The Brahmanda Purana

by G.V. Tagare | 1958 | 319,243 words | ISBN-10: 8120838246 | ISBN-13: 9788120838246

This page describes the progeny of rudra: birth of bhrigu and others which is Chapter 9 of the English translation of the Brahmanda Purana: one of the oldest puranas including common Puranic elements such as cosmogony, genealogy, ethics, geography and yoga. Traditionally, the Brahmandapurana is said to consist of 12,000 verses metrical Sanskrit verses.

Chapter 9 - The progeny of Rudra: birth of Bhṛgu and others

1. By means of his mind, the lord then created five Kartṛs (doers or agents of creation). viz.: Rudra. Dharma, Manas (mind), Ruci and Ākṛti.

2. All these are mighty-armed and they are the causes of the sustenance of the subjects. When the medicinal herbs decline again and again, it is Rudra who sustains them and revives them.

3-4. By those who seek benefits, the Lord was well worshipped with whatever fruits and medicinal herbs were available (to them). He (that God) is called Tryambaka[1] as in times of (impending?) extinction of medicinal herbs etc., sacrifice is offered to him by sages with three Kāpālas (plates or potsherds containing) of cakes sacred to him (Rudra).

5-6. It has already been mentioned by me that the three Vedic metres, Gāyatrī, Tṛṣṭup and Jagatī are the sources of origin of the Ambakas (i.e. Kapālas) along with the Vanaspati (i.e. the medicinal herbs). These three metres join together and assume unity (i.e. when they are used in Mantras at the time of the consecration of the Puroḍāśa offerings). That Puroḍāśa is infused with the virility of each of these mantras. Hence the Puroḍāśa is remembered as Trikapāla (having three vessels to hold it). Therefore the Puroḍāśa is Tryambaka as well. Hence the lord (to whom this Puroḍāśa is offered) is remembered as Tryambaka.

7. Dharma sustains all the subjects. Manas is remembered as that which caused knowledge. Ākṛti is the form of splendid beauty. Ruci is remembered as one who inculcates Śraddhā (faith).

8-9. Thus these protectors of the subjects are the causes of the sustenance of the subjects.

Even as he continued the creative activity for the sake of the multiplication of the subjects, those created subjects did not increase at all by any means. Therefore, he racked his intellect that should arrive at a decisive conclusion.

10. Then he saw the Tamas element moving within himself. Thanks to its own action, it had abandoned Rajas and Sattva and was existing by itself.

11. Thereupon, due to that sorrow, the lord of the universe felt grieved. He pushed out the Tamas element and afterwards covered it with Rajas.

12. That Tamas pushed out by him gave birth to a pair. On account of his unrighteous conduct, Hiṃsā (Violence) and Śoka (grief) were born.

13. When that pair in the form of Varaṇa (covering up), was born, the lord became delighted. He resorted to this.

14. From a half of the body of the lord who was delighted within himself thus, a woman conducive to great welfare, and charming and fascinating to all living beings, came out.[2]

15. That beautiful looking lady was indeed created from Prakṛti by him (as he was) desirous (of progeny) and was called Śatarūpā. And she was again and again called so.

16. It was then that the subjects were born of that noble-souled being in the middle of Tretā yuga as has already been mentioned by me to you in section-I Prakriyāpāda.

17. When those subjects created by that intelligent self-possessed being did not increase in number, he created other mental sons similar to himself.

18-19. He created these nine mental sons[3] viz.: Bhṛgu, Aṅgiras, Marīci, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Dakṣa, Atri and Vasiṣṭha. In the Purāṇa, these are decisively called the “nine Brahmās” (because they were like) Brahmā (the creator) unto all beings of controlled souls, having the Ātman as their source of origin.

20. Then Brahmā created again Dharma who was delightful and pleasant unto all living beings; as well as the Prajāpati Ruci. These two were the eldest of all ancient ones.

21. He created from his intellect, Dharma who was delightful and pleasant unto all living beings. He who is named Ruci was born of the mind of (the lord of) unmanifest birth.

