Jana, aka: Jāna; 13 Definition(s)

Introduction

Jana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

One of the Hands of The Seven Upper Worlds.—Jana: the Patāka hand twisted upwards is applicable.

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Jana (जन).—The fifth loka from where are born people; from root janana;1 two crores of yojanas from Maharloka.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 156; 21. 22; 35. 153 and 206; III. 1. 15-16; Matsya-purāṇa 61. 1; 184. 23; Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 127; 101. 17.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 140, 208.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Jana (जन) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.89.28) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Jana) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Jana (जन), besides meaning ‘man’ as an individual, with a tendency to the collective sense, commonly denotes a ‘people’ or ‘tribe’ in the Ṛgveda and later.

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

India history and geogprahy

Jana, grandson of Guṇapāla, is the name of a person mentioned in a Jain inscription found at Shergarh. The first half of verse 2 says that a son named Devapāla was born to Śrīpāla while nine sons, viz. Pūnī, Martha, Jana, Ilhuka and others were born to Guṇapāla-ṭhakkura’s son whose name was probably Śānti. The second half of this stanza says how all these persons caused to be made the Ratna-traya (i.e. images of the three Tīrthaṅkaras, viz. Śāntinātha, Kunthunātha and Aranātha) at Kośavarddhana or at the base of the hill-fort of Kośavardhana (Kośavarddhana-tale).

The inscription (mentioning Jana) was found found on the pedestal below the central figure of a group of three images of Jain Tīrthaṅkaras in a small temple outside the fort at Shergarh (ancient Kośavardhana). The three Tīrthaṅkaras represented are Śānti (Śāntinātha), Kunthu or Kunthanātha and Ara (Aranātha).

Source: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)

Jana.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘one’. Note: jana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

jana : (m.) a person; a man; the people.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Jāna, (adj.) (to jñā, see jānāti) knowing or knowable, understandable J. III, 24 (=jānamāna). dujjāna difficult to understand D. I, 170, 187; M. I, 487; II, 43. su° recognizable, intelligible Pv IV. 135 (=suviññeyya PvA. 230). Cp. ājāna. (Page 282)

— or —

Jana, (*genē: see janati. Cp. Gr. gQnos, gόnos; Lat. genus=Fr. gens, to which also similar in meaning) a creature, living being: (a) sg. an individual, a creature, person, man Sn. 121, 676, 807, 1023 (sabba everybody). Usually collectively: people, they, one (=Fr. on), with pl. of verb Dh. 249 (dadanti); often as mahājana the people, the crowd S. I, 115; J. I, 167, 294; PvA. 6; lokamahājana=loka DhA. III, 175; or as bahu(j)jana many people, the many A. I, 68; Dh. 320; DhA. III, 175. See also puthujjana.—(b) pl. men, persons, people, beings: nānā° various living beings Sn. 1102 (expld at Nd2 248 as khattiyā brāhmaṇā vessā suddā gahaṭṭhā pabbajitā devā manussā.) dve janā J. I, 151; II, 105; tayo j. J. I, 63; III, 52; keci janā some people PvA. 20. See also Sn. 243, 598, 1077, 1121.

—âdhipa a king of men J. II, 369; —inda=prec. J. III, 280, 294; —esabha the leader of men, the best of all people Dh. 255; —kāya a body or group of people J. I, 28; DhA. I, 33 (dve j. : micchā & sammā-diṭṭhikā); Dpvs. I, 40; —pada country see sep.; —majjhe (Loc.) before (all) the people J. I, 294; Th. 2, 394; —vāda people’s talk, gossip Sn. 973. (Page 278)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

jaṇa (जण).—m f n (jana S The plural is jaṇa, jaṇī, jaṇēṃ m f n) A person, a body, an individual. The word requires a numeral prefix; and, to express two, three, or four, dōghē, tighē, caughē are employed, instead of dōna, tīna, cāra. 2 jaṇa is frequently ap- plied to an individual amongst living creatures gen. For phrases see jana. jaṇa harācēṃ jaṇa cōrācēṃ Of the people some side with the robbed, some with the robber. jaṇācē hātīṃ dōna dhōṇḍē No course of conduct can ensure the pleasing of the people. jaṇānta miḷūna rāhaṇēṃ or asaṇēṃ To lead a public or a social life.

