Vistara, Vistāra, Vishtara, Viṣṭara: 20 definitions
Vistara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Viṣṭara can be transliterated into English as Vistara or Vishtara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Vistar.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Vistāra (विस्तार, “expansion”) refers to one of the four classes of dhātu (stroke), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. The four dhūtas relate to different aspects of strokes in playing stringed instruments (tata).
The vistāra-dhātu includes four kinds of strokes, each having their own varieties:
- saṃghātaja (growing out of contrast),
- samavāyaja (growing out of combination),
- vistāraja (growing out of amplitude),
- anubandhaja (growing out of mere succession).
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “the rules (of vistāra) have been mentioned first as follows: the vistāra is of one stroke; the saṃghātaja and the samavāyaja consist respectively of two and three strokes. The first is of four kinds, and the second of eight kinds. According, to the special ways of their production they have different rules”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Vistāra (विस्तार).—Length or breadth. Note: Vistāra is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
1) Viṣṭara (विष्टर) refers to a “tree”, as mentioned in a list of twenty-five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Viṣṭara] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.
2) Vistāra (विस्तार) refers to the “branches” of a tree or a creeper, as mentioned in a list of four synonyms, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) verse 32.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: archive.org: Sardhatrisatikalottaragama
Viṣṭara (विष्टर) means “making a seat of darbha (on the earth)” which is prescribed as one of the operations/ preliminary ceremonies related to the kuṇḍa (“fire-pit”), according to the various Āgamas and related literature. Viṣṭara is mentioned in the Mṛgendra-āgama (Kriyā-pāda, chapter 6).
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
1) Viṣṭara (विष्टर) refers to “- 1. substitute altar (intended to replace an image of an Assessor) § 5.13. - 2. pedestal (of Vṛṣa) § 3.13.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
2) Vistara (विस्तर) [or vistāra] refers to “width § 2.5 (but see § 4.34).”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Vistara (विस्तर) refers to the expanse” (that is Kula Bhairava), according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya verse 1.34-37.—Accordingly, “Khecarī clearly manifest is the letter called Without Name (anāmā). (She is) Vāgbhava (AIṂ) (that contains) the series of letters from A to KṢa in the form of sleeping serpent. Radiant like the Wish-granting Gem, it is the expanse (vistara) that is Kula Bhairava. It is the Place (sthāna), the divine inner Place that is one’s own place (svasthāna) present on the earth. It is bliss whose body is invisible (adṛṣṭa). The pure transcendent tradition (anvaya). O goddess, this is the teaching concerning the transmission of the Divine Current”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Vistāra (विस्तार) refers to one of the four kinds of Dhātu (kind of musical composition), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra.—Dhātu is some kind of musical composition, but exactly what I have not been able to ascertain. There are 4 Dhātus: vistāra, karaṇa, āviddha, and vyañjana. Vyañjana is used for vīṇās. It has 10 subdivisions of which puṣpa is the first. This is according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 29.52ff. which Hemacandra evidently follows, but the Saṅgītaratnākara, 4.7ff., discusses dhātu from quite a different point of view. In this it seems to be vocal composition. Śruti may be used here in the technical sense of an ‘interval’.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vistara (विस्तर).—m S Prolixity, diffuseness. 2 Expansion, extension. In this sense more commonly vistāra.
--- OR ---
vistāra (विस्तार).—m (S) Expansion, extension, diffusion. 2 Extension in figurative senses;--amplification, explication, evolution, enlargement, augmentation, increment (as of a subject or topic; of a seed, fœtus, plant, animal; of riches, possessions, business). 3 Breadth as one of the three geometrical dimensions. 4 The spreading portion of a tree or shrub; the branches and foliage. 5 The progeny or descendants of: also a descendant.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
vistara (विस्तर).—m Expansion. Prolixity.
--- OR ---
vistāra (विस्तार).—m Expansion, extension. The spreading portion of a tree. The progeny of.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) A seat (a stool, chair &c.); कुशपूतं प्रवयास्तु विष्टरम् (kuśapūtaṃ pravayāstu viṣṭaram) (ādade) R.8.18; वृक्षशाखां स्वयं छित्वा विष्टराय ददौ मुदा (vṛkṣaśākhāṃ svayaṃ chitvā viṣṭarāya dadau mudā) A. Rām.4.1.32.
2) A layer, bed (as of Kuśa grass.).
3) A handful of Kuśa grass.
4) The seat. of the presiding priest (or Brahman) at a sacrifice.
5) A tree.
6) An ascetic seat made of 25 Kuśa grassshoots ('pañcāśadbhirbhaved brahmā tadardhena tu viṣṭaraḥ'); विष्टरासनयोग्यो हि कालोऽयं मामुपस्थितः (viṣṭarāsanayogyo hi kālo'yaṃ māmupasthitaḥ) Rām.2.2.28.
