarity’),
- Viśeṣa (‘dissimilarity’),
- Dravy (‘substance’),
- Guṇa (‘quality’),
- Karma (‘action’)
- and Samavāya (‘inherence’).
Of them dravy is the central pivot in which guṇa and karma reside with inherence and which acts by the law of sāmānya and viśeṣa.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Padārtha (पदार्थ):—[padārthaḥ] 1. the meaning of a word or group of words; 2. substance which exists, has anomenclature and is a subject of Knowledge. This whole universe is categorised in six padarthas. Ayurveda uses the term Karana (cause) for PadarthaSource: INSA Digital Repository: Caraka’s Approach to Knowledge
Padartha refers to the “categorisation of all that exists”, which were partly adapted by Caraka in his Charakasamhita.—Vaisheshika was an ancient system dating back to the time of the Buddha and drew within its fold ‘physics, metaphysics, and logical discussions skillfully dovetailed’ (Cf. Charaka Samhita verse 11.44-56). Its first authoritative exposition was made by Kanada whose view of the atomic basis of the physical universe is famous. Vaisheshika’s main concern was the categorisation of ‘padarthas’ which included all that exists, all that can be named, or experienced. The primary classification of Padarthas into substance, quality, activity, generality, particularity and inherence was adopted by Charaka without changes. But other adoptions from Vaisheshika were qualified.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)Source: archive.org: Saptapadarthi
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—A padārtha is what is knowable and nameable—i.e., the ultimate of intellectual analysis. Padārtha has its nearest equivalent in English in ‘Category’. The categories are the objects of right knowledge. This means that right knowledge fulfils its function in comprehending these categories.Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika
Vaiśeṣika: According to the Vaisheshika school, all things which exist, which can be cognised, and which can be named are padārthas (literal meaning: the meaning of a word), the objects of experience.
All objects of experience can be classified into six categories,
- dravya (substance),
- guṇa (quality),
- karma (activity),
- sāmānya (generality),
- viśeṣa (particularity)
- and samavāya (inherence).
Later Vaiśeṣikas (Śrīdhara and Udayana and Śivāditya) added one more category abhava (non-existence).Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)
Padārtha (पदार्थ, “categories”).—According to Kaṇāda, all object of knowledge or all real comes under padārtha. He mentions in his Vaiśeṣikasūtra only six categories. These are:
- dravya (substance),
- guṇa (quality),
- karma (action),
- sāmānya (generality),
- viśeṣa (particularity),
- samavāya (inherence).
Kaṇāda does not mention abhāva (negation) as a separate category (padārtha), but later Vaiśeṣikas recognize abhāva as the seventh category. Śrīdhara, in his Nyāyakaṇḍalī, clarifies this point by saying that Kaṇāda did not mention abhāva separately because abhāva depends on bhāva (existence). That means non-existence depends on existence for its knowledge and therefore, there is no need to state abhāva separately. But the later Nyāyavaiśeṣika writers adopt the seven categories of the Vaiśeṣikas.
Now though these seven categories (padārtha) are accepted by the Vaiśeṣikas, these are also in accord with the postulation of the Naiyāyikas. This is established from the commentary of Vātsyāyana. Viśvanāth Nyāyapañcānana also mentions this. Vātsyāyana speaks of the Vaiśeṣika categories in reference to prameyas.
Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: WikiPedia: Nyāya
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—The Nyāya metaphysics recognizes sixteen padarthas or categories and includes all six (or seven) categories of the Vaiśeṣika in the second one of them, called prameya.
These sixteen categories are
- pramāṇa (valid means of knowledge),
- prameya (objects of valid knowledge),
- saṃśaya (doubt),
- prayojana (aim),
- dṛṣṭānta (example),
- siddhānta (conclusion),
- avayava (members of syllogism),
- tarka (hypothetical reasoning),
- nirṇaya (settlement),
- vāda (discussion),
- jalpa (wrangling),
- vitaṇḍā (cavilling),
- hetvābhāsa (fallacy),
- chala (quibbling),
- jāti (sophisticated refutation)
- and nigrahasthāna (point of defeat).
Padārtha (पदार्थ, “categories”).—Literally, the term padārtha means the meaning of a word (padasya arthaḥ) or an object signified by a word. Padārtha is that which is an object of cognition and which can be named (abhidheya). It means all objects of experience. According to the Annaṃbhaṭṭa, all things of the world and their relationship with one another come under the seven independent categories.
Gautama (in his fundamental work of Nyāya philosophy) enumerates sixteen padārthas. These are:
- pramāṇa (means of valid knowledge),
- prameya (the object of valid knowledge),
- saṃśaya (doubt),
- prayojana (purpose or aim),
- dṛṣṭānta (example),
- siddhānta (doctrine),
- avayava (members of a syllogism),
- tarka (confutation),
- nirṇaya (ascertainment),
- vāda (discussion),
- jalpa (wrangling),
- vitaṇḍā (cavil),
- hetvābhāsa (fallacy),
- chala (quibble),
- jāti (futility),
- nigrahasthāna (ground of defeat).
