Vacana, Vācanā: 22 definitions

Introduction:

Vacana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vachana.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Vacana (वचन).—lit. statement; an authoritative statement made by the authors of the Sutras and the Varttikas as also of the Mahabhasya; cf. अस्ति ह्यन्यदेतस्य वचने प्रयोजनम् (asti hyanyadetasya vacane prayojanam) M. Bh. on Siva Sutra 1 Vart. 1 The word is also used predicatively in the sense of वक्तव्यम् (vaktavyam) by the Varttikakara; cf. ऌति ऌ वावचनम्, ऋति ऋ वावचनम् (ḷti ḷ vāvacanam, ṛti ṛ vāvacanam);

2) Vacana.—Number, such as एकवचन, द्विवचन, बहुवचन (ekavacana, dvivacana, bahuvacana) etc.; cf. वचनमेकत्वद्वित्वबहुत्वानि (vacanamekatvadvitvabahutvāni) Kas.on P.I.2.51 ; cf लुपि युक्तिवद् व्यक्ति-वचने । लुकि अभिधेयवल्लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति। लवणः सूपः। लवणा यवागूः। (lupi yuktivad vyakti-vacane | luki abhidheyavalliṅgavacanāni bhavanti| lavaṇaḥ sūpaḥ| lavaṇā yavāgūḥ|) M.Bh.on P.I. 2.57;

3) Vacana.—Expressive word; cf. गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च (guṇavacanabrāhmaṇādibhyaḥ karmaṇi ca) P. V.1.124 where the Kasika explains the word गुणवचन (guṇavacana) as गुणमुक्तवन्तो गुणवचनाः (guṇamuktavanto guṇavacanāḥ); cf. also the terms गुणवचन, जातिवचन, क्रियावचन (guṇavacana, jātivacana, kriyāvacana) etc. as classes of words; cf. also अभिज्ञावचने लृट् (abhijñāvacane lṛṭ) P.III.2.112;

4) Vacana.—That which is uttered; cf. मुखना-सिकावचनोनुनासिकः। मुखसहिता नासिका मुखनासिका । तया य उच्चार्यते असौ वर्णः (mukhanā-sikāvacanonunāsikaḥ| mukhasahitā nāsikā mukhanāsikā | tayā ya uccāryate asau varṇaḥ) Kas. on P. I.1.8.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Vācana (वाचन) is simple recitation.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vacana (वचन) refers to “words”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.4.—Accordingly, as the Gods eulogized Umā (Durgā/Satī) with devotion:—“[...]  Formerly you were born as the daughter of Dakṣa and were married to Śiva. You destroyed the great misery of Brahmā and others. [...] O great Goddess, the purpose of the gods has not been completely carried out. The sages are agitated. Hence we, Gods, have sought refuge in you. O great Goddess, please fulfil the desire of the God, O Śivā, so that the words [i.e., vacana] of Sanatkumāra may be fruitful. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Vacana (वचन) refers to “talking”, according to the Mattavilāsaprahasana.—Accordingly, as the Kāpālika cries out: “My darling, look. This pub resembles the Vedic sacrificial ground. For its signpost resembles the sacrificial pillar; in this case alcohol is the Soma, drunkards are the sacrificial priests, the wine glasses are the special cups for drinking Soma, the roasted meat and other appetizers are the fire oblations, the drunken babblings (matta-vacana) are the sacrificial formulae (yajus), the songs are the Sāman-hymns, the pitchers are the sacrificial ladles, thirst is the fire and the owner of the pub is the patron of the sacrifice”

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Vacana (वचन) refers to a “word”, according to the 2nd-century Meghasūtra (“Cloud Sutra”) in those passages which contain ritual instructions.—Accordingly, “He who desires a mighty rain must perform this rite ‘the great-cloud-circle’ in an open space, overspread by a blue canopy, shaded by a blue banner, on a clear spot of earth; [...] Even the sea may overflow its shore, but his auspicious word (śubha-vacana) ‘Rain’ fails not; nay, he must sustain himself on the three sweets, ghee, honey and sugar, and by rice, sugar, milk, etc., joined with all virtues of character, and repeat this; so it must needs be effectual, according to the word of the Lord of Speakers. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas

Vācāna (वाचान, “teaching”).—One of the five types of self-study (svādhyāya);—What is meant by ‘teaching’ (vācāna)? To teach the disciples is called teaching.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Vacana (वचन) refers to “speech”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “These, that is, the passions beginning with anger, the five objects of the senses which are the companions of lust, carelessness, wrong faith, speech (vacana) and mind, and the body, the two [kinds of] bad meditation having a bad end and lack of restraint thus decidedly issue from the mass of evil of men inspiring fear of life. [Thus ends the reflection on] the influx of karma”.