Derivable forms: viṣṭaraḥ (विष्टरः).
--- OR ---
1) Extension, expansion.
2) Minute details, detailed description, minute particulars; संक्षिप्तस्याप्यतोऽ- स्यैव वाक्यस्यार्थगरीयसः । सुविस्तरतरा वाचो भाष्यभूता भवन्तु मे (saṃkṣiptasyāpyato'- syaiva vākyasyārthagarīyasaḥ | suvistaratarā vāco bhāṣyabhūtā bhavantu me) Śi. 2.24; (vistareṇa, vistarataḥ, vistaraśaḥ 'in detail, at length, fully, with minute details, with full particulars'; aṅgulimudrādhigamaṃ vistareṇa śrotumicchāmi Mu.1; vistareṇātmano yogaṃ vibhūtiṃ ca janārdana (bhūyaḥ kathaya) Bg.1.18).
3) Prolixity, diffuseness; अलं विस्तरेण (alaṃ vistareṇa).
4) Abundance, quantity, multitude, number; उभे पुरवरे रम्ये विस्तरैरुपशोभिते (ubhe puravare ramye vistarairupaśobhite) Rām. 7.11.14.
5) A bed, layer.
6) A seat, stool.
7) Affectionate solicitation.
8) High degree, intensity.
9) (pl.) Great wealth, riches.
Derivable forms: vistaraḥ (विस्तरः).
--- OR ---
1) Spreading, extension, expansion; प्रान्तविस्तारभाजाम् (prāntavistārabhājām) Māl.1.27.
2) Amplitude, breadth; पञ्चयोजन- विस्तारम् (pañcayojana- vistāram) Mb.14.58.39; विलोकयन्त्यो वपुरापुरक्ष्णां प्रकाम- विस्तारफलं हरिण्यः (vilokayantyo vapurāpurakṣṇāṃ prakāma- vistāraphalaṃ hariṇyaḥ) R.2.11; तत एव च विस्तारम् (tata eva ca vistāram) Bg.13.3.
3) Expanse, vastness, magnitude; मध्ये श्यामः स्तन इव भुवः शेषविस्तारपाण्डुः (madhye śyāmaḥ stana iva bhuvaḥ śeṣavistārapāṇḍuḥ) Me.18.
4) Details, full particulars; कण्वोऽपि तावच्छ्रुतविस्तारः क्रियताम् (kaṇvo'pi tāvacchrutavistāraḥ kriyatām) Ś.7.
5) The diameter of a circle.
6) A shrub.
7) The branch of a tree with new shoots.
Derivable forms: vistāraḥ (विस्तारः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Vistara (विस्तर).—(1) nt. = Sanskrit m., (great) extent: mohapaṭala-°raṃ bhinnaṃ (n. sg.) Lalitavistara 373.12 (verse); (2) m. (special application of Sanskrit; Pali vitthāra similarly used), the full text (of a cliché, or well-known passage) is to be supplied, an indication of abbreviation: vistaraḥ Divyāvadāna 428.11 (the full text meant is found in 132.20 ff.); usually instr. adv. vistareṇa, (supply) in full, Mahāvastu i. 47.16; °ṇa kāryam Divyāvadāna 377.1, the text is to be done (i.e. recited) in full; the text may be specifically named, °reṇa rākṣasīsūtraṃ (Divyāvadāna chapter 8) sarvaṃ vādyam Divyāvadāna 524.19—20; vistareṇa yāvat, (read) in full (the part here omitted) as far as… (the following words resume the text at a later point) Mahāvastu i.1.10; Divyāvadāna 381.10; 394.5; 406.19; Bodhisattvabhūmi 230.1; compare peyāla, similarly used, and vistīrṇa; (3) (= Sanskrit Lex. id.; Sanskrit viṣṭara, Māhārāṣṭrī viṭṭhara), seat: netrāṇi cābharaṇa-vāhana-vistarāṃś ca dattvā…Mahāvastu i.83.16 (verse), (Buddhas) having given away their eyes, and ornaments, vehicles, and seats; (4) in Divyāvadāna 84.4 (verse) gṛha-vistaraḥ should mean (or represent a word that means) a poor, mean house (see description 83.20 ff.): divyaṃ cāsya sudhābhaktam ayaṃ ca gṛha-vi°, suvi- ruddham iti kṛtvā jāto me hṛdi saṃśayaḥ (mss. °yam), heavenly is his nectar-food, and (yet) this is a miserable house… I suspect a corruption. But Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.83.3 agrees. Perhaps, after all, and (merely) this is the size of the house (?).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ) 1. A tree. 2. A handful of Kuśa or sacred grass. 3. A seat, a stool, a chair, a couch, &c. 4. The seat of the Brahman, either real or in effigy, as presiding at a sacrifice. 5. A bed. 6. A seat made of twenty-five straws of Kuśa grass tied up in a sheaf. E. vi before stṛ to spread, aff. ap and sa changed to ṣa .
