Jana, Jāna: 20 definitions



Jana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Jaan.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Hands of The Seven Upper Worlds.—Jana: the Patāka hand twisted upwards is applicable.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Jana (जन).—The fifth loka from where are born people; from root janana;1 two crores of yojanas from Maharloka.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 156; 21. 22; 35. 153 and 206; III. 1. 15-16; Matsya-purāṇa 61. 1; 184. 23; Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 127; 101. 17.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 140, 208.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Jana (जन) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.89.28) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Jana) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Jana (जन), besides meaning ‘man’ as an individual, with a tendency to the collective sense, commonly denotes a ‘people’ or ‘tribe’ in the Ṛgveda and later.

India history and geography

Source: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)

Jana, grandson of Guṇapāla, is the name of a person mentioned in a Jain inscription found at Shergarh. The first half of verse 2 says that a son named Devapāla was born to Śrīpāla while nine sons, viz. Pūnī, Martha, Jana, Ilhuka and others were born to Guṇapāla-ṭhakkura’s son whose name was probably Śānti. The second half of this stanza says how all these persons caused to be made the Ratna-traya (i.e. images of the three Tīrthaṅkaras, viz. Śāntinātha, Kunthunātha and Aranātha) at Kośavarddhana or at the base of the hill-fort of Kośavardhana (Kośavarddhana-tale).

The inscription (mentioning Jana) was found found on the pedestal below the central figure of a group of three images of Jain Tīrthaṅkaras in a small temple outside the fort at Shergarh (ancient Kośavardhana). The three Tīrthaṅkaras represented are Śānti (Śāntinātha), Kunthu or Kunthanātha and Ara (Aranātha).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Jana.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘one’. Note: jana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

jana : (m.) a person; a man; the people.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Jāna, (adj.) (to jñā, see jānāti) knowing or knowable, understandable J. III, 24 (=jānamāna). dujjāna difficult to understand D. I, 170, 187; M. I, 487; II, 43. su° recognizable, intelligible Pv IV. 135 (=suviññeyya PvA. 230). Cp. ājāna. (Page 282)

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Jana, (*genē: see janati. Cp. Gr. gQnos, gόnos; Lat. genus=Fr. gens, to which also similar in meaning) a creature, living being: (a) sg. an individual, a creature, person, man Sn. 121, 676, 807, 1023 (sabba everybody). Usually collectively: people, they, one (=Fr. on), with pl. of verb Dh. 249 (dadanti); often as mahājana the people, the crowd S. I, 115; J. I, 167, 294; PvA. 6; lokamahājana=loka DhA. III, 175; or as bahu(j)jana many people, the many A. I, 68; Dh. 320; DhA. III, 175. See also puthujjana.—(b) pl. men, persons, people, beings: nānā° various living beings Sn. 1102 (explained at Nd2 248 as khattiyā brāhmaṇā vessā suddā gahaṭṭhā pabbajitā devā manussā.) dve janā J. I, 151; II, 105; tayo j. J. I, 63; III, 52; keci janā some people PvA. 20. See also Sn. 243, 598, 1077, 1121.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jaṇa (जण).—m f n (jana S The plural is jaṇa, jaṇī, jaṇēṃ m f n) A person, a body, an individual. The word requires a numeral prefix; and, to express two, three, or four, dōghē, tighē, caughē are employed, instead of dōna, tīna, cāra. 2 jaṇa is frequently ap- plied to an individual amongst living creatures gen. For phrases see jana. jaṇa harācēṃ jaṇa cōrācēṃ Of the people some side with the robbed, some with the robber. jaṇācē hātīṃ dōna dhōṇḍē No course of conduct can ensure the pleasing of the people. jaṇānta miḷūna rāhaṇēṃ or asaṇēṃ To lead a public or a social life.

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jana (जन).—m (S) Man individually or collectively; a man or mankind. 2 A collective body gen.: as manuṣyajana The human race; śvajana The canine race. 3 m n The people, the folk, the world. Pr. āpaṇa bhalā tara jana bhalā. Pr. janācē tōṇḍīṃ lāgatāṃ puravata nāhīṃ. Pr. janānta ēka manānta ēka Used of a dissembler. Pr. janīṃ janārdana Vox populi vox Dei. Pr. aikāvēṃ janācēṃ karāvēṃ manācēṃ Listen to popular opinion, but follow your own mind; inquire and consult, but act upon your own judgment. jana vividha The people or folk are of three classes or grades--high, middling, and low: also of three (i. e. of many) sorts, forms, characters, minds, moods.