The later commentators accept these sixteen categories (padārtha) in their works and explain them accordingly. Vātsyāyana in his Nyāyabhāṣya has justified the gradual order of these categories enumerated by Gautama. Viśvanātha also supports this in his Nyāyasūtravṛtti. Vidyabhusana points out, “The categories are, according to the commentaries on the Nyāyasūtra, supposed to represent stages in the course of a debate between a disputant and his respondent”.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Arthashastra (politics and welfare)Source: Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra
Padārtha (पदार्थ) refers to “the meaning of a word” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.
Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—Meaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāṇini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् (jātyākhyāyāmekasmin bahuvacanamanyatarasyām) I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ (sarūpāṇāmekaśeṣa ekavibhaktau) I. 2.64; cf. किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ आहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । आकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते (kiṃ punarākṛtiḥ padārtha āhosvid dravyam | ubhayamityāha | kathaṃ jñāyate | ubhayathā hyācāryeṇa sūtrāṇi praṇītāni | ākṛtiṃ padārthe matvā jātyākhyāyāmityucyate) | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष आरभ्यते (dravyaṃ padārthe matvā sarūpāṇāmityekaśeṣa ārabhyate), M. Bh. in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; cf. स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्द-संज्ञा (svaṃ rūpaṃ śabdasyāśabda-saṃjñā), P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता (śabdapadārthakatā) as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता (arthapadārthakatā); cf. सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदा-र्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते (sosau gośabdaḥ svasmātpadārthāt pracyuto yāsau arthapadā-rthakatā tasyāḥ śabdapadārthakaḥ saṃpadyate) M. Bh. I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ (padārtha) means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one stroke.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—See under Pañcabhūta.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Padārtha (पदार्थ) refers to the “category of reality” which substitutes the word cakra (wheel), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā chapter 11.—(Cf. Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā chapter 18 and Śrīmatottara verse 16.71ff).
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Pādārtha (पादार्थ) refers to “that what is taught in the (four) pādas”, according to the Mataṅgapārameśvara (with Rāmakaṇṭha’s commentary).—Accordingly, “The Guru should consecrate [as an Ācārya] a man who is skilled in what is taught in all four pādas [i.e., catur-pādārtha-kuśala], who has great energy, who is beyond reproach, who expounds the meaning of the teachings [encapsulated] in the six topics [of this scripture], who is devoted to the welfare of all beings, who has performed the observance for [the propitiation of his] mantra. [...]”.Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra
Padārtha (पदार्थ) refers to the “meaning of a word”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 21.15-19]—“[...] Everything that is seen is made out of the three Tattvas. O Devī, without three kinds of tattvas, no meaning of a word (padārtha) [can be] known. From this are all three kinds of tattvas, [from] highest to lowest. Mantras possess the nature of Śiva, are to be known as the form of Śakti, [and] in that manner [are] aṇu. Unbounded energies proceed [through] the distribution of the three kinds of tattvas”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics
Padārtha (पदार्थ) represents the number 9 (nine) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 9—padārtha] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.
Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections
Padārtha (पदार्थ) refers to “objects”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Those objects (padārtha) having a pleasant form, which are seen in the morning and not at midday, vanish for the embodied souls in this world”.
Synonyms: Vastu, Pudgala, Mūrta, Pumartha.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
padārtha (पदार्थ).—m (S) A thing, any material form of being. 2 A nice-dish; a confection; a delicacy; any dainty preparation of food. 3 Meaning of a sentence. 4 A category or predicament in logic. Seven are enumerated;--substance, quality, action, generic property or character, specific or individual property or character, constant and intimate relation, non-existence or nihility (dravya, guṇa, karma, sāmānya, viśēṣa, samavāya, abhāva). 5 Used (as Thing in English) of whatever will admit affirmation or denial. 6 Applied contemptuously, as Thing, creature. Ex. tū kāya pa0 āhēsa? tyācā kāya pa0?Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
padārtha (पदार्थ).—m A thing, any material form of being. A nice dish; a delicacy. Meaning of a sentence. A category or predicament in logic. Used (as Thing in English) of whatever will admit affirmation or denial. Applied contemptuously, as Thing, creature. Ex. tūṃ kāya pa?B āhēsa? tyācā kāya pa?
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) the meaning of a word.
2) a thing or object.
3) a head or topic (of which the Naiyāyikas enumerate 16 subheads).
4) anything which can be named (abhidheya), a category or predicament; the number of such categories, according to the Vaiśeṣikas, is seven; according to the Sāṅkhyas, twentyfive (or twenty-seven according to the followers of Patañjali), and two according to the Vedāntins.
