Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

एवम् अन्येषाम् अपि बोध्यम्. एषु पदांशेषु क्वचिद् वाच्येन रसादयो व्यज्यन्ते, क्वचिद् व्यङ्ग्येनेति विभावनीयम्. रचना-वर्णयोर् व्यञ्जकता गुण-ग्रन्थे वक्ष्यते. अपि-शब्दात् प्रबन्धेषु नाटकादिषु. यथा विदग्ध-माधवादौ शृङ्गारः, भारते शान्तः, रामायणे करुण इति. एवं रसादि-ध्वनयः षड्-विधाः, रसादि-व्यङ्ग्यस्य वाक्य-पदाभ्यां पदांश-वर्णरचना-प्रबन्धैश् च प्रकाश्यत्वात्.

evam anyeṣām api bodhyam. eṣu padāṃśeṣu kvacid vācyena rasādayo vyajyante, kvacid vyaṅgyeneti vibhāvanīyam. racanā-varṇayor vyañjakatā guṇa-granthe vakṣyate. api-śabdāt prabandheṣu nāṭakādiṣu. yathā vidagdha-mādhavādau śṛṅgāraḥ, bhārate śāntaḥ, rāmāyaṇe karuṇa iti. evaṃ rasādi-dhvanayaḥ ṣaḍ-vidhāḥ, rasādi-vyaṅgyasya vākya-padābhyāṃ padāṃśa-varṇaracanā-prabandhaiś ca prakāśyatvāt.

Other instances as well should be understood in like manner. The following should be kept in mind: In these padāṃśas, the rasādi is implied sometimes by the literal sense and sometimes by an implied sense.

The suggestiveness of the phonetic construction (racanā) and of the phonemes (varṇa) will be explained in the chapter on the guṇas. On account of the word api (also) (4.85), a rasādi can also occur in a prabandha, in a drama, and so on. For instance, there is śṛṅgārarasa in Vidagdha-mādhava, śānta-rasa in Mahābhārata, and karuṇa-rasa in Rāmāyaṇa.

Thus the rasādi-dhvani has six categories, since an implied rasādi can be manifested by means of either a sentence (vākya), a word (pada), an aspect of a word (padāṃśa), the type of phonemes (varṇa), the construction (racanā), or a prabandha (anything from a short story or a whole literary work).

Commentary:

Therefore, to raise the sthāyī to the level of rasa, the suggestiveness of padāṃśas can fill the void left by the absence of anubhāva and vyabhicāri-bhāva. Mammaṭa shows this verse to illustrate the suggestiveness of the padāṃśas called sarvanāma (pronoun), prātipadika (word base), and vacana (number):

rāmo’sau bhuvaneṣu vikrama-guṇaiḥ prāptaḥ prasiddhiṃ parām asmad-bhāgya-viparyayād yadi paraṃ devo na jānāti tam |
bandīvaiṣa yaśāṃsi gāyati marud yasyaika-bāṇāhati-śreṇī-bhūta-viśāla-tāla-vivarodgīrṇaiḥ svaraiḥ saptabhiḥ ||

[Vibhīṣaṇa speaks to Rāvaṇa:] “Rāma, that one, has achieved a high reputation in the worlds due to His prowess and His qualities. If you, my lord, do not acknowledge that He is at the top, it is because of a reversal of our good fortune. The wind, as if like a bard, sings His glories with the seven notes of the gamut emitted through the holes of the seven huge tāla trees in a row that were perforated by one arrow of His” (Rāghavānanda).

Although Rāvaṇa was Vibhīṣaṇa’s brother, he tried to thwart Rāvaṇa’s evil deeds: “Vibhīṣaṇa advised Rāvaṇa to return Sītā and beg Rāma for pardon” (Puranic Encyclopedia). Rāvaṇa mistreated Vibhīṣaṇa. The latter left Laṅkā and joined Rāma’s forces. After the victory, he was crowned king of Laṅkā. Mammaṭa elaborates on the verse: atrāsāv iti bhuvaneṣv iti guṇair iti sarvanāma-prātipadika-vacanānāṃ na tvad iti na mad iti, api, asmad ity asya sarvākṣepiṇaḥ, bhāgya-viparyayād ity anyathā-sampatti-mukhena na tv abhāva-mukhenābhidhānasya, “In this verse, the following elements are suggestive: (1) A pronoun (sarvanāma): asau (that one), (2) A nominal base (prātipadika): bhuvaneṣu (in the worlds), and (3) The number (vacana): the plural in guṇaiḥ (due to qualities). In addition, it is not said ‘your’ nor ‘my’, but ‘our’ reversal of good fortune; that pronoun includes everyone. The phrase “because of the reversal of good fortune” as well is suggestive: It is not that there was no good fortune, nor that the good fortune ended, rather the good fortune became detrimental” (Kāvya-prakāśa, verse 109 vṛtti). This corresponds to Rudraṭa’s leśa ornament: A quality has become a fault (or a fault has become a quality).[1]