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jāṇa (जाण).—a (jāṇaṇēṃ) Knowing, understanding, versed in. 2 Knowing, sensible, intelligent about; that weighs, considers, regards, attends to. Ex. mukyā- cā jāṇa kōṇa hōtō? daridryāñcā jāṇa vikramarājā; jāṇa manuṣyāvara upakāra kēlā asatāṃ tō visarata nāhīṃ.

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jāṇa (जाण).—f (jāṇaṇēṃ) Acknowledgment of favors and kindnesses: also appreciation of services or labors. v jāṇa. Ex. āmhī śrama kēlā paṇa tyācī tyānēṃ jāṇa jāṇalī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

jaṇa (जण).—m f n A person, an individual. (Prefixed by a numeral.)

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jana (जन).—m A man or mankind. m n The people. A collective body gen.: as manuṣyajana, śrvajana. janānta ēka manānta ēka. Used of a dissembler. janī janārdana Vox po- puli vox dei. jana trividha The people or folk are of three classes or grades- high, middling, and low: also of three (i. e. of many) sorts, forms, characters, minds, moods.

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jāṇa (जाण).—a Knowing. f Appreciation of services, &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jana (जन).—[jan-ac]

1) A creature, living being, man.

2) An individual or person (whether male or female); क्व वयं क्व परोक्षमन्मथो मृगशावैः सममेधितो जनः (kva vayaṃ kva parokṣamanmatho mṛgaśāvaiḥ samamedhito janaḥ) Ś.2.18; तत्तस्य किमपि द्रव्यं यो हि यस्य प्रियो जनः (tattasya kimapi dravyaṃ yo hi yasya priyo janaḥ) U.2.19; so सखीजनः (sakhījanaḥ) a female friend; दासजनः (dāsajanaḥ) a slave, अबलाजनः (abalājanaḥ) &c. (In this sense janaḥ or ayaṃ janaḥ is often used by the speakerwhether male or female, in the sing. or pl. --instead of the first personal pronoun to speak of himself in the third person); अयं जनः प्रष्टुमनास्तपोधने (ayaṃ janaḥ praṣṭumanāstapodhane) Ku.5.4 (male); भगवन् परवानयं जनः प्रतिकूलाचरितं क्षमख मे (bhagavan paravānayaṃ janaḥ pratikūlācaritaṃ kṣamakha me) R.8.81 (female); पश्यानङ्गशरातुरं जनमिमं त्रातापि नो रक्षसि (paśyānaṅgaśarāturaṃ janamimaṃ trātāpi no rakṣasi) Nag.1.1. (female and pl.).

3) Men collectively, the people, the world (in sing. or pl.); एवं जनो गृह्णाति (evaṃ jano gṛhṇāti) M.1; सतीमपि ज्ञातिकुलैक- संश्रयां जनोऽन्यथा भर्तृमतीं विशङ्कते (satīmapi jñātikulaika- saṃśrayāṃ jano'nyathā bhartṛmatīṃ viśaṅkate) Ś.5.17.

4) Race, nation, tribe.

5) The world beyond Maharloka, the heaven of deified mortals.

6) A low man, the mob; L. D. B.

-nā Birth, production.

Derivable forms: janaḥ (जनः).

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Jāna (जान).—Ved. Birth, production, origin; स्थिरं हि जानमेषां वयो मातुर्निरेतवे (sthiraṃ hi jānameṣāṃ vayo māturniretave) Rv.1.37.9.

Derivable forms: jānam (जानम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Jāna (जान).—adj. or subst. m. (occurs, tho rarely, in Pali, e.g. Jātaka (Pali) iii.24.2; orig. probably = jānant-, pres. pple., compare §§ 18.52 ff.; see next), knowing, wise (person): drakṣyanti jānu (all mss.; acc. sg.) imu saptapadāṃ kramantaṃ Lalitavistara 48.1 (verse); puruṣadhīreṇa puruṣajānena (nearly all mss.) Lalitavistara 350.11 (prose), by a wise one among men.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jana (जन).—m.

(-naḥ) 1. Man, individually or collectively, a man, mankind. 2. The universe. 3. A division of the universe or Loka, the residence of deified mortals: see janaloka. 3. A low man, a wretch. f. (-nī) A mother, &c. see jani. f.

