Parigraha, Parigrāha: 23 definitions



Parigraha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Parigraha (परिग्रह).—Also परिग्रहण (parigrahaṇa). (1) acceptance, inclusion; cf. किं प्रयोजनम् (kiṃ prayojanam) | प्रत्ययार्थे परिग्रहार्थम् (pratyayārthe parigrahārtham) M.Bh. on P.III.26.1 ; (2) repetition of a Samhita word in the Pada recital, technically named वेष्टक (veṣṭaka) also; repetition of a word with इति (iti) interposed; e. g. सुप्राव्या इति सुप्रऽ अव्याः (suprāvyā iti supra' avyāḥ) Rg Veda II.13.9, अलला भवन्ती-रित्यलला (alalā bhavantī-rityalalā)Sभवन्तीः (bhavantīḥ) Rg. IV.18.6; cf. परिग्रहे-त्वनार्षान्तात् तेन वैकाक्षरीक्तात् (parigrahe-tvanārṣāntāt tena vaikākṣarīktāt) | परेषां न्यास-माचारं व्यालिस्तौ चेत्स्वरौ परौ (pareṣāṃ nyāsa-mācāraṃ vyālistau cetsvarau parau); R. Pr. III. 14. cf. also, R.Pr.XI.32,36,42.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Parigraha in Ayurveda glossary
Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Parigraha (परिग्रह):—Accounting of the individual particular food article . It indicates the individual amount of food articles in the meal plate. It is cotrast to Sarvagraha. Here it refers to the caloric value of individual food articles in the meal plate.

2) Stiffness, Restricted movement

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Parigraha in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Parigraha (परिग्रह) refers to an “enclosure” (e.g., of a house).—In the Tantrasadbhāva we find the geometric shapes related to the energies, or aspects of the one energy, that constitute the Triangle. [...] These three, along with Ambikā, can be understood as phases in the development of Kuṇḍalinī, marked by moments of the unfolding of Speech or the energy of divine Sound (nāda). The three energies can also be understood to form the sides of the Triangle as the energies of the letters, sixteen for each side, that line it and are said to be the enclosure (parigraha) of the House of the Yoginī, that is, the goddess Kubjikā. [...]”.

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context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Parigraha in Shaivism glossary
Source: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (Shaivism)

Parigraha (परिग्रह) refers to “accepted” (e.g., Śaiva teachings that were ‘accepted’ by men learned in the Veda).—Rāmakaṇṭha does not passively acknowledge the authority of the Veda. He tries to defend the validity of Śaiva teachings and deny their hitherto heretical status by invoking their ‘orthodox’ character: Śaiva teachings are legitimate because they do not contradict the Veda (vedāvirodha) and because they are accepted (parigraha) by men learned in the Veda. Rāmakaṇṭha too practises a form of religious inclusivism in the way he acknowledges the authority of the Veda not for itself, but arguably in order to make his own views and practices acceptable to what is a fundamentally brahminical society. Rāmakaṇṭha’s views are also defended and elaborated upon in the writings of Aghoraśivācārya (fl. 1157) and his disciples, who pursued the Kashmirian Saiddhāntika tradition in South India.

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context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Parigraha in Jainism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Parigraha (परिग्रह) refers to “excessive attachment to objects” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of infernal life (narakāyu) karmas. Parigraha is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Jaina Yoga

Parigraha (परिग्रह, “attachment”) is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment) and refers to:

a) abhyantara-parigraha (internal attachment) has fourteen varieties which are listed by Amṛtacandra (in his Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya 116), Somadeva, and Āśādhara among the Digambaras and by Siddhasena Gaṇin (in his commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra 7.24) among the Śvetāmbaras.

b) bahya-parigraha (external attachment) is with the ten or (in the more current enumeration) nine external objects of parigraha concerned with the (aparigraha-vrata) vow.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Parigraha (परिग्रह).—One of the two types of narakāyu (infernal life karmas);—What is meant by parigraha? Attachment to objects with a feeling that they belong to me is parigraha.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Parigraha (परिग्रह) refers to “attachment”, desisting from which is part of the fivefold vow (vrata) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.1. What is meant by possessions (parigraha)? To acquire from all directions is possession. It also means having a feeling of mine in others objects.