According to Nāgeśa Bhaṭṭa, the pronoun asau means Rāma is very well-known as one who disposes of the bad guys.[2] This is because here the pronoun has the sense of prasiddha (being well known) (7.41). He adds that the word bhuvaneṣu (in the worlds) means He is famous not just in some village, nor only in some city, nor only in this world, but in the three worlds—this is the suggestiveness of the word base and of the number. In addition He is very (parām) famous.[3] The eminence suggested by all these literal meanings are the forms of vibhāvas (ālambana, uddīpana).

Nāgeśa Bhaṭṭa points out implied meanings: (1) The name ‘Rāma’ means He delights the hearts of all, therefore everyone is favorable to Him,[4] (2) The word guṇaiḥ (due to qualities) makes it clear that His reputation is neither a bad one, nor a good one mixed with a bad one, but only a good one, and it also suggests, along with vikrama (due to His prowess), that Rāvaṇa should return Sītā to Rāma,[5] and (3) Rāma’s reputation in the worlds as such implies that He cannot be defeated in battle.[6] This is also hinted at by the specialty of the well-known fact, which is literally stated, regarding the seven tāla trees.

Narahari Sarasvatī Tīrtha says the verse features affection for Rāma.[7] However, Ācārya Viśveśvara says vīra-rasa (heroism) is implied from the manifold padāṃśas,[8] and that is also the opinion of Gaṅgānātha Jhā.[9] Thus the verse features the rasavat ornament (5.3), since the vīra-rasa is an aspect of Vibhīṣaṇa’s deva-viṣayā rati (affection for the Lord); the uprekṣā ornament (fanciful assumption) (“as if like a bard”) adorns that vīra-rasa.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

doṣī-bhāvo yasmin guṇasya doṣasya vā guṇī-bhāvaḥ |
abhidhīyate tathā-vidha-karmanimittaḥ sa leśaḥ syāt || (Kāvyālaṅkāra 7.100)

[2]:

asau khara-dūṣaṇādi-hantṛtvenātiprasiddhaḥ (Uddyota).

[3]:

so’pi na grāme na nagare nāpi bhuvane kintu bhuvaneṣu, teṣv api na kṛśām, kintu parām (Uddyota).

[4]:

rāmaḥ sakala-bhuvana-jana-mano-ramaṇaḥ, etena sarve tad-dhita-kāriṇa iti vyajyate (Uddyota).

[5]:

vikrama-guṇair iti, kevalaṃ prasiddhiṃ prāpta ity uktau sadoṣa-guṇair api prasiddhisambhavaḥ, yathā sambodhya rāvaṇasya. tan-nivṛtty-arthaṃ guṇair iti. na kevalaṃ guṇair api tu vikrama-jaiḥ, etena sītā-dānasyāvaśyakatvaṃ vyajyate (Uddyota).

[6]:

yadvā vikrama-guṇaiḥ prakṛṣṭāṃ siddhiṃ jaya-lakṣaṇāṃ bhuvaneṣu prāpta ity arthaḥ. etena sarvathāpi yuddhe’jeyatvaṃ dhvanyate (Uddyota).

[7]:

atra sarvatra rāma-viṣayo bhāvaḥ (Bāla-cittānurañjinī).

[8]:

ismeṅ aneka padāṃśoṅ se vīra-rasakī abhivyañjanā hotī hai (Ācārya Viśveśvara (2011) Kāvya-prakāśa, p. 184).

[9]:

“The passion of the Heroic is suggested here by the pronoun asau (this) (which indicates that the person is well-known)…” (Jhā, Gaṅgānātha (1985) Kāvya-prakāsha of Mammata, p. 113).

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