--- OR ---
(-raḥ) A form of metre, a species of the order termed Pankti, consisting of a verse of four lines, the first and last of which consist of eight syllables each, and the second and third of twelve each. E. vi before stṛ to spread, aff. ghañ, and sa changed to ṣa .
--- OR ---
(-raḥ) 1. Spreading, expansion. 2. Prolixity, minute detail. 3. Affection or affectionate solicitation. 4. Number, assemblage. 5. Abundance, quantity. 6. A seat, a stool. 7. A bed, a layer. E. vi before stṛ to spread over or cover, aff. ap .
--- OR ---
(-raḥ) 1. Spreading, extension, diffusion. 2. Vastness, expanse. 3. Breadth, amplitude. 4. Amplification. 5. Diameter of a circle. 6. The branch of a tree with its new shoots. 7. A shrub. E. vi before stṛ to cover, aff. ghañ .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Viṣṭara (विष्टर).—i. e. vi-stṛ10 + a, m. 1. A handful of Kuśa or sacred grass, Mahābhārata 3, 1881. 2. A seat made of twenty-five straws of Kuśa grass tied up in a sheaf. 3. A layer, Mahābhārata 15, 739; a bed. 4. A couch, a seat, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 86, 15. 5. The seat of a Brahman, either real or in effigy, as presiding at a sacrifice. 6. A tree.
--- OR ---
Vistara (विस्तर).—i. e. vi-stṛ10 + a, m. 1. Spreading. 2. Prolixity, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 103. 3. Detail; instr. ºreṇa, Fully, at length,
--- OR ---
Vistāra (विस्तार).—i. e. vi-stṛ10 + a, m. 1. Spreading, extension, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 18. 2. Vastness. 3. Length, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 40, 15. 4. Detail, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 95. 5. Breadth, amplitude. 6. Amplification. 7. The diameter of a circle. 8. The branch of a tree with its new shoots.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Viṣṭara (विष्टर).—[masculine] a bunch of reed-grass etc. to sit upon.
--- OR ---
Viṣṭāra (विष्टार).—[masculine] straw (of the Barhis).
--- OR ---
Vistara (विस्तर).—[adjective] extensive. [masculine] extent, width; spreading, expanding; abundance, multitude, completeness, prolixity, specification. Instr., [ablative], vistaratas & vistaraśas [adverb] diffusely, fully, in detail.
--- OR ---
Vistāra (विस्तार).—[masculine] spreading, expansion, diffusion, specification.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Viṣṭara (विष्टर):—[=vi-ṣṭara] m. (√stṛ) anything spread out, a handful of rushes or grass for sitting on ([especially] the seat of the presiding Brāhman at a sacrifice), [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata]
2) [v.s. ...] a seat made of 25 shoots of Kuśa grass tied up in a sheaf, [Horace H. Wilson]
3) [v.s. ...] a tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) [v.s. ...] Name of a divine being reckoned among the Viśve Devāḥ, [Harivaṃśa]
5) [v.s. ...] mn. any seat or couch, chair, stool etc., [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
6) [v.s. ...] mfn. = vi-stara, extensive, wide (?) See [compound]
7) Viṣṭāra (विष्टार):—[=vi-ṣṭāra] [from vi-ṣṭara] m. a layer of grass (?), [Ṛg-veda v, 52, 10] (others ‘the far spread host, [scilicet] of the Maruts’)
8) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre (cf. next and, [Pāṇini 3-3, 34; viii, 3, 94])
9) Vistara (विस्तर):—[=vi-stara] [from vi-stṛ] mfn. extensive, long (as a story), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]
10) [v.s. ...] m. (ifc. f(ā). ; cf. vi-stāra and, [Pāṇini 3-3, 31; Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti v, 2, 41]) spreading, extension, expansion, prolixity, diffuseness, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
11) [v.s. ...] m. a multitude, number, quantity, assemblage, large company, [Manu-smṛti; Rāmāyaṇa; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.