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jana (जन).—m (S) Man individually or collectively; a man or mankind. 2 A collective body gen.: as manuṣyajana The human race; śvajana The canine race. 3 m n The people, the folk, the world. Pr. āpaṇa bhalā tara jana bhalā. Pr. janācē tōṇḍīṃ lāgatāṃ puravata nāhīṃ. Pr. janānta ēka manānta ēka Used of a dissembler. Pr. janīṃ janārdana Vox populi vox Dei. Pr. aikāvēṃ janācēṃ karāvēṃ manācēṃ Listen to popular opinion, but follow your own mind; inquire and consult, but act upon your own judgment. jana vividha The people or folk are of three classes or grades--high, middling, and low: also of three (i. e. of many) sorts, forms, characters, minds, moods.

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jāṇa (जाण).—a (jāṇaṇēṃ) Knowing, understanding, versed in. 2 Knowing, sensible, intelligent about; that weighs, considers, regards, attends to. Ex. mukyā- cā jāṇa kōṇa hōtō? daridryāñcā jāṇa vikramarājā; jāṇa manuṣyāvara upakāra kēlā asatāṃ tō visarata nāhīṃ.

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jāṇa (जाण).—f (jāṇaṇēṃ) Acknowledgment of favors and kindnesses: also appreciation of services or labors. v jāṇa. Ex. āmhī śrama kēlā paṇa tyācī tyānēṃ jāṇa jāṇalī.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jaṇa (जण).—m f n A person, an individual. (Prefixed by a numeral.)

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jana (जन).—m A man or mankind. m n The people. A collective body gen.: as manuṣyajana, śrvajana. janānta ēka manānta ēka. Used of a dissembler. janī janārdana Vox po- puli vox dei. jana trividha The people or folk are of three classes or grades- high, middling, and low: also of three (i. e. of many) sorts, forms, characters, minds, moods.

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jāṇa (जाण).—a Knowing. f Appreciation of services, &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jana (जन).—[jan-ac]

1) A creature, living being, man.

2) An individual or person (whether male or female); क्व वयं क्व परोक्षमन्मथो मृगशावैः सममेधितो जनः (kva vayaṃ kva parokṣamanmatho mṛgaśāvaiḥ samamedhito janaḥ) Ś.2.18; तत्तस्य किमपि द्रव्यं यो हि यस्य प्रियो जनः (tattasya kimapi dravyaṃ yo hi yasya priyo janaḥ) U.2.19; so सखीजनः (sakhījanaḥ) a female friend; दासजनः (dāsajanaḥ) a slave, अबलाजनः (abalājanaḥ) &c. (In this sense janaḥ or ayaṃ janaḥ is often used by the speakerwhether male or female, in the sing. or pl. --instead of the first personal pronoun to speak of himself in the third person); अयं जनः प्रष्टुमनास्तपोधने (ayaṃ janaḥ praṣṭumanāstapodhane) Ku.5.4 (male); भगवन् परवानयं जनः प्रतिकूलाचरितं क्षमख मे (bhagavan paravānayaṃ janaḥ pratikūlācaritaṃ kṣamakha me) R.8.81 (female); पश्यानङ्गशरातुरं जनमिमं त्रातापि नो रक्षसि (paśyānaṅgaśarāturaṃ janamimaṃ trātāpi no rakṣasi) Nag.1.1. (female and pl.).

3) Men collectively, the people, the world (in sing. or pl.); एवं जनो गृह्णाति (evaṃ jano gṛhṇāti) M.1; सतीमपि ज्ञातिकुलैक- संश्रयां जनोऽन्यथा भर्तृमतीं विशङ्कते (satīmapi jñātikulaika- saṃśrayāṃ jano'nyathā bhartṛmatīṃ viśaṅkate) Ś.5.17.

4) Race, nation, tribe.

5) The world beyond Maharloka, the heaven of deified mortals.

6) A low man, the mob; L. D. B.

-nā Birth, production.

Derivable forms: janaḥ (जनः).

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Jāna (जान).—Ved. Birth, production, origin; स्थिरं हि जानमेषां वयो मातुर्निरेतवे (sthiraṃ hi jānameṣāṃ vayo māturniretave) Rv.1.37.9.

Derivable forms: jānam (जानम्).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jana (जन).—m.

(-naḥ) 1. Man, individually or collectively, a man, mankind. 2. The universe. 3. A division of the universe or Loka, the residence of deified mortals: see janaloka. 3. A low man, a wretch. f. (-nī) A mother, &c. see jani. f.

(-nā) Birth, production. E. jan to be born, affix ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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Bandhujana (बन्धुजन).—m. (-naḥ) A relation, a friend. E. bandhu, and jana a person.
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