Vacana, Vācanā: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Vacana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vachana.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Vacana (वचन).—lit. statement; an authoritative statement made by the authors of the Sutras and the Varttikas as also of the Mahabhasya; cf. अस्ति ह्यन्यदेतस्य वचने प्रयोजनम् (asti hyanyadetasya vacane prayojanam) M. Bh. on Siva Sutra 1 Vart. 1 The word is also used predicatively in the sense of वक्तव्यम् (vaktavyam) by the Varttikakara; cf. ऌति ऌ वावचनम्, ऋति ऋ वावचनम् (ḷti ḷ vāvacanam, ṛti ṛ vāvacanam);

2) Vacana.—Number, such as एकवचन, द्विवचन, बहुवचन (ekavacana, dvivacana, bahuvacana) etc.; cf. वचनमेकत्वद्वित्वबहुत्वानि (vacanamekatvadvitvabahutvāni) Kas.on P.I.2.51 ; cf लुपि युक्तिवद् व्यक्ति-वचने । लुकि अभिधेयवल्लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति। लवणः सूपः। लवणा यवागूः। (lupi yuktivad vyakti-vacane | luki abhidheyavalliṅgavacanāni bhavanti| lavaṇaḥ sūpaḥ| lavaṇā yavāgūḥ|) M.Bh.on P.I. 2.57;

3) Vacana.—Expressive word; cf. गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च (guṇavacanabrāhmaṇādibhyaḥ karmaṇi ca) P. V.1.124 where the Kasika explains the word गुणवचन (guṇavacana) as गुणमुक्तवन्तो गुणवचनाः (guṇamuktavanto guṇavacanāḥ); cf. also the terms गुणवचन, जातिवचन, क्रियावचन (guṇavacana, jātivacana, kriyāvacana) etc. as classes of words; cf. also अभिज्ञावचने लृट् (abhijñāvacane lṛṭ) P.III.2.112;

4) Vacana.—That which is uttered; cf. मुखना-सिकावचनोनुनासिकः। मुखसहिता नासिका मुखनासिका । तया य उच्चार्यते असौ वर्णः (mukhanā-sikāvacanonunāsikaḥ| mukhasahitā nāsikā mukhanāsikā | tayā ya uccāryate asau varṇaḥ) Kas. on P. I.1.8.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Vācana (वाचन) is simple recitation.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas

Vācāna (वाचान, “teaching”).—One of the five types of self-study (svādhyāya);—What is meant by ‘teaching’ (vācāna)? To teach the disciples is called teaching.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vacana.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘three’. Note: vacana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vacana : (nt.) utterance; word; saying; a term; an expression. || vācana (nt.), recitation; reading.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vācanā, (f.) (fr. vāceti) recitation, reading; °magga way of recitation, help for reading, division of text (into chapters or paragraphs) Tikp 239; KhA 12, 14, 24. (Page 606)

— or —

Vacana, (nt.) (fr. vac; Vedic vacana) 1. speaking, utterance, word, bidding S. II, 18 (alaṃ vacanāya one says rightly); IV, 195 (yathā bhūtaṃ); A. II, 168; Sn. 417, 699, 932, 984, 997; Miln. 235; Pv. II, 27; SnA 343, 386.—mama vacanena in my name PvA. 53.—dubbacana a bad word Th. 2, 418 (=dur-utta-vacana ThA. 268).—vacanaṃ karoti to do one’s bidding J. I, 222, 253. ‹-› 2. (t. t. g.) what is said with regard to its grammatical, syntactical or semantic relation, way of speech, term, expression, as: āmantana° term of address KhA 167; SnA 435; paccatta° expression of sep. relation, i.e. the accusative case SnA 303; piya° term of endearment Nd2 130; SnA 536; puna° repetition SnA 487; vattamāna° the present tense SnA 16, 23; visesitabba° qualifying (predicative) expression VvA. 13; sampadāna° the dative relation SnA 317. At SnA 397 (combined with linga and other terms) it refers to the “number, ” i.e. singular & plural.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vacana (वचन).—n (S) Speech, a matter spoken; word, declaration, affirmation, promise &c. 2 A dictum, an aphorism, a rule; any utterance or expression considered as authoritative. 3 In grammar. Number; as ēkavacana, dvivacana, anēkavacana or bahuvacana Singular, Dual, Plural. vacanācā kharā a True to one's promise or word. vacanācyā ājñēnta or ardhyā vacanānta asaṇēṃ or vāgaṇēṃ To be exceedingly obedient and tractable. vacanīṃ gōvaṇēṃ To entangle, i.e. to bind or fix, by his own promise or word.