5) the sense of another word which is not expressed but has to be supplied. °अनुसमयः (anusamayaḥ) preforming one detail with reference to all things or persons concerned; then doing the second, then the third and so on (see anusamaya). Hence पदार्थानुसमयन्याय (padārthānusamayanyāya) means: A rule of interpretation according to which, when several details are to be performed with reference to several things or persons, they should be done each to each at a time.
Derivable forms: padārthaḥ (पदार्थः).
Padārtha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pada and artha (अर्थ).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-rthaḥ) 1. Thing, substantial or material form of being. 2. A category of predicament in Logic, of which seven are enumerated; viz:—substance, quality, action, identity, variety, relation and non-existence or annihilation. They are sixteen according to Nyaya Philosophy six according to the Vaiseshika, twenty-five according to Sankhya, twenty six according to Patanjala, and two according to Vaidantica. 3. The meaning of a word or sentence. 4. A head, a topic. E. pada word, thing, and artha meaning.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—i. e. pada-artha, m. 1. The meaning of a word, Nyāya S. 2, 131. 2. Substance, thing, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 11, 2. 3. A category, Bhāṣāp. 1.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—[masculine] the meaning of a word or the thing corresponding to it; thing, object, matter; man, person; category or predicament (ph.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Padārtha (पदार्थ):—[from pada > pad] m. the meaning of a word, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya; Prabodha-candrodaya; Bhāgavata-purāṇa] etc. (ifc. also -ka, [Patañjali])
2) [v.s. ...] that which corresponds to the m° of a w°, a thing, material object, man, person, [Varāha-mihira; Kāvya literature; Purāṇa]
3) [v.s. ...] a head, subject (16 with Naiyāyikas)
4) [v.s. ...] a category, predicament (7 with Vaiśeṣikas, 25 with Sāṃkhyas, 7 with Vedāntins)
5) [v.s. ...] a principle (-tritaya n. a triad of principles, [Religious Thought and Life in India 119])Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Padārtha (पदार्थ):—[padā+rtha] (rthaḥ) 1. m. Thing; essence; meaning; objects of natural science; category.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Padārtha (पदार्थ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Payattha.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Padārtha (पदार्थ) [Also spelled padarth]:—(nm) meaning of a term; matter, substance; an object; article.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a meaning conveyed by or attributed to a word; sense.
2) [noun] what a thing is or may be, made of; constituent substance; a material.
3) [noun] any of the liquid dish to be mixed with rice.
4) [noun] a prepared food.
5) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number nine.
6) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number seven.
7) [noun] (logic.) a classification of various basic concepts.
8) [noun] (vīr.) (pl.) the three kinds of substances woman, wealth and other worldy things as land, etc.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+26): Padartha-tika, Padarthabhaskara, Padarthabodha, Padarthacandrika, Padarthacandrikaprabhasa, Padarthadarsha, Padarthadharmasamgraha, Padarthadipaka, Padarthadipika, Padarthadipika karkanuga, Padarthadipini, Padarthagunacintamani, Padarthaka, Padarthakaumudi, Padarthakaumudikosha, Padarthakaumudisarakosha, Padarthakhandana, Padarthakhandanatippanavyakhya, Padarthamala, Padarthamaladipika.
Ends with (+12): Ahampadartha, Amalipadartha, Amatapadartha, Annapadartha, Anyapadartha, Apadartha, Asravapadartha, Ayuktapadartha, Bhavapadartha, Caramapadartha, Catushpadartha, Dravyapadartha, Jivapadartha, Kahpadartha, Mayeca Padartha, Muktipadartha, Padipadartha, Pishtapadartha, Pramanapadartha, Samanyapadartha.
Search found 62 books and stories containing Padartha, Padārtha, Pada-artha; (plurals include: Padarthas, Padārthas, arthas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Philosophy of Charaka-samhita (by Asokan. G)
Fundamental Categories (padārtha or tattva) [in Charaka philosophy] < [Chapter 2 - Fundamental Categories]
Analytical devices (tantrayukis) < [Chapter 7 - Logic and Dialectical Speculations]
Substance (dravya) [in Charaka philosophy] < [Chapter 2 - Fundamental Categories]
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
The validity of Anumana (inference) in Nyaya system (by Babu C. D)
Nyaya-Vaisheshika categories (Study) (by Diptimani Goswami)
Categories or Padārthas (Introduction) < [Chapter 2 - Salient features of Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika System]
Categories in the Vaiśeṣika system < [Chapter 2 - Salient features of Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika System]
Types of Sāmānya < [Chapter 5 - Sāmānya and Viśeṣa]
The Concept of Sharira as Prameya (by Elizabeth T. Jones)
Definition of Padārthas (Prameyas) < [Chapter 2]
Defenition of Body (Śarīra) < [Chapter 5]
Vaisesika Doctrines (in the Nyaya Works) (by Diptasree Som)