22-24. Sage Bhṛgu was born of the heart of the lord whose source of origin was water. Brahmā created Dakṣa from his vital breath and Marīci from his eyes. He created Rudra (also known as) Nīlalohita in the form of Abhimāna (prestige, honour). He created aṅgiras from his head and Atri from the ears. From his Udāna (?) vital breath (prāṇa) he created Pulastya and Pulaha from Vyāna. Vasiṣṭha was born of Samāna and he created Kratu from Apāna.

25. Thus these twelve are remembered as the sons of Brahmā at the beginning (of creation) of subjects. Dharma was the first-born among those Devatās.

26. Bhrgu and others who had been created are remembered as Brahmarṣis (Brahminical sages). They are the ancient house-holders and Dharma (virtue) was initially established by them.

27-28a. In the Kalpa, these twelve give birth to subjects again and again. Their twelve races arc divine and equipped with Divine qualities. They perform holy rites and have (i.e. procreate) progeny. They are adorned (honoured) by great sages.

28b-29. When the progeny created by Dharma and other great sages (who themselves) had been created (by him) did not multiply, the intelligent and self-possessed lord became slightly enveloped by Tamas and afflicted by grief.

30. Just as Brahmā was enveloped by Tamas elements, so also in the case of his sons too another Tamas element issued forth.

31-32. Adharma is in the nature of return flow (?) and Hiṃsā (Violence) is inauspicious by nature. Then when he was obstructed and the nature of the covering was manifest, Brahmā discarded his own shining physical body. After dividing his own body into two, he became a man by one half.

33. By (another) half he became a woman and she was Śatarūpā. She was the Prakṛti,[4] the mother of all living beings (and manifested thus) because the lord was creating out of desire.

34-36. With her grandeur, she pervaded the firmament and the earth and remained steady. That was the former body of Brahmā who stayed enveloping the firmament. The half that was created as a woman became Śatarūpā. That divine lady performed a very difficult penance for a hundred thousand years and obtained Puruṣa of brilliant fame as her husband. Indeed, he is called Manu, the Puruṣa, the earlier son of the self-born lord.

37-38a. Seventy-one sets of four Yugas constitute what is called his Manvantara (reign of a Manu). After obtaining as h is wife, Śatarūpā who was not born of any womb, the Puruṣa sported with her. Hence it is called Rati (sexual dalliance).

38b-40. The first union took place in the beginning of the Kalpa. Brahmā created Virāṭ (the immense Being). That Virāṭ became the Puruṣa. He, accompanied by Śatarūpā, is remembered as Vairāja, Manu and Samrāṭ (Emperor). That Puruṣa, Manu, the Vairāja created subjects (begot progeny). From Vairāja, the Puruṣa, Śatarūpā gave birth to two heroic sons.

41. They were Priyavrata and Uttānapāda. These two sons were the most excellent sons that persons possessing sons could expect. (She gave birth to) two daughters also of great fortune. From them these subjects were born.

42. They were the divine lady named Ākūti and auspicious lady Prasūti. Boíh of them were auspicious. The lordly sou of the self-born lord gave Prasūti to Dakṣa.

43. He gave Ākūti to Ruci, the Prajāpati. An auspicious pair was born of Ākūti as the progeny of Ruci, the mental son (of Brahmā).

44. They were the twins Yajña and Dakṣiṇā. Twelve sons were born to Yajña and Dakṣiṇā.

45. They were the Devas named Yāmas in the Svāyambhuva Manvantara. They were the sons of twins, viz: Yajña and Dakṣiṇā. Hence they are remembered as Yāmas.[5]

46. (?) Two groups of Brahmā are remembered viz: Ajitas and Śukras. The Yāmas who have the appellation Dīvaukas (heaven-dwellers) circumambulated the former.

47. Lord Dakṣa begot of Prasūti, the daughter of Svāyambhuva Manu, twenty-four daughters who became mothers of the world.