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vācana (वाचन).—n S Reading.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vacana (वचन).—n Speech. Promise. A dictum. (In gram.) Number. ardhyā vacanānta asaṇēṃ Be exceedingly obedient and tracable. vacanācā kharā True to one's promise or word. vacanīṃ gōṃvaṇēṃ Entangle i. e. bind or fix, by his own promise or word.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vacana (वचन).—[vac-lyuṭ]

1) The act of speaking, uttering. saying.

2) Speech, an utterance, words (spoken), sentence; ननु वक्तृविशेषनिःस्पृहा गुणगृह्या वचने विपश्रितः (nanu vaktṛviśeṣaniḥspṛhā guṇagṛhyā vacane vipaśritaḥ) Ki.2. 5; प्रीतः प्रीतिप्रमुखवचनं स्वागतं व्याजहार (prītaḥ prītipramukhavacanaṃ svāgataṃ vyājahāra) Me.4.

3) Repeating, recitation.

4) A text, dictum, rule, precept, a passage of a sacred book; शास्त्रवचनम्, श्रुतिवचनम्, स्मृति- वचनम् (śāstravacanam, śrutivacanam, smṛti- vacanam) &c.

5) An order, a command, direction; शुश्रूषां गौरवं चैव प्रमाणं वचनक्रियाम् (śuśrūṣāṃ gauravaṃ caiva pramāṇaṃ vacanakriyām) (kuryāt) Rām.2.12.26; मद्वच- नात् (madvaca- nāt) 'in my name', 'by my order'.

6) Advice, counsel, instruction.

7) Declaration, affirmation.

8) Pronunciation (of a letter) (in gram.).

9) The signification or meaning of a word; अत्र पयोधरशब्दः मेघवचनः (atra payodharaśabdaḥ meghavacanaḥ).

1) Number (in gram.); (there are three numbers, singular, dual and plural).

11) Dry ginger.

Derivable forms: vacanam (वचनम्).

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Vācana (वाचन).—[vac-ṇic svārthe vā ṇic lyuṭ]

1) Reading, reciting.

2) Declaration, proclamation, utterance; as in स्वस्तिवाचनम्, पुण्याहवाचनम् (svastivācanam, puṇyāhavācanam) q. q. v. v.

-nā 1 A lesson.

2) A chapter.

Derivable forms: vācanam (वाचनम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vacana (वचन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Speech, speaking. 2. A sentence, a text, a dictum, an aphorism, a rule. 3. Recitation. 4. Advice. 5. Order, command. 6. Dry-ginger. 7. The pronunciation of a letter, (in gram.) 8. The meaning of a word. 9. Number, (in gram.) E. vac to speak, aff. lyuṭ .

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Vācana (वाचन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Reading, reciting. 2. Proclamation, declaration.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vacana (वचन).—[vac + ana], n. 1. Speaking, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 83 (at the end of a comp. adj., f. ). 2. Speech, [Pañcatantra] 140, 16. 3. Word, name, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 29; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 37, 8; Chr. 12, 26. 4. Order, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 48, 16. 5. Sentence, [Pañcatantra] 158, 13; 164, 20. 6. Rule.

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Vācana (वाचन).—i. e. vac, [Causal.], + ana, n. in svasti-, n. A preparatory religious rite in which the Brāhmaṇas invoke the blessings of the gods, etc., [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 44, 14; [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] 56, 1 ([Prakrit]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vacana (वचन).—[adjective] speaking, eloquent; saying, meaning (—°), [abstract] † [feminine], tva† [neuter]; being said by ([instrumental] or —°), [abstract] tva† [neuter]

— [neuter] speaking, pronouncing, sound, voice, utterance, word, speech; affirmation, declaration, mention, statement; command, injunction; counsel, advice, precept, rule; number ([grammar]).

vacanaṃ kṛ or vacane sthā follow the advice of ([genetive]); vacanāt (nena) in the name of ([genetive] or —°); iti vacanāt as has been said.

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Vācana (वाचन).—[neuter] reciting or causing to recite, reading, expressing; [feminine] ā lesson, chapter.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vacana (वचन):—[from vac] mfn. speaking, a speaker, eloquent, [Ṛg-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) mentioning, indicating, expressing, meaning, [Pāṇini; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha] (-tā f., -tva n.)

3) [v.s. ...] being pronounced, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya] (-tva n.)

4) [v.s. ...] n. (ifc. f(ā). ) the act of speaking, utterance, [Sāṃkhyakārikā]

5) [v.s. ...] n. pronunciation, [Pāṇini; Prātiśākhya]

6) [v.s. ...] statement, declaration, express mention, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; ???; Pāṇini] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] speech, sentence, word, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) the injunction of a teacher, rule, [Kāśikā-vṛtti]

9) [v.s. ...] advice, instruction, direction, order, command, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (naṃ-√kṛ or ne-√sthā with [genitive case] = to do the bidding of any one, follow a person’s advice, obey; nena or nāt, with [genitive case] = in the name of)

10) [v.s. ...] sound, voice, [Atharvaveda-prātiśākhya; Meghadūta; Hitopadeśa]

11) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) number, [Pāṇini; Vopadeva] (cf. eka-, dvi-, bahu-v)

12) [v.s. ...] rumour, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] dry ginger, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) Vācana (वाचन):—[from vāc] n. the causing to recite, [???]