(-nā) Birth, production. E. jan to be born, affix ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jana (जन).—[jan-a], m. 1. Creature, Mahābhārata 3, 1204. 2. Man collectively, men, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 6, 7; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 108; with āyudhīya, Armed men, 7, 222; crowd, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 101, 33. 3. Man, individually, a person, [Draupadīpramātha] 3, 5; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 241. 4. This person, [Nala] 10, 10. 5. With the msc. of the pronoun idam, I, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 85, 16. 6. The name of a division of the world, the residence of deified mortals, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 11, 31. 7. It is often used as latter part of comp. words, especially in signification 2 and 3; e. g. preṣya-, m. The whole set of menial servants, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 125; śiśu-, m. sing. pl. Children, [Pañcatantra] 95, 17; dāsa-, m. A slave, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 54.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jana (जन).—1. [masculine] creature, man, person, tribe, race, nation; [plural] & sgl. coll. people, folks. Often —° [with] collect. or indiv. mg, e.[grammar] preṣyajana a servant or the servants. —ayaṃ janaḥ & eṣa janaḥ this person ( = I or he, she). [feminine] janā birth, production.

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Jana (जन).—2. [masculine] [Name] of a man.

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Jāna (जान).—[neuter] birth, origin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jana (जन):—[from jan] mf(ī)n. ‘generating’ See puraṃ-

2) [v.s. ...] m. ([gana] vṛṣādi) creature, living being, man, person, race (pañca janās, ‘the five races’ = p kṛṣṭayas, [Ṛg-veda iii, viii ff.; Mahābhārata iii, 14160]), people, subjects (the sg. used collectively e.g. daivya or divyā j, ‘divine race’, the gods collectively, [Ṛg-veda]; mahat j, many people, [Rāmāyaṇa vi, 101, 2]; often ifc. denoting one person or a number of persons collectively, e.g. preṣya-, bandhu-, sakhīetc., qq.vv. ; with names of peoples, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā iv, 22 and v, 74]; ayaṃ janaḥ, ‘this person, these persons’, I, we, [Mahābhārata viii, 709; Harivaṃśa 7110; Rāmāyaṇa ii, 41, 2; Śakuntalā] etc.; eṣa j, idem, [Kāvyādarśa ii, 75]), [Ṛg-veda] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] the person nearest to the speaker (also with ayam or asau, ‘this my lover’ [Kāvyādarśa ii, 271; Ratnāvalī i, 24/25]), [Nalopākhyāna x, 10; Śakuntalā; Mālavikāgnimitra]

4) [v.s. ...] a common person, one of the people, [Kirātārjunīya ii, 42 and 47]

5) [v.s. ...] the world beyond the Mahar-loka, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iii, 11, 29; Skanda-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] (na) m. ([gana] aśvādi) Name of a man (with the [patronymic] Śārkarākṣya), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa x; Chāndogya-upaniṣad]

7) Janā (जना):—[from jana > jan] f. ‘birth’, a-jana, ‘the unborn’, Nārāyaṇa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa x, 3, 1.]

8) Jāna (जान):—[from jātṛ] 1. jāna n. birth, origin, birth place, [Ṛg-veda i, 37, 9 and 95, 3; v, x; Atharva-veda vii, 76, 5; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa iii, 2, 1, 40.]

9) [v.s. ...] 2. jāna m. ([from] jana) [patronymic] of Vṛśa (= vaijāna, ‘son of Vijānā’ [Scholiast or Commentator]), [Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa xiii, 3; Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Jana (जन):—1. —

1) Adj. (f. ī) erzeugend in puraṃ. —

2) m. (adj. Comp. f. ā) — a) Geschöpf , Mensch , Person ; Geschlecht , Stamm ; das Volk , die Unterthanen. Sg. auch mit collectiver Bed. Sg. mit mahant und sumahant viele — , sehr viele Leute. Häufig in Comp. mit einer anderen Personenbezeichung ( preṣya Dienerschaft , sakhī Freundin , Freundinnen) , auch mit Völkernamen. ayaṃ janaḥ so v.a. Unsereins , wir , ich (im Prākrit [297,13.] so v.a. mein Geliebter hier ). eṣa janaḥ dass. [251,30.] asau janaḥ so v.a. mein Geliebter hier. Bisweilen , ohne nähere Bezeichnung durch ein Pronomen , — α) so v.a. die im Augenblick Jmd zunächst stehende Person , diese Person hier , dieser — , diese hier (auch in Collectiver Bed.). — β) Einer aus dem grossen Haufen , ein gewöhnlicher — , ein gemeiner Mensch. — b) die jenseits des Maharloka gelegene Welt.

3) f. janā Geburt , Entstehung.

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Jana (जन):—2. m. Nomen proprium eines Mannes.

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Jāna (जान):—1. n. Entstehung , Ursprung ; Geburtsstätte.

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Jāna (जान):—2. m. Patron. des Hymnendichters Vṛca [Ārṣeyabrāhmaṇa] Vgl. vaijāna.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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