According to the Tattvārthasūtra 7.15, “infatuation (clinging) is attachment to possession”.—What is meant by possession (parigraha)? Attachment to any object (living or non-living) is possession. How many kinds of possessions are there? They are of two kinds namely internal possessions and external possessions.

How many types of internal possessions are there? These are fourteen types namely; delusion, anger, pride, deceit, greed, jest, liking for certain objects, dissatisfaction, sorrow, fear, disgust, and hankering after men/ women /neutral sexes. How many types of external possessions are there? Broadly it can be classified in two categories, namely possessions of living beings and possessions non-living beings. In general possessions are said to be of ten types which can be grouped in the two classes mentioned. These ten types of possessions are land, houses /buildings, gold, silver, wealth, food / cereals, male and female servants, clothes and utensils.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Parigraha.—(ML), acceptance. Note: parigraha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parigraha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parigraha (परिग्रह).—m S Dependents, a family, train, or retinue. 2 In law. Taking possession (of any unappropriated thing, as land, water, game). 3 Accepting or taking. 4 Gathering or collecting.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parigraha (परिग्रह).—m Departments. In law. Taking possession.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parigraha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parigraha (परिग्रह).—1 Seizing, holding, taking, grasping; आसनरज्जुपरिग्रहे (āsanarajjuparigrahe) R.9.46; शङ्कापरिग्रहः (śaṅkāparigrahaḥ) Mu.1 'taking or entertaining a doubt'.

2) Surrounding, enclosing, encircling, fencing round.

3) Putting on, wrapping round (as a dress); मौलिपरिग्रहः (mauliparigrahaḥ) R.18.38.

4) Assuming, taking; मानपरिग्रहः (mānaparigrahaḥ) Amaru.97; विवाहलक्ष्मी° (vivāhalakṣmī°) U.4.

5) Receiving, taking, accepting, acceptauce; भौमो मुनेः स्थानपरिग्रहोऽयम् (bhaumo muneḥ sthānaparigraho'yam) R.13.36; अर्ध्यपरिग्रहान्ते (ardhyaparigrahānte) 7;12.16; Ku. 6.53; विद्यापरिग्रहाय (vidyāparigrahāya) Māl.1; so आसनपरिग्रहं करोतु देवः (āsanaparigrahaṃ karotu devaḥ) U.3 'your majesty will be pleased to take a seat or sit down'.

6) Possessions, property, belongings; त्यक्तसर्वपरिग्रहः (tyaktasarvaparigrahaḥ) Bg. 4.21; R.15.55; V.4.26.

7) Taking in marriage, marriage; नवे दारपरिग्रहे (nave dāraparigrahe) U.1.19; Māl.5.27; असंशयं क्षत्रपरिग्रह- क्षमा (asaṃśayaṃ kṣatraparigraha- kṣamā) Ś.1.22; न हि गणयति क्षुद्रो जन्तुः परिग्रहफल्गुताम् (na hi gaṇayati kṣudro jantuḥ parigrahaphalgutām) Bh.1.9.

8) A wife, queen; प्रयतपरिग्रहद्वितीयः (prayataparigrahadvitīyaḥ) R.1.95,92;9.14; 11.33;16.8; Ś.5.28,31; परिग्रहबहुत्वेऽपि (parigrahabahutve'pi) Ś.3.19; प्राप श्रियं मुनिवरस्य परिग्रहोऽसौ (prāpa śriyaṃ munivarasya parigraho'sau) Rām. Ch.

9) Taking under one's protection, favouring; धन्याः स्मो वः परिग्रहात् (dhanyāḥ smo vaḥ parigrahāt) U.7. 11; M.1.13; कुर्वन्ति पाण्डवपरिग्रहमेव पौराः (kurvanti pāṇḍavaparigrahameva paurāḥ) Pañch.1.2.

