Vikrama: 19 definitions



Vikrama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vikrama (विक्रम).—A god of the ten branches of the Sukarmāṇa group of devas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 88; Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 93.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Vikrama (विक्रम) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.33) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vikrama) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas

Vikrama (विक्रम) refers to the fourteenth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native who is born during the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘vikrama’ remains engaged in doing extremely terrible or fierce deeds, is skilled in attacking the enemy’s army, is a warrior or champion, has patience and endurance, is extremely generous and valorous or powerful.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year vikrama (2000-2001 AD) will be wealthy and valiant and command an army.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Vikrama (विक्रम).—(l) name given to a grave vowel placed between two circumflex vowels, or between a circumflex and an acute, or between an acute and a circumflex; cf. स्वरितयोर्मध्ये यत्र नीचं स्यात्, उदात्तयोर्वा अन्यतरतो वा उदात्तस्वरितयोः स विक्रमः (svaritayormadhye yatra nīcaṃ syāt, udāttayorvā anyatarato vā udāttasvaritayoḥ sa vikramaḥ) T.Pr. XIX.I ; (2) name given to a grave vowel between a pracaya vowel and an acute or a circumflex vowel; cf. प्रचयपूर्वश्च कौण्डिन्यस्य (pracayapūrvaśca kauṇḍinyasya) T.Pr.XIX.2; (8) repetition of a word or पद (pada) as in the Krama recital of the Veda words; (4) name given to a visarjaniya which has remained intact, as for instance in यः प्राणतो निमिषतः (yaḥ prāṇato nimiṣataḥ) ; cf. R.Pr. I.5; VI.1 ; the word विक्रम (vikrama) is sometimes used in the sense of visarjaniya in general; cf.also अनिङ्गयन् विक्रममेषु कुर्यात् (aniṅgayan vikramameṣu kuryāt) R.Pr. XIII.11.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Vikrama in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Vikrama (विक्रम) is the name of a Vidyādhara who fought on Śrutaśarman’s side in the war against Sūryaprabha, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 48. Accordingly: “... when Śrutaśarman saw that, he quickly sent other ten lords of the Vidyādharas, chiefs of lords of hosts or lords of hosts of warriors,... and Vikrama [and seven others], the eight similar sons of the Vasus born in the house of Makaranda”.

The story of Vikrama was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Vikrama, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Vikrama (विक्रम) is the fourteenth of sixty years (saṃvatsara) in the Vedic lunar calendar according to the Arcana-dīpikā by Vāmana Mahārāja (cf. Appendix).—Accordingl, There are sixty different names for each year in the Vedic lunar calendar, which begins on the new moon day (Amāvasyā) after the appearance day of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (Gaura-pūrṇimā), in February or March. The Vedic year [viz., Vikrama], therefore, does not correspond exactly with the Christian solar calendar year.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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India history and geography

Source: OpenEdition books: Vividhatīrthakalpaḥ (History)

Vikrama (विक्रम) is another name for king Vikramāditya, as is mentioned in the Vividhatīrthakalpa by Jinaprabhasūri (13th century A.D.): an ancient text devoted to various Jaina holy places (tīrthas).—Vikramāditya is also known as Avantinareśitṛ, Avantipati, Avantīśitr, Mālaveśa and Vikrama.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vikrama (विक्रम).—m (S) Heroism, prowess, puissance, valor. 2 or vikramāditya m (S) The name of a prince, the sovereign of Ougein, and reputed founder of an era which commenced fifty-six years before the Christian. There have been many princes of this name.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vikrama (विक्रम).—m Heroism. The name of a prince.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vikrama (विक्रम).—1 A step, stride, pace; गतेषु लीलाञ्चितविक्रमेषु (gateṣu līlāñcitavikrameṣu) Ku.1.34; Ś.7.6; निष्पेषवन्त्यायतविक्रमाणि (niṣpeṣavantyāyatavikramāṇi) (saptapadāni) Bu. Ch.1.33; Mb.7.49.5; cf. त्रिविक्रम (trivikrama).

2) Stepping over, walking; going, gait; ततः सुमन्त्रस्त्वरितं गत्वा त्वरितविक्रमः (tataḥ sumantrastvaritaṃ gatvā tvaritavikramaḥ) Rām.1.8.5; गतैः सहावैः कलहंसविक्रमम् (gataiḥ sahāvaiḥ kalahaṃsavikramam) Ki.8.29.

3) Overcoming, overpowering.

4) Heroism, prowess, heroic valour; अनुत्सेकः खलु विक्रमालंकारः (anutsekaḥ khalu vikramālaṃkāraḥ) V.1; R.12.87, 93.

5) Name of a celebrated king of Ujjayinī.

6) Name of Viṣṇu.