15) [v.s. ...] the act of reciting, recitation, [Yājñavalkya; Vārāhītantra]

16) [v.s. ...] the act of reading, [Bālarāmāyaṇa]

17) [v.s. ...] the act of declaring or designating, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

18) Vācanā (वाचना):—[from vācana > vāc] f. a lesson, chapter, [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vacana (वचन):—(naṃ) 1. n. Speech; a sentence, a rule.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Vacana (वचन):—(von vac)

1) adj. a) oxyt. redefertig [Ṛgveda 6, 39, 1. 49, 12.] dakṣa, va, ṛkvan [10, 113, 9.] — b) am Ende eines comp. besagend, bedeutend, ausdrückend: abhijñā [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 3, 2, 112.] bhāvakarma [6, 2, 150.] [Amarakoṣa 3, 3, 2.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 839.] [SARVADARŚANAS. 49, 6. 144, 15. 160, 8. 9.] tadvacanatvāt weil es das besagt [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 1, 3, 4. 2, 8, 4. 7, 9, 12. 8, 3, 33.] — c) ausgesprochen werdend: rakto vacano mukhanāsikābhyām [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 13, 6.] mukhanāsikāvacanatvamiha raktasya vidhīyate Comm. —

2) n. a) das Sprechen [SĀṂKHYAK. 28.] Aussprache: ayathāmātraṃ vacanaṃ svarāṇām [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 14, 4.] samāpādyānāmante saṃhitāvadvacanam [Prātiśākha zum Atharvaveda 4, 124.] mukhanāsikāvacano nunāsikaḥ [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 1, 8.] — b) das Ansagen, Hersagen, Aussagen: mantra [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 1, 7, 9. 10, 2, 33.] [LĀṬY. 7, 1, 7. 5, 7.] saṃtānamuttamena vacanena [Aśvalāyana’s Śrautasūtrāni 5, 20, 5. 7.] tadvacanādāmnāyasya prāmāṇyam (ein berühmter und in seiner Auslegung streitiger Satz; vgl. [Nīlakaṇṭha]