Synonyms: Śāsana.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vacana.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘three’. Note: vacana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vacana : (nt.) utterance; word; saying; a term; an expression. || vācana (nt.), recitation; reading.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vācanā, (f.) (fr. vāceti) recitation, reading; °magga way of recitation, help for reading, division of text (into chapters or paragraphs) Tikp 239; KhA 12, 14, 24. (Page 606)

— or —

Vacana, (nt.) (fr. vac; Vedic vacana) 1. speaking, utterance, word, bidding S. II, 18 (alaṃ vacanāya one says rightly); IV, 195 (yathā bhūtaṃ); A. II, 168; Sn. 417, 699, 932, 984, 997; Miln. 235; Pv. II, 27; SnA 343, 386.—mama vacanena in my name PvA. 53.—dubbacana a bad word Th. 2, 418 (=dur-utta-vacana ThA. 268).—vacanaṃ karoti to do one’s bidding J. I, 222, 253. ‹-› 2. (t. t. g.) what is said with regard to its grammatical, syntactical or semantic relation, way of speech, term, expression, as: āmantana° term of address KhA 167; SnA 435; paccatta° expression of sep. relation, i.e. the accusative case SnA 303; piya° term of endearment Nd2 130; SnA 536; puna° repetition SnA 487; vattamāna° the present tense SnA 16, 23; visesitabba° qualifying (predicative) expression VvA. 13; sampadāna° the dative relation SnA 317. At SnA 397 (combined with linga and other terms) it refers to the “number, ” i.e. singular & plural.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vacana (वचन).—n (S) Speech, a matter spoken; word, declaration, affirmation, promise &c. 2 A dictum, an aphorism, a rule; any utterance or expression considered as authoritative. 3 In grammar. Number; as ēkavacana, dvivacana, anēkavacana or bahuvacana Singular, Dual, Plural. vacanācā kharā a True to one's promise or word. vacanācyā ājñēnta or ardhyā vacanānta asaṇēṃ or vāgaṇēṃ To be exceedingly obedient and tractable. vacanīṃ gōvaṇēṃ To entangle, i.e. to bind or fix, by his own promise or word.

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vācana (वाचन).—n S Reading.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vacana (वचन).—n Speech. Promise. A dictum. (In gram.) Number. ardhyā vacanānta asaṇēṃ Be exceedingly obedient and tracable. vacanācā kharā True to one's promise or word. vacanīṃ gōṃvaṇēṃ Entangle i. e. bind or fix, by his own promise or word.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vacana (वचन).—[vac-lyuṭ]

1) The act of speaking, uttering. saying.

2) Speech, an utterance, words (spoken), sentence; ननु वक्तृविशेषनिःस्पृहा गुणगृह्या वचने विपश्रितः (nanu vaktṛviśeṣaniḥspṛhā guṇagṛhyā vacane vipaśritaḥ) Kirātārjunīya 2. 5; प्रीतः प्रीतिप्रमुखवचनं स्वागतं व्याजहार (prītaḥ prītipramukhavacanaṃ svāgataṃ vyājahāra) Meghadūta 4.

3) Repeating, recitation.

4) A text, dictum, rule, precept, a passage of a sacred book; शास्त्रवचनम्, श्रुतिवचनम्, स्मृति- वचनम् (śāstravacanam, śrutivacanam, smṛti- vacanam) &c.

5) An order, a command, direction; शुश्रूषां गौरवं चैव प्रमाणं वचनक्रियाम् (śuśrūṣāṃ gauravaṃ caiva pramāṇaṃ vacanakriyām) (kuryāt) Rām.2.12.26; मद्वच- नात् (madvaca- nāt) 'in my name', 'by my order'.

6) Advice, counsel, instruction.

7) Declaration, affirmation.

8) Pronunciation (of a letter) (in gram.).

9) The signification or meaning of a word; अत्र पयोधरशब्दः मेघवचनः (atra payodharaśabdaḥ meghavacanaḥ).

1) Number (in gram.); (there are three numbers, singular, dual and plural).

11) Dry ginger.

Derivable forms: vacanam (वचनम्).

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Vācana (वाचन).—[vac-ṇic svārthe vā ṇic lyuṭ]

1) Reading, reciting.

2) Declaration, proclamation, utterance; as in स्वस्तिवाचनम्, पुण्याहवाचनम् (svastivācanam, puṇyāhavācanam) q. q. v. v.

-nā 1 A lesson.

2) A chapter.

Derivable forms: vācanam (वाचनम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vacana (वचन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Speech, speaking. 2. A sentence, a text, a dictum, an aphorism, a rule. 3. Recitation. 4. Advice. 5. Order, command. 6. Dry-ginger. 7. The pronunciation of a letter, (in gram.) 8. The meaning of a word. 9. Number, (in gram.) E. vac to speak, aff. lyuṭ .