7) Strength, power.

8) Intensity.

9) Stability.

1) A kind of grave accent.

11) Non-change of the विसर्ग (visarga) into an उष्मन् (uṣman).

12) The third astrological house.

Derivable forms: vikramaḥ (विक्रमः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vikrama (विक्रम).—(1) nt. (for Sanskrit m.), valor: °maṃ, n. sg., Mahāvastu i.78.16, as one of 8 samudācāra (q.v., 1); (2) foot (so Sanskrit Lex.), or footstep (compare the meaning step, stride in Sanskrit): govikrama-saṃsthānaṃ, shaped like a cow's foot(-step), Divyāvadāna 640.19, of the Pūrvāṣāḍha-nakṣatra; so gaja-vikrama- saṃsthānaṃ 21, of the Uttarāṣāḍhanakṣatra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikrama (विक्रम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Heroism, prowess, heroic valour. 2. Great power or strength. 3. Walking, going, proceeding. 4. Overpowering, overcoming. 5. Strength in general. 6. A step, a stride, (as in trivikrama .) 7. The name of a sovereign of Ougein: see vikramāditya. E. vi before, kram to go, to move, to walk, aff. ac .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikrama (विक्रम).—[vi-kram + a], m. 1. A step, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 95, 67; [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 165. 2. Proceeding. [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 214 (v. r.). 3. Overpowering. 4. Great strength, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 48, 82. 5. Strength, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 84 (with kṛ, To use one’s strength). 6. Heroism, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 11, 12; [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 146; in the title of the drama, vikramorvaśī, i. e. vikrama-urvaśi, f. Urvaśī, gained by heroism. 7. A proper name.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikrama (विक्रम).—[masculine] step, stride, going, gait; bold advance, valour, might.

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Vikrāma (विक्राम).—[masculine] a step’s width.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Vikrama (विक्रम) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—son of Sāṅgaṇa: Nemidūta kāvya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vikrama (विक्रम):—[=vi-krama] [from vi] 1. vi-krama m. (for 2. See vi-√kram) the absence of the Krama-pāṭha (q.v.), [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

2) [=vi-krama] [from vi-kram] 2. vi-krama m. (for 1. See p. 950, col. 1) a step, stride, pace, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] going, proceeding, walking, motion, gait, [Mahābhārata; Kāśikā-vṛtti] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] course, way, manner (anukrama-vikrameṇa = anukrameṇa, in regular order), [Mahābhārata]

5) [v.s. ...] valour, courage, heroism, power, strength, [ib.; Kāvya literature] etc. (maṃ-√kṛ, to display prowess, use one’s strength)

6) [v.s. ...] force, forcible means, [ib.] (māt ind. by force; nāsti vikrameṇa, it cannot be done by force)

7) [v.s. ...] intensity, high degree, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

8) [v.s. ...] stability, duration (opp. to ‘cessation’), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] a kind of grave accent, [Taittirīya-prātiśākhya]

10) [v.s. ...] non-change of the Visarga into an Ūṣman, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

11) [v.s. ...] the 14th year in the 60 years cycle of Jupiter, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

12) [v.s. ...] the 3rd astrological house, [ib.]

13) [v.s. ...] a foot, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] Name of Viṣṇu, [Mahābhārata]

15) [v.s. ...] of the son of Vasu, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

16) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vatsa-prī, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

17) [v.s. ...] of a son of Kanaka, [Catalogue(s)]

18) [v.s. ...] of various authors (also with bhaṭṭa), [Catalogue(s)]

19) [v.s. ...] = candragupta, [ib.]

20) [v.s. ...] = vikramāditya, [Pañcadaṇḍacchattra-prabandha]

21) [v.s. ...] Name of a town, [Catalogue(s)]

22) Vikrāma (विक्राम):—[=vi-krāma] [from vi-krānti > vi-kram] m. a step’s width, [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikrama (विक्रम):—[vi-krama] (maḥ) 1. m. Heroism, prowess, strength; overcoming; going; a king of Oujein.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Vikrama (विक्रम):—(von kram mit vi) m.