8) [KAṆ. 1, 1, 3.] — c) Benennung, ausdrückliche Nennung, Bestimmung, Anführung: paśuvacanāt weil es paśu heisst [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 25, 9, 11.] yathāvacanam je nach dem Ausdruck [Yāska’s Nirukta 1, 3.] yajeti vacanācchrutiriti [Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 7, 9.] [Aśvalāyana’s Śrautasūtrāni 1, 1, 26.] [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 1, 5, 12. 7, 11. 22. 2, 7, 17.] a [6, 37.] avacane wo nichts Besonderes bestimmt ist [1, 8, 45.] antavacane wenn anta im Text steht [3, 25. 7, 5, 23.] guṇa [20, 7, 20.] virodhau Bestimmung und widersprechende Bestimmung [1, 8, 30.] pravṛttī [4, 3, 4.] iti vacanāt weil es so heisst [Pāraskara’s Gṛhyasūtrāṇi 2, 2.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 3, 226.] [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 2, 56.] liṭaḥ kidvacanānarthakyam das Erklären des liṭ für kit [Patañjali] zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 2, 6.] īyaso bahuvrīhau puṃvadvacanam [?Vārttika von Kātyāyana. zu Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 2, 48.] — d) Aussage, Ausspruch, Worte, Rede [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 5, 1.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 241.] dvaidhe bahūnāṃ vacanaṃ sameṣu guṇināṃ tathā . guṇidvaidhe tu vacanaṃ grāhyaṃ ye guṇavattamāḥ .. [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 78.] muni [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 46, 99.] guru [SARVADARŚANAS. 97, 1. 103, 20. 160, 19.] smṛti [Pañcatantra 164, 20.] idaṃ vacanamabruvan [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 1, 1.] manovacanakarmabhiḥ [2, 236.] [Mahābhārata 3, 2162. 2222. 2893.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 8, 17. 28.] [Meghadūta 4. 29. 96.] [SARVADARŚANAS. 111, 11.] [Pañcatantra 140, 16.] etatkāryākṣamāṇāṃ keṣāṃcidālasyavacanam [Prooemium im Hitopadeśa 6, 9. 18, 19.] [Vetālapañcaviṃśati] in [Lassen’s Anthologie (III) 4, 4. 7, 1.] vacanairasatām [Spr. 2700.] tathya so v. a. Gelöbniss [Pañcatantra 5, 1.] paruṣa barsche Rede führend [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 23, 17.] asatyavacanā nāryaḥ [Mahābhārata 1, 3060.] ityuktavacanāmetām [11, 596.] īṣatpragalbhavacanā [Sāhityadarpana 100.] — e) Ausspruch so v. a. Rath, Geheiss: vacanaśatamavacanakare naṣṭam [Spr. 714.] vṛddhānāṃ vacanaṃ grāhyam [2891.] tadasyāpi vacanaṃ saṃgrāhyam [Pañcatantra 158, 13.] yasya vacanāt [Hitopadeśa 13, 10. 62, 20, v. l. 72, 14.] kākavacanena [23, 9.] narendravacanāsaktāḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 7, 9.] śreyo me bhartṛvacanaṃ na jīvitamihātmanaḥ [3, 48, 16.] brahmaṇo vacanāt [Mahābhārata 1, 1153. 5574. 6013. 3, 2682. 2853. 5, 6047.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 1, 41. 56. 68. 11, 13. 2, 64, 16.] piturvacananirdeśāt [1, 1, 24.] sthāsyanti vacane tava (vgl. vacanesthita) so v. a. sie werden dir gehorchen [2, 24, 15.] mayā kartavyaṃ vacanaṃ pituḥ [14.] [Hitopadeśa 62, 19.] — f) vacanāt und vacanena (selten) so v. a. im Namen von: ārogyaṃ brūhi kausalyām sītāyāḥ sūta mama ca vacanāt [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 52, 30.] madvacanāt vandyau pādau mahātmanaḥ [58, 13.] [Mahābhārata 3, 16149. 5, 7510.] [Mṛcchakaṭikā 155, 12.] mamadvacanāducyatāṃ sārathiḥ [Śākuntala 28, 18. 55, 9. 59, 15. 80, 23.] [Vikramorvaśī 37, 9.] [Meghadūta 99.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 66, 24.] bharataḥ kuśalaṃ vācyo vācyo madvacanena ca [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 58, 18.] [Mahābhārata 4, 229.] — g) Laut, Stimme: vacanena vyavetānāṃ saṃyogatvaṃ vihanyate [Scholiast] zu [Prātiśākha zum Atharvaveda 1, 101.] tadvacanaṃ pratyabhijñāya [Hitopadeśa 14, 20.] mṛgekṣaṇābhiḥ anyabhṛtavalguvacanābhiḥ [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 48, 14.] madhuravacanā sārikā [Meghadūta 83.] — h) grammatische Zahl [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 2, 51. 2, 3, 46.] [Vopadeva’s Grammatik 1, 11. 24, 6.] — i) trockener Ingwer [Śabdacandrikā im Śabdakalpadruma] — Vgl. a, eka, dvi, paryāya, punarvacana, pratikūla, prāgvacana, priya, bahu, buddha, bhāva, bhinna, mūla, loka, viśeṣa, satya, su .

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Vācana (वाचन):—(vom caus. von vac) n.

1) das Hersagenlassen [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 5, 4, 33. 7, 9, 23.] [LĀṬY. 2, 1, 5. 6, 12.] mantra Comm. zu [Aśvalāyana’s Śrautasūtrāni 1, 11, 1.] —

2) das Hersagen: gāyatryāḥ [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 3, 310.] śuddhenānanyacittena paṭhitavyaṃ prayatnataḥ . na kāryāsaktamanasā kāryaṃ stotrasya vācanam .. [VĀRĀHĪTANTRA im Śabdakalpadruma] das Lesen: pustaka [Oxforder Handschriften 217,a,10.] sva [186,a,6.] vācanācārya [4. No. 423.] —

3) das Ausdrücken, Bezeichnen: anekārtha [Sāhityadarpana 705.] — Vgl. puṇyāha (unter puṇyāha), śānti, svasti .

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Vacana (वचन) [Also spelled vachan]:—(nm) utterance, speech; talk; a quotation of a treatise or scripture; number (in Grammar); commitment, promise, pledge; ~[grāhī] obedient; ~[baṃdha] an engagement; —[mātra] empty words, mere words;—[toḍanā] to break a promise/one’s word; —[denā] to make a promise, to give word to; to commit, to vow; —[nibhānā] see —[pālana karanā; ~baddha honā] to promise, to commit; to make a contract; ~[baddha karanā] to bind by promise or commitment; —[pālana karanā] to adhere to one’s word, to implement one’s promise;—[bhaṃga karanā] to break a promise; to break one’s word; —[hāranā] to be pledged; to be committed.

2) Vācana (वाचन) [Also spelled vachan]:—(nm) reading; narration; citation; -[patra] citation.

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