12) [v.s. ...] becoming large or great (met. applied to the heart), [Daśakumāra-carita]
13) [v.s. ...] high degree, intensity, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
14) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) great wealth or riches, [Mahābhārata]
15) [v.s. ...] m. detail, particulars, full or detailed description, amplification (also as direction to a narrator = vistareṇa kāryam, ‘give full particulars’; reṇa ind. or rāt ind. diffusely, at length, fully, in detail; rī-√kṛ, to spread, divulge, expand), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
16) [v.s. ...] m. (ifc.) an extensive treatise, [Cūlikā-upaniṣad]
17) [v.s. ...] affectionate solicitation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [v.s. ...] a layer, bed, couch (= vi-ṣṭara), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) Vistarā (विस्तरा):—[=vi-starā] [from vi-stara > vi-stṛ] f. a [particular] Śakti, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]
20) Vistāra (विस्तार):—[=vi-stāra] [from vi-stṛ] m. (ifc. f(ā). ; cf. vi-stara) spreading, expansion, extent, width, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
21) [v.s. ...] becoming large or great (met. said of the heart), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]
22) [v.s. ...] the breadth of a circle id est. its diameter, [Colebrooke]
23) [v.s. ...] specification, detailed enumeration or description, [Yājñavalkya; Suśruta] (eṇa, diffusely, at length, [probably] [wrong reading] for vistareṇa, [Rāmāyaṇa iii, 4, 4])
24) [v.s. ...] the branch of a tree with its new shoots, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
25) [v.s. ...] a shrub, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
26) [v.s. ...] the diameter of a circle, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Viṣṭara (विष्टर):—[vi-ṣṭara] (raḥ) 1. m. A tree; handful of Kusa grass; a seat, bed.
2) Viṣṭāra (विष्टार):—(raḥ) 1. m. Name of a metre of the pankti genus.
3) Vistara (विस्तर):—[vi-stara] (raḥ) 1. m. Expanse; abundance; diffuseness; assemblage; affection; seat; bed.
4) Vistāra (विस्तार):—[vi-stāra] (raḥ) 1. m. Spreading, diffusion; amplification; width; diameter; branch with its new shoots; a shrub.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Vistāra (विस्तार) [Also spelled vistar]:—(nm) expanse, span, spread; extent; extension, elaboration; enlargement; details; volume; ~[ṇa] amplification, extension, elaboration; ~[pūrvaka/-se] extensively; in details, elaborately.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+4): Vishtarabhaj, Vishtarabrihati, Vishtarapankti, Vishtarashrava, Vishtarashravas, Vishtarashva, Vishtarastha, Vishtarottara, Vistaracandrika, Vistaradhatu, Vistaraja, Vistaraka, Vistarakena, Vistaran, Vistarana, Vistaranem, Vistarani, Vistaraniya, Vistarashanka, Vistarashas.
Ends with (+31): Abadhavistara, Ativistara, Avistara, Bahuvistara, Bhugolavistara, Chitavistara, Chittavistara, Citavistara, Cittavistara, Granthavistara, Gunavistara, Harivishtara, Hastavistara, Jaiminiyanyayamalavistara, Kampanavistara, Katantravistara, Laghulalitavistara, Lalitavistara, Lokavistara, Lolavistara.
Full-text (+1072): Vishtarashravas, Vistarin, Vistarashas, Vishtarastha, Vishtarapankti, Vishtarabrihati, Vishtarabhaj, Vaistarika, Vistarata, Vishtarashva, Granthavistara, Vishtarottara, Trinavistara, Vistarita, Simhavishtara, Vishtarashrava, Vitthara, Pushkaravishtara, Vistaratas, Purarddhavistara.
Search found 37 books and stories containing Vistara, Vistāra, Vishtara, Viṣṭara, Viṣṭāra, Vi-shtara, Vi-ṣṭara, Vi-stara, Vi-ṣṭāra, Vistarā, Vi-starā, Vi-stāra; (plurals include: Vistaras, Vistāras, Vishtaras, Viṣṭaras, Viṣṭāras, shtaras, ṣṭaras, staras, ṣṭāras, Vistarās, starās, stāras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.5.120 < [Part 5 - Permanent Ecstatic Mood (sthāyī-bhāva)]
Verse 4.2.3 < [Part 2 - Astonishment (adbhuta-rasa)]
Verse 2.5.55 < [Part 5 - Permanent Ecstatic Mood (sthāyī-bhāva)]
The Fo-Sho-Hing-Tsan-King (A Life of Buddha) (by Samuel Beal)
Lives of Buddha (14): Shin-t’ung-yaou-hi-king < [Introduction]
Lives of Buddha (10): Fang-kwang-tai-cwang-yan-king < [Introduction]
Lives of Buddha (1): Fo-pen-hing-king < [Introduction]
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Bodhisattvacharyavatara (by Andreas Kretschmar)
Text Section 173 < [Khenpo Chöga’s Oral Explanations]
Siddhanta Sangraha of Sri Sailacharya (by E. Sowmya Narayanan)