48-49a. All of them were highly fortunate. All of them were lotus-eyed. All of them were wives of Yogins and all of them were Yogic mothers. All of them were expounders of Brahman and all of them were the mothers of the universe.

49b-50. Lord Dharma accepted (the following) thirteen daughters of Dakṣa as his wives, viz: Śraddhā, Lakṣmī, Dhṛti, Tuṣṭi, Puṣṭi, Medhā, Kriyā, Buddhi, Lajjā, Vasu, Śānti, Siddhi, and Kīrti as the thirteenth.

51-52. These door-ways of his (creative activity) were ordained by the self-born lord. The others that remained were the eleven younger daughters of beautiful eyes, viz: Satī,. Khyāti, Sambhūti, Smṛti, Prīti, Kṣamā, Sannati, Anasūyā, Ūrjā, Svāhā and Svadhā.

53-54. Other great sages accepted them (as wives). They were Rudra, Bhṛgu, Marīci, Aṅgiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, Atri, Vasiṣṭha, Agni and Pitṛs. He gave (in marriage) Satī to Bhava and Khyāti to Bhṛgu.

55. To Marīci, he gave Sambhūti, and Smṛti to Aṅgiras To Pulastya he gave Prīti and Kṣamā to Pulaha.

56. To Kratu, he gave Sannati and the (daughter) named Anasūyā to Atri. He gave Ūrjā to Vasiṣṭha and Svāhā to Agni (the fire-god).

57-58. He gave Svadhā to the Pitṛs. Listen from me their children. All these were highly fortunate ladies; their subjects (children) obediently followed them in all Manvantaras till the time of ultimate annihilation (of the world). Śraddhā gave birth to Kāma and Darpa (arrogance) is remembered as the son of Lakṣmī.[6]

59. Niyama (Restraint) was the son of Dhṛti (Courage). Santoṣa (Contentment) is mentioned as the son of Tuṣṭi (Satisfaction). Lābha (gain) was the son of Puṣṭi (Nourishment) and Śruta (Learning) was the son of Medhā (Intellect).

60. Dama (Restraint of sense-organs) and Śama (Restraint of the mind) are mentioned as the sons of Kriyā (Activity). Bodha (Understanding) and Apramāda (Absence of Errors) were the sons of Buddhi (Intellect).

61. Vinaya (Modesty) was the son of Lajjā (Bashfulness). Vyavasāya (Enterprise) was the son of Vasu. Kṣema (Welfare) was the son of Śānti (Tranquility). Sukha (Happiness) was born of Siddhi (Achievement).

62. Yaśas (Fame) was the son of Kīrti (Renown)—These were the sons of Dharma. Kāma’s (Love’s) son Harṣa (Delight) was born of the noble lady Siddhi (Achievement).

63. Through Adharma (Evil), Hiṃsā (Violence) gave birth to the two children Nikṛti (Dishonesty, Wickedness) and Anṛta (Falsehood).

64. Two twins were born of Nikṛti and Anṛta viz Bhaya (Fear), Naraka (Hell), Māyā (Illusion) and Vedanā (Pain).

65. Through Maya, Māyā gave birth to Mṛtyu (Death) that takes away all living beings. Then Duḥkha (Misery) was born of Vedanā through Raurava (Hell).

66. Vyādhi (Sickness) gave birth to Jarā (Old age), Śoka (Grief), Krodha (Anger) and Asūyā (Jealousy) through Mṛtyu. All these are remembered as characteristics of Adharma (Evil) with misery as the ultimate end.

67. Their wife, son,—everyone is remembered as deathless.

Thus this Tāmasa creation took birth with Adharma as the controlling one.

68. Nīlalohita was commanded by Brahmā, “Beget progeny”. He contemplated on his wife Satī and created sons.[7]

69. They were neither superior to him nor inferior. They were his mental sons on a par with himself. He created thousands and thousands of such children wearing elephant hides.

