Shabd, Śabd: 6 definitions


Shabd means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śabd can be transliterated into English as Sabd or Shabd, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Śabd (शब्द्).—lit. 'sound' in general; cf. शब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः । ध्वनिं कुर्वन्नेवमुच्यते । (śabdaṃ kuru śabdaṃ mā kārṣīḥ | dhvaniṃ kurvannevamucyate |) M.Bh. in Ahnika 1; cf. also शब्दः प्रकृतिः सर्ववर्णानाम् । वर्णपृक्तः शब्दो वाच उत्पत्तिः (śabdaḥ prakṛtiḥ sarvavarṇānām | varṇapṛktaḥ śabdo vāca utpattiḥ) T. Pr. XXIII.1, XXIII.3.In grammar the word शब्द (śabda) is applied to such words only as possess sense; cf. प्रतीतपदार्थको लोके ध्वनिः शब्दः (pratītapadārthako loke dhvaniḥ śabdaḥ) M. Bh. in Ahnika I; cf.also येनोच्चरितेन अर्थः प्रतीयते स शब्दः (yenoccaritena arthaḥ pratīyate sa śabdaḥ) Sringara Prakasa I; cf. also अथ शब्दानुशासनम् (atha śabdānuśāsanam) M.Bh. Ahnika I. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, शब्द् (śabd) is said to be constituted of air as far as its nature is concerned, but it is taken to mean in the Pratisakhya and grammar works in a restricted sense as letters possessed of sense, The vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya gives four kinds of words तिडू, कृत्, तद्धित (tiḍū, kṛt, taddhita) and समास (samāsa) while नाम, आख्यात, निपात (nāma, ākhyāta, nipāta) and उपसर्ग (upasarga) are described to be the four kinds in the Nirukta. As शब्द (śabda) in grammar, is restricted to a phonetic unit possessed of sense, it can be applied to crude bases, affixes, as also to words that are completely formed with case-endings or personal affixes. In fact, taking it to be applicable to all such kinds, some grammarians have given tweive subdivisions of शब्द (śabda), viz. प्रक्रुति, प्रत्यय, उपस्कार, उपपद, प्रातिपदिक, विभक्ति, उपसर्जन, समास, पद, वाक्य, प्रकरण (prakruti, pratyaya, upaskāra, upapada, prātipadika, vibhakti, upasarjana, samāsa, pada, vākya, prakaraṇa) and प्रबन्ध (prabandha); cf. Sringara Prakasa I.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śabd (शब्द्).—1 U. (śabdayati-te, śabdita)

1) To sound, make a noise.

2) To speak, call out, call out to; विततमृदुकराग्रः शब्दयन्त्या वयोभिः परिपतति दिवोऽङ्के हेलया बालसूर्यः (vitatamṛdukarāgraḥ śabdayantyā vayobhiḥ paripatati divo'ṅke helayā bālasūryaḥ) Śiśupālavadha 11.47.

3) To name, call; ब्रह्मेति परमात्मेति भगवानिति शब्द्यते (brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavāniti śabdyate) Bhāg. 1.2.11; अत एव सागरिकेति शब्द्यते (ata eva sāgariketi śabdyate) Ratnāvalī 4. -With अभि (abhi) to name. प्र (pra) to explain. -सं (saṃ) to call out to.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śabd (शब्द्).—[śabda] r. 10th cl. (śabdayati-te) 1. To sound, to make or utter sound. 2. To call out to, to speak; with the prefixes pra, prati, or vi, as well as uncompounded, this root means also:—1. To promise. 2. To make clear or manifest, to explain. 3. To speak.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śabd (शब्द्).—i. 10 (rather a [denominative.] derived from śabda), śabdaya and śabdāpaya, [Parasmaipada.] 1. To sound, [Śiśupālavadha] 11, 47; to bray, [Pañcatantra] 224, 9. 2. To call, Mahābhārata 3, 14400. 3. To address, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 59, 7 (śabdāpaya). Ptcple. pf. pass. śabdita, n. Braying (of an ass), [Pañcatantra] 249, 6.

— With the prep. abhi abhi, To declare, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 82.

— With sam sam, To say, Mahābhārata 1, 3215.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śabd (शब्द्):—(rather a [Nominal verb] śabdaya [from] śabda) [class] 10. [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxxiii, 40]) śabdayati, to make any noise or sound, cry aloud, [Śiśupāla-vadha; Pañcatantra; Bhāgavata-purāṇa];

—to call, invoke, [Śaṃkarācārya; Kathāsaritsāgara];

— (śabdāpayati, te), to call, address, [Rāmāyaṇa] :—[Passive voice] śabdyate, to be sounded etc.;

—to be called, [Mahābhārata];—([impersonal or used impersonally]) it is chattered, [Nirukta, by Yāska i, 18.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Shabd in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) a word, term; sound; ~[kara] producing sound; creator of words; ~[kosha/kosha] a dictionary; ~[gata] pertaining to or related with a/the word; ~[grama] totality of sounds; -[cayana] choice of words; diction; -[citra] a word-sketch; -[jala] jugglery of words, verbosity; -[paheli] crossword puzzle; -[bodha] comprehension of words; -[pramana] testimony; -[brahma] the Veda considered as revealed sound and word; word (sound) identified with the Supreme Being; -[bheda] part of speech; ~[bhedi] see ~[vedhi; -racana] word-construction, word-formation; -[rupa] the (grammatical) form of a word; -[virodha] mere vocal opposition; -[vishesha] a particular word/sound; ~[vira/~shura] (blessed) with a gift of the gab, a past master in mere talks; ~[vedhi] hitting at the sound (as an arrow), hitting at an object perceived only through the ear; -[vyutpatti] word-etymology; -[shakti] the force or signification of a word; -[shasana] the Scienc of words; grammar; -[shastra] lexicography; grammar; -[samkshepa] abbreviation; -[samgraha] a glossary; -[saumdarya] see -[saushthava; -saukarya] facility of expression; -[saushthava] elegance of words; grace of style; ~[hina] speechless, mute; hence ~[hinata] (nf); [shabdom ka gorakhadhamdha] a cloud of words; [shabdom mem bamdhana] to express in words..—shabd (शब्द) is alternatively transliterated as Śabda.

2) Shabd in Hindi refers in English to:—[[~bdi]] (a) pertaining to a word/sound; literal, verbal; vocal..—shabd (शाब्द) is alternatively transliterated as Śābda.

context information


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