1) Attendants, followers, train, retinue, suite; परिग्रहेण सर्वेण कोषेण च महीयसा (parigraheṇa sarveṇa koṣeṇa ca mahīyasā) Śiva.B.8.4.

11) A household, family, members of a family.

12) The seraglio or household of a king, harem.

13) Anything received, a present; राजपरिग्रहोऽयम् (rājaparigraho'yam) Ś.1.

14) Assent, consent.

15) Taking possession of, acquiring.

16) A claim.

17) Entertaining, honouring, receiving (a guest &c.). Mb.1.195.1.

18) An entertainer.

19) Assistance.

2) A husband.

21) Respect, reverence.

22) Grace, favour.

23) Comprehension, understanding.

24) Undertaking, performing.

25) Subjugation; धर्षितो मत्परिग्रहः (dharṣito matparigrahaḥ) Mb.12.32.55.

26) Dominion.

27) Punishment.

28) Connection, relation.

29) Summing up, totality.

3) A house, residence.

31) Removing, taking away.

32) A curse; निर्मुक्तनिष्ठुरपरिग्रहपाशबन्धः (nirmuktaniṣṭhuraparigrahapāśabandhaḥ) Rām. Ch. (cf. patnīparijanādānamūlaśāpāḥ parigrahāḥ Ak.).

33) (In Ved. gram.) The double mention of a word both before and after इति (iti).

34) The form which precedes इति (iti).

35) Root, origin.

36) The eclipse of the sun or moon.

37) An oath.

38) The rear of an army.

39) Name of Viṣṇu.

4) The body; आश्रयन्त्याः स्वभावेन मम पूर्वपरिग्रहम् (āśrayantyāḥ svabhāvena mama pūrvaparigraham) Mb.12. 32.57. (com. svabhāvena cittena mama parigrahaṃ śarīraṃ āśrayantyāḥ).

41) Administration; राज्यपरिग्रहः (rājyaparigrahaḥ) Mb.12.32.51.

Derivable forms: parigrahaḥ (परिग्रहः).

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Parigrāha (परिग्राह).—The fencing round of the sacrificial altar.

Derivable forms: parigrāhaḥ (परिग्राहः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Parigraha (परिग्रह).—nt. (Sanskrit only masc.), property: Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 85.4 (verse), here predicate noun to subj. gṛham, neut.; perhaps by assimilation of gender; (may be m. or nt.,) (saddharma- puṇḍarīkaṃ nāma) dharmaparyāyaṃ…sarvabuddha- parigrahaṃ…saṃprakāśayām āsa Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 181.6, perhaps which is the property of all the Buddhas (one Chin. translation(s) protected, guarded, or preserved by the Buddhas); vaipulya- sūtrāṇa parigrahe Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 98.3 (verse), in the acquisition of the… (substantially so used in Sanskrit).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parigraha (परिग्रह).—m.

(-haḥ) 1. Acceptance, taking. 2. Assent, consent. 3. Dependents, a family, a train or retinue. 4. A wife. 5. Root, origin. 6. An oath. 7. The reserve of an army, a corps posted with the general, four hundred yards in the rear of the line: see pratigraha. 8. Maintaining, observing. 9. Continued possession, continuance. 10. Subjugation, making subservient or subject. 11. Connexion, concern, business or interference with. 12. Comprehension. 13. The sun near the moon’s node. 14. Surrounding. 15. Putting on (as a dress). 16. Marriage. 17. An epithet of Vishnu. E. pari intensitive prefix, or round about, &c. and graha taking, ap aff.

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Parigrāha (परिग्राह).—m.