70-80. All of them had these characteristics and features: All of them were on a par with himself in form, brilliance, strength and learning. They were tawny-coloured. They had quivers and matted hair. They were dark blue-red in complexion. They were devoid of tufts. They had no hairs. They were killers with eyes (by casting a look). They had Kapālas (skills) with them. They had huge beautiful forms and hideous cosmic forms. Some occupied chariots and wore coats of mail. They were defenders wearing armours. They had hundreds and thousands of arms. They were able to go through the firmament, earth and heaven; they had big heads, eight fangs, two tongues and three eyes. (Some were) eaters of rice, (some) eaters of flesh, (some) drinkers of ghee and (some of) Soma juice. (Some) had penises of great size; fierce bodies and blue necks. Some had fierce fury. They had quivers and armours, bows, swords and leather shields. Some were seated; some were running. Some yawning and some occupying (seats). Some were reciting (the Vedas), some performing Japas, Yogic practices and meditations. Some were blazing. Some were showering, some shining and some smoking. Some were enlightened. Some were wakeful, alert and enlightened. Some had the property of Brahmā (?). Some had the vision of Brahman. They had blue necks and thousand eyes. All of them were walking over the earth. They were invisible to all living beings. They had great Yogic power, virility and splendour. They were shouting and running. On seeing Rudra creating these excellent Devas with these qualities and features, in thousands even before the expiry of the period of a Yāma, Brahmā told him—“Do not create subjects like these. The subjects should not be created on a par with oneself or superior to oneself; welfare unto you. Create other subjects vulnerable to death. Subjects devoid of death do not begin to perform holy-rites”.

81. Thus addressed, he (Rudra) said to him (Brahmā): “I will not create progeny subject to death and old age. Prosperity unto you. I am standing by (i.e. cease to procreate); you please create, O lord.

82. These hideous and bluish-red coloured subjects who had been created by me in thousands and thousands, have come out of my own self.

83. These Devas will be known by the name of Rudras. They are highly powerful. Those Rudrāṇīs are well-known over the earth and firmament.

84. Enumerated in the (Veḍic text) Śatarudra, they will become worthy of Yajñas. All of them will partake of the Yajñas along with the groups of Devas.

85. Till the end of the Yuga, they will remain, on being worshipped along with those Devas born of Cchandas (Vedas or—born as they are pleased) in the Manvantaras.

86. On being told thus by Mahādeva, that lord Brahmā, the delighted lord of subjects replied to the terrible Rudra.

87. “O lord welfare unto you. Let it be as spoken by you.”

When it was permitted by Brahmā, everything happened that way.

88. Thenceforth, the lord Sthānu did not beget subjects. He remained celibate till the ultimate annihilation.

89-91a. He is remembered by learned man as Sthāṇu[8] because it was said by him thus—“I am standing by”. All these qualities are present in Śaṅkara—viz: knowledge, penance, truthfulness, glorious prosperity, virtue, detachment and comprehension. of the self. He excels all the Devas and sages along with the Asuras, by means of his splendour. Hence the lord is remembered as Mahādeva[9] (Great god).

91b-92. He excels the Devas through his glorious prosperity, the great Asuras through his power, all the sages through his knowledge and all the living beings through Yoga. It is thus that Mahādeva is bowed to by all the Devas. After creating the subjects devoid of enterprise, he refrained from creation.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Tryambaka means ‘one having three eyes’ and is an epithet of Śiva. Here it is identified with Puroḍāśa.

[2]:

Cf. Manu 1.32.

[3]:

Cf. Manu 1.35 also VP.I.8.4-6.

[4]:

The Sāṅkhya pair of Prakṛti and Puruṣa are represented here as Śatarūpā and Manu. The terms Vairāja, Puruṣa, Manu (and Samrāṭ) are used as synonyms.

[5]:

Derivation of Yāma, the gods of the Svāyambhuva Manvantara.

[6]:

VV. 58-67 personify virtues and vices and state their parentage. Out of these VV.63-68 describe the Tāmasa creation.

[7]:

VV. 68-80 describe the Raudrī Sṛṣṭi (creation by Rudra) and he