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Vācana (वाचन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Reading, reciting. 2. Proclamation, declaration.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vacana (वचन).—[vac + ana], n. 1. Speaking, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 83 (at the end of a comp. adj., f. ). 2. Speech, [Pañcatantra] 140, 16. 3. Word, name, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 29; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 37, 8; Chr. 12, 26. 4. Order, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 48, 16. 5. Sentence, [Pañcatantra] 158, 13; 164, 20. 6. Rule.

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Vācana (वाचन).—i. e. vac, [Causal.], + ana, n. in svasti-, n. A preparatory religious rite in which the Brāhmaṇas invoke the blessings of the gods, etc., [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 44, 14; [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] 56, 1 ([Prakrit]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vacana (वचन).—[adjective] speaking, eloquent; saying, meaning (—°), [abstract] † [feminine], tva† [neuter]; being said by ([instrumental] or —°), [abstract] tva† [neuter]

— [neuter] speaking, pronouncing, sound, voice, utterance, word, speech; affirmation, declaration, mention, statement; command, injunction; counsel, advice, precept, rule; number ([grammar]).

vacanaṃ kṛ or vacane sthā follow the advice of ([genetive]); vacanāt (nena) in the name of ([genetive] or —°); iti vacanāt as has been said.

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Vācana (वाचन).—[neuter] reciting or causing to recite, reading, expressing; [feminine] ā lesson, chapter.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vacana (वचन):—[from vac] mfn. speaking, a speaker, eloquent, [Ṛg-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) mentioning, indicating, expressing, meaning, [Pāṇini; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha] (-tā f., -tva n.)

3) [v.s. ...] being pronounced, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya] (-tva n.)

4) [v.s. ...] n. (ifc. f(ā). ) the act of speaking, utterance, [Sāṃkhyakārikā]

5) [v.s. ...] n. pronunciation, [Pāṇini; Prātiśākhya]

6) [v.s. ...] statement, declaration, express mention, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; ???; Pāṇini] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] speech, sentence, word, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) the injunction of a teacher, rule, [Kāśikā-vṛtti]

9) [v.s. ...] advice, instruction, direction, order, command, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (naṃ-√kṛ or ne-√sthā with [genitive case] = to do the bidding of any one, follow a person’s advice, obey; nena or nāt, with [genitive case] = in the name of)

10) [v.s. ...] sound, voice, [Atharvaveda-prātiśākhya; Meghadūta; Hitopadeśa]

11) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) number, [Pāṇini; Vopadeva] (cf. eka-, dvi-, bahu-v)

12) [v.s. ...] rumour, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] dry ginger, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) Vācana (वाचन):—[from vāc] n. the causing to recite, [???]

15) [v.s. ...] the act of reciting, recitation, [Yājñavalkya; Vārāhītantra]

16) [v.s. ...] the act of reading, [Bālarāmāyaṇa]

17) [v.s. ...] the act of declaring or designating, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

18) Vācanā (वाचना):—[from vācana > vāc] f. a lesson, chapter, [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vacana (वचन):—(naṃ) 1. n. Speech; a sentence, a rule.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vacana (वचन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Vayaṇa, Vāyaṇa, Vāyaṇayā, Vāyaṇā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vacana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Vacana (वचन) [Also spelled vachan]:—(nm) utterance, speech; talk; a quotation of a treatise or scripture; number (in Grammar); commitment, promise, pledge; ~[grāhī] obedient; ~[baṃdha] an engagement; —[mātra] empty words, mere words;—[toḍanā] to break a promise/one’s word; —[denā] to make a promise, to give word to; to commit, to vow; —[nibhānā] see —[pālana karanā; ~baddha honā] to promise, to commit; to make a contract; ~[baddha karanā] to bind by promise or commitment; —[pālana karanā] to adhere to one’s word, to implement one’s promise;—[bhaṃga karanā] to break a promise; to break one’s word; —[hāranā] to be pledged; to be committed.

2) Vācana (वाचन) [Also spelled vachan]:—(nm) reading; narration; citation; -[patra] citation.

context information

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vacana (ವಚನ):—

1) [noun] the act of speaking, uttering; talking.

2) [noun] that which is said; speech; a saying; utterance.

3) [noun] an oral agreement to do or not do something; a vow; a promise.

4) [noun] opinion given as to what to do or how to handle a situation; counsel; advice.

5) [noun] the ordinary form of written or spoken language, without rhyme or meter; speech or writing; prose.

6) [noun] a kind of verse, having three unequal lines.

7) [noun] the rhythmical prose compositions of Vīraśaiva devotees, which run like metrical verses.

8) [noun] (gram.) a characteristic, as of nouns and verbs, indicating whether a given utterance involves reference to one or more than one entity; number.

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Vācana (ವಾಚನ):—

1) [noun] the act or practice of reading.

2) [noun] act of saying, communicating through words.

3) [noun] that which is spoken; utterance, remark, statement, talk, conversation, etc.; speech.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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