(-haḥ) A mound or place prepared for a burnt offering at a ceremony which requires three or four such places, placed to the north or east, &c. as uttaraparigrāha, purbbaparigrāha. E. pari about, grah to take, aff. ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parigraha (परिग्रह).—[pari-grah + a], m. 1. Embracing, [Pañcatantra] iv. [distich] 7. 2. Putting on, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 18, 37. 3. Number, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 124. 4. Seizing, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 9, 46; taking, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 67, 1. 5. Selecting, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] 14, 23. 6. Accepting, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 28, 4. 7. Possession, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 43, 6. 8. Property, Mahābhārata 3, 13995. 9. Admission, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 196. 10. Marrying, marriage, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 326. 11. A wife, 9, 42. 12. A husband, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 46, 26 Gorr. 13. Undertaking, committing, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 32. 14. Honouring, Rām 2, 70, 20 Gorr. 15. Grace, favour, 4, 23, 5. 16. Dominion, Mārk. P. 53, 8. 17. Claim, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 7264. 18. Dependents, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 57; retinue; family, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 175. 19. An abode, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 8909. 20. Root, origin, Mahābhārata 3, 1292.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parigraha (परिग्रह).—[masculine] surrounding, enclosing (lit. & [figuratively]); putting on, assuming; taking or holding together, seizing, grasping; taking, receiving, getting, obtaining; acquisition, possession (adj. —° possessed of); undertaking, incurring, occupation or business with ([locative] or —°); taking to, i.e. favouring, revering; honour, grace; taking to wife, marrying; wife (also coll.), household, family, attendants etc.

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Parigrāha (परिग्राह).—[masculine] enclosure (of the Vedi).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parigraha (परिग्रह):—[=pari-graha] [from pari-grah] m. (ifc. f(ā). ) laying hold of on all sides, surrounding, enclosing, fencing round ([especially] the Vedi or sacrificial altar by means of three lines or furrows), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] wrapping round, putting on (a dress etc.), assuming (a form etc.), [Kāvya literature]

3) [v.s. ...] comprehending, summing up, sum, totality, [Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti]

4) [v.s. ...] taking, accepting, receiving or anything received, 2 gift or present, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] getting, attaining, acquisition, possession, property (ifc. ‘being possessed of or furnished with’), [ib.]

6) [v.s. ...] household, family, attendants, retinue, the seraglio of a prince, [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] a house, abode, [Harivaṃśa]

8) [v.s. ...] root, origin, foundation, [Mahābhārata]

9) [v.s. ...] admittance (into one’s house), hospitable reception, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Kāraṇḍa-vyūha]

10) [v.s. ...] taking (a wife), marrying, marriage, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

11) [v.s. ...] a wife (also collect.), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

12) [v.s. ...] choice, selection, [ib.]

13) [v.s. ...] understanding, conception, [Pāṇini [Scholiast or Commentator]]

14) [v.s. ...] undertaking, beginning, commission or performance of, occupation with, [Manu-smṛti; Rāmāyaṇa; Harivaṃśa]

15) [v.s. ...] homage, reverence, grace, favour, help, assistance, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

16) [v.s. ...] dominion, control (ifc. ‘dependent on, subject to’), [Rāmāyaṇa; Varāha-mihira; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

17) [v.s. ...] force, constraint, punishment (opp. to anu-graha), [Rāmāyaṇa]

18) [v.s. ...] claim on, relation to, concern with ([locative case]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

19) [v.s. ...] (in [Vedic or Veda] gram.) the double mention of a word both before and after iti

20) [v.s. ...] the form which precedes iti, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

21) [v.s. ...] a curse, imprecation, oath, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) [v.s. ...] an eclipse of the sun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) [v.s. ...] the rear or reserve of an army, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([varia lectio] prati-gr)

24) Parigrāha (परिग्राह):—[=pari-grāha] [from pari-grah] m. the surrounding or fencing round of the Vedi or sacrificial altar with three lines or furrows, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parigraha (परिग्रह):—[pari-graha] (haḥ) 1. m. Acceptance; assent; the reserve of an army; a wife; a family; root; oath; sun near the moon’s node.

2) Parigrāha (परिग्राह):—[pari-grāha] (haḥ) 1. m. A mound prepared for a burnt-offering.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parigraha (परिग्रह) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Pariggaha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parigraha in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parigraha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parigraha (परिग्रह) [Also spelled parigrah]:—(nm) possessions; family, retinue; encircling; engulfing; seizing, apprehension.

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