1) Schritt [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 23, 143.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 473.] [Medinīkoṣa Manu’s Gesetzbuch 54.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 1, 7, 3, 23. 3, 5, 1, 1. fgg. 12, 9, 2, 5.] [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 19, 5, 15.] traya [Mahābhārata 3, 15844.] [Rāmāyaṇa] [Gorresio 1, 32, 7. 5, 1, 54. 2, 45. 5, 3.] dvitīyahari [Śākuntala 165.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 2, 6, 6.] Gang, Bewegung: ākūtirvikramo bāhyo mṛgatṛṣṇāṃ dhāvati [4, 29, 20. 5, 2, 8.] kāla [2, 9, 10.] Art und Weise zu gehen [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 1, 43.] su adj. [1, 1, 12.] gajendra adj. [Mahābhārata 3, 2454. 2863.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 23, 26.] sthira adj. [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 86, 8. 9.] pañca fünf Gangweisen habend (ratha) [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 4, 26, 2.] tvarita eiligen Schrittes, - Ganges [Harivaṃśa 3182. 4507.] [Rāmāyaṇa 7, 107, 8.] śīghravikramā [Harivaṃśa 3409. 9453.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 39, 12.] druta [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 4, 4, 4.] vākyaṃ samagraṃ nṛpateryathāvaduvāca cānukramavikrameṇa so v. a. anukrameṇa allein d. i. der Reihe nach [Mahābhārata 1, 7188.] —

2) kraftvolles —, muthiges Auftreten, Kraft, Muth [Amarakoṣa 2, 8, 2, 71.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 739.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Halāyudha 4, 38. 5, 34.] [Mahābhārata 1, 5971. 7021.] labhate kṣatriyo vikrameṇa śriyam [?13, 313. Rāmāyaṇa 2, 21, 38. 3, 4, 48. 36, 13. 4, 8, 7. 5, 80, 8. 9 (pl.). Ṛtusaṃhāra 1, 14. Raghuvaṃśa 12, 87. 93. Vikramorvaśī 11, 11. Spr. 1806. 2298. 2825. 2948. 3159. 3957. Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 69, 11. BṚH. 11, 9. Kathāsaritsāgara 18, 343. Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 11, 27. 5, 20, 6. 9, 1, 5 (pl.). Hitopadeśa 81, 4. III, 1.] nāsti vikrameṇa so v. a. dieses kann nicht mit Gewalt erreicht werden [Rājataraṅgiṇī 8, 1687.] vikramaṃ kar seine Kraft entwickeln, Muth an den Tag legen [Mahābhārata 1, 6004.] [Spr. 1046.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 12, 39.] am Ende eines adj. comp. (f. ā) [Mahābhārata 7, 8280.] [Raghuvaṃśa 3, 55. 9, 24.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 3, 484.] dṛḍha [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 46, 10.] caṇḍa [5, 39, 24.] satya [Mahābhārata 3, 3055.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 72, 34.] siṃha [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 354.] su [Mahābhārata 7, 8224.] a [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 27, 215.] [Kirātārjunīya 2, 15.] —

3) Intensität: chāyā (Teint) yuktā tejovikramaiḥ sapratāpaiḥ mit intensivem Glanze [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 68, 92.] —

4) das Bestehen (= sthiti Comm.): saṃplavaḥ sarvabhūtānāṃ vikramaḥ pratisaṃkramaḥ [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 2, 8, 21.] —

5) die unbetonte Silbe zwischen betonten (oder zwischen pracaya und betonter) [Taittirīyasaṃhitā] [Prātiśākhya 17, 6. 19, 1.] —

6) das Nichteintreten des krama (gramm.) [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 11, 29. Einl. 5] (= [Taittirīyasaṃhitā Prātiśākhya 24, 5]). —

7) Nichtverwandlung des Visarga in einen Ūṣman [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 13, 11.] a [6, 1. 11, 22. 14, 11.] —

8) Bez. des 14ten Jahres im 60jährigen Jupitercyclus [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S.8,33. fg.] [Oxforder Handschriften 331,b,5 v. u.] —

9) Bez. des 5ten astrologischen Hauses [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka 1, 16.] —

10) Fuss [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] —

11) unter den Beiww. Viṣṇu’s [Mahābhārata 13, 6958.] —

12) Nomen proprium des Sohnes eines Vasu [Kathāsaritsāgara 48, 78.] = vikramāditya [Kāvya-Saṅgraha 1.] [Lassen’s Indische Alterthumskunde 2, 401.] [ 12. 15.] [TĀRAN. 3. 267.] = candragupta [Lassen’s Indische Alterthumskunde 2, 401. 947] (śrī) ein Sohn des Vatsaprī [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 118,1.] des Kanaka [Oxforder Handschriften 148,a,4.] —

13) Nomen proprium einer Stadt [Oxforder Handschriften 181,a,6.] — āvṛtya vikramam [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 3, 214] fehlerhaft für āvṛtparikramam . — Vgl. tri, bhīma, mahā, laghu .

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Vikrāma (विक्राम):—(wie eben) m. Schrittweite [Taittirīyabrāhmaṇa 1, 1, 4, 1.]

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vikrama in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vikrama (विक्रम) [Also spelled vikram]:—(nm) heroism, valiance, valour; name of an ancient great king of Ujjain, founder of an era which commenced earlier than the Christian era (also known as [vikramāditya]).

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