Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

यद् उक्तम्,

yad uktam,

sa raty-ādir vibhāvādyair[1] ekī-bhāva-mayo’pi san |
jñapta-tat-tad-viśeṣaś ca tat-tad-udbhedato bhavet ||

saḥ—that (a sthāyī) (or a rasa); rati-ādiḥ—such as rati (or whose beginning is a rati); vibhāva-ādyaiḥ—with the vibhāvas and so on; ekī-bhāva—is a oneness; mayaḥ—one whose nature; api san—even though being; jñapta—are made to be known; tat-tat-viśeṣaḥ—[rasa,] in which the various particulars; ca—also; tat-tat-udbhedataḥ—from their respective originations (i.e. differences); bhavet—is.

Although the sthāyī, such as rati, has become one with the vibhāvas and so on, those specifics in it are still recognized on account of their respective differences. (Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 2.5.82)

nanu raty-ādīnāṃ cittāvasthā-viśeṣatvād vibhāvādi-sambhinnānāṃ teṣāṃ katham ānandātmaka-rasa-rūpateti cet, ucyate, ātmaivānandāṃśe vibhāvādibhir bhagnāvaraṇas tad-vyañjita-ratyādy-avacchinnas tat-sannibhaś ca rasas tasmān na kāpy anupapattir iti loke. yatra tu bhagavad-ratir eva vibhāvādi-sambhinnā rasas tatra rater hlādinī-saṃvid-vṛtti-bhūtatvāt tad-ālambanādīnāṃ ca jñāna-sukhātmakatvāt, hāsādīnām api raty-anugṛhītatvāt tathā-bhūta-rasa-rūpatā susiddhaiva laukikatvādi-hetu-virahād ihānukāryādiṣv api rasaḥ. api ca vibhāvādeḥ kiñcin-mātrasya yatra sthitis tatrānya-samākṣepāt pūrtiḥ. lakṣyāṇy ūhyāni.

Someone might wonder: “Since a sthāyī is a specific condition of the mind, how is it that a sthāyī conjoined with the vibhāvas and so on becomes the form of a rasa, which consists of bliss?” The answer is: The soul whose covering in the aspect of bliss is shattered by the vibhāvas and so on is the rasa, particularized by the sthāyī. Consequently there is no incongruity whatsoever. This is as regards the worldly rasas. However, when, being conjoined with the vibhāvas and so on, rati for the Lord becomes rasa, then, since rati is a function of Hlādinī-śakti (the power of transcendental pleasure) and of Saṃvit-śakti (the power of transcendental knowledge), and since the ālambanas and so forth consist of sheer consciousness and joy, and since hāsa (laughter) and others are supported by the rati, the fact that rati becomes a form of the rasa which is transcendental is easily proven.[2] This rasa is also in the character that is being portrayed on stage, and so on, because there is no adverse cause such as mundanity. Moreover, of vibhāva, anubhāva and vyabhicārī, even if only one is mentioned the others can be concomitant, and so the sthāyī can turn into rasa. The characteristics can be inferred. 

(An example is shown in Commentary 4.14.)

Commentary:

A classic example of taking an uddīpana to be a form of the viṣaya is: Thinking of Kṛṣṇa upon seeing a dark cloud. Jagannātha first stated the notion that the soul is Rasa: cid eva rasaḥ (RG, KM p. 23). Most likely, Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa also took inspiration from

Viśvanātha Kavirāja’s definition of rasa,

sattvodrekād akhaṇḍa-sva-prakāśānanda-cin-mayaḥ |
vedyāntara-sparśa-śūnyo brahmāsvāda-sahodaraḥ ||
lokottara-camatkāra-prāṇaḥ kaiścit pramātṛbhiḥ |
svākāra-vad abhinnatvenāyam āsvādyate rasaḥ ||

“On account of an upsurge of sattva (vibrations devoid of both rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa),[3] the rasa is relished by some eminent persons who have the correct notions. The experience of rasa is undivided. Rasa is self-manifest, is bliss, and consists of sheer consciousness. In rasa, there is no trace of another thought. Rasa is akin to the enjoyment of the bliss of Brahman. The life force of rasa is an otherworldly astonishment. Rasa is relished in terms of being nondifferentiated as if it were the form of one’s soul” (Sāhitya-darpaṇa 3.2-3).

Although Viśvanātha says that material rasa is of the nature of transcendental consciousness (cin-maya),[4] Jīva Gosvāmī specifies that Viśvanātha Kavirāja’s definition only describes material rasa.[5] The purport is that bhakti-rasa involves cit-śakti. Viśvanātha paraphrased Abhinavagupta’s interpretation of the experience of rasa.[6]

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

sa raty-ādi-vibhāvādyair (Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu).

[2]:

Durgama-saṅgamanī 2.5.112.

[3]:

rajas-tamobhyām aspṛṣṭāṃ manaḥ sattvam ihocyate ity ukta-prakāro bāhya-meyavimukhatāpādakaḥ kaścanāntaro dharmaḥ sattvam. tasyodreko rajas-tamasau abhibhūya āvirbhāvaḥ. atra ca hetus tathā-vidhālaukika-kāvyārtha-pariśīlanam, “Sattva is a particular mental attribute which makes one indifferent to external objects, by the dictum: “In this regard, a mind untouched by either rajo-guṇa or tamo-guṇa is called sattva (Sarasvatī-kaṇṭhābharaṇa 5.20).” Sattva manifests by constantly taking interest in the meanings of extraordinary poetry” (Sāhityadarpaṇa 3.2-3).

[4]:

cin-maya iti svarūpārthe mayaṭ (Sāhitya-darpaṇa 3.3); cin-mayaḥ = jñāna-svarūpaḥ (Candrakalā-ṭīkā).

[5]:

laukika-rasasyotpattiḥ svarūpam āsvāda-prakāraś caivam evocyate. yathā, “sattvodrekād akhaṇḍa-sva-prakāśānanda-cin-mayaḥ…” (Prīti-sandarbha 110).

[6]:

bhāvite ca rase tasya bhogaḥ yo’nubhava-smaraṇa-pratipattibhyo vilakṣaṇa eva druti-vistara-vikāsātmā rajas-tamo-vaicitryānuviddha-sattva-maya-nija-cit-svabhāva-nirvṛtiviśrānti-lakṣaṇaḥ para-brahmāsvāda-savidhaḥ, sa eva ca pradhāna-bhūto’ṃśaḥ siddha-rūpa iti vyutpattir nāmāpradhānam eveti. (Locana 2.4)

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