Kruddha, Kruddhā: 14 definitions

Introduction:

Kruddha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Kruddh.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kruddhā (क्रुद्धा, “angry”) refers to a specific “glance” (dṛṣṭi), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. This is a type of glance that expresses the ‘dominant state’ (sthāyibhāva) of anger (krodha). There are a total thirty-six glances defined.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Kruddhā (क्रुद्धा).—A type of glance (dṛṣṭi) expressing a dominant state (sthāyibhāva);—The rough Glance in which eyelids are motionless and drawn up, eyeballs are immobile and turned up, and the eyebrows are knitted, is called Kruddhā (angry); it is used in anger.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Kruddha (क्रुद्ध, “angry”) refers to one of the sixty defects of mantras, according to the 11th century Kulārṇava-tantra: an important scripture of the Kaula school of Śāktism traditionally stated to have consisted of 125.000 Sanskrit verses.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Śrī Devī: “For those who do japa without knowing these defects [e.g., kruddha—angry], there is no realization even with millions and billions of japa. [...] Oh My Beloved! there are ten processes for eradicating defects in Mantras as described. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kruddha (क्रुद्ध) [=Kuddha?] (Cf. Saṃkruddha) refers to “anger”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.5.—Accordingly, after Goddess Śivā (i.e., Umā/Durgā) granted a boon to Menā:—“[...] O sage, when their mutual sexual intercourse took place, Menā conceived and the child in the womb gradually grew up. She gave birth to a beautiful son Maināka who later on became the worthy recepient of the love of Nāga ladies and who later on entered into an alliance with the lord of ocean. O celestial sage, when Indra, the slayer of Vṛtra, became angry [i.e., kruddha] and began to chop off the wings of mountains, he retained his wings, nay, he did not even feel the pain of being wounded by the thunderbolt. He had good limbs. He had neat strength and prowess. He was the most important of all the mountains born of him. He too became the lord of mountains. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Kruddha (क्रुद्ध) refers to “(extremely) angry”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, “Now there lived a Brahmin called Viṣṇudatta in Navanagara. [...] He enchanted an iron stake and placed it on the head of that Nāga. The head of the Nāga burst and it felt great pain. The Nāga became extremely angry (kruddha-tara) with great fury. Then in a moment, an instant, a short time, the Nāga’s body was overcome with great pain by the intensity of swaying. Then because of this rays came forth from its body and the fields of the Brahmin were burnt. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Kruddha (क्रुद्ध) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Kruddha] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kruddha (क्रुद्ध).—a Angered, enraged.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kruddha (क्रुद्ध).—p. p.

1) Angry, provoked.

2) Fierce; cruel.

-ddham Anger.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kruddha (क्रुद्ध).—mfn.

(-ddhaḥ-ddhā-ddhaṃ) 1. Angry, wrathful. 2. Fierce, cruel. n.

(-ddhaṃ) Anger. E. krudh to be angry, kta aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kruddha (क्रुद्ध):—[from krudh] mfn. irritated, provoked, angry with ([dative case], [genitive case] [locative case], or upari or prati) on account of ([accusative] with anu, [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya]), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] fierce, cruel, [Horace H. Wilson]

3) [v.s. ...] n. anger, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kruddha (क्रुद्ध):—[(ddhaḥ-ddhā-ddhaṃ) p.] Angry; cruel.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kruddha (क्रुद्ध) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kuddha.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kruddha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kruddha (क्रुद्ध) [Also spelled kruddh]:—(a) angry, infuriated, enraged, wrathful.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kruddha (ಕ್ರುದ್ಧ):—[adjective] violently angry; full of fury or wild rage; furious.

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Kruddha (ಕ್ರುದ್ಧ):—[noun] a man in violent anger; a furious man.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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