Karunarasa, Karuna-rasa, Karuṇarasa: 8 definitions


Karunarasa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Karuṇarasa (करुणरस) refers to the “pathetic sentiment” used in dramatic performance (nāṭya). It is a Sanskrit compound composed of the words of karuṇa (pathetic) and rasa (‘sentiment’). This sentiment is produced from a combination of determinants, consequents and complementary psychological states.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Karuṇarasa (करुणरस) or simply Karuṇa refers to the “pathetic sentiment” and represents one of the nine kinds of Rasa (“soul of Drama”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—Karuṇa i.e., pathos is the sentiment delineated in the circumstances of sorrow. The Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa says that it is enacted through frightened limbs, crying in grief, pale and dry face. This sentiment arises at the death of the beloved one or lovable friends or because of loss of wealth. In this context the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa is seen to follow the Nāṭyaśāstra. According to the Sāhityadarpaṇa, pathos arises in loss of desired things as well as in attainment of unwanted things. Śoka is the sthāyibhāva of karuṇarasa. Kapota i.e., the colour of pigeon is the colour of this sentiment. Yama is the God of this sentiment. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, it is said that to project the karuṇarasa, the acting is to be done by frightened limbs, sighs, crying in lamentation, pale face and drying up of mouth

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Karuṇarasa (करुणरस) refers to the “pathetic sentiment” or the “sentiment of pathos” as defined by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century).The basic feeling of karuṇa is sorrow (śoka) and it is generated by excitants (vibhāva) like bereavement of near and dear ones, ensuants (anubhāva) like shedding of tears and variants like debility etc. Though Cirañjīva has not mentioned the colour and deity of karuṇa-rasa, Viśvanātha, the author of the Sāhityadarpaṇa, has mentioned pigion coloured (kapata) as the colour of karuṇa-rasa and the presiding deity is the god of death (Yama). Cirañjīva has classified bereavement (viprayoga) into two types—one is created by one’s going to a distant place and the other is caused by death.

Examaple of the sentiment of pathos (karuṇa-rasa):—

ayi jīvita! pāmaro’ paro bhavatā ko’pi samo na vikṣyate |
yadupekṣya bhavān sthito divaṃ gatamekākitayā nijesvaram ||

“On life! no other is seen to be wicked equal to you, as you are alive alone ignoring the fact that your own lord has gone to heaven.” (Mādhavacampū)

Notes: This is the speech of Campakokarikā at the sight of her husband lying dead in the battle field. In this verse the departing of Campakokarikā’s beloved husband is excitant, the debility on the part of Campakokarikā is the variant. With these the sentiment of pathos (karuṇarasa) has been manifested.

Kavyashastra book cover
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Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Karunarasa in Arts glossary
Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Karuṇarasa (करुणरस) refers to the “emotion of sorrow”, according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the outlines of hawking]: “[...] When two birds fly together and one is killed, the survivor mourns pitifully. This excites the emotion of sorrow (karuṇarasa) [rasaḥ karuṇastaruṇāyate]. In the king, the lover’s emotion is discernible in two conditions, that of enjoyment when the quarry is caught, and that of separation when it escapes. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Karunarasa in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karuṇārasa (करुणारस).—m (S) One of the nine rasa or sentiments, that of Compassion. See rasa.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

karuṇārasa (करुणारस).—m Pathos.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Karunarasa in Pali glossary
Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Karuṇārasa refers to: the sweetness of c. Mhbv 16;

Note: karuṇārasa is a Pali compound consisting of the words karuṇā and rasa.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Karunarasa in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Karuṇārasa (ಕರುಣಾರಸ):—[noun] (rhet.) a sentiment in poetical works, drama etc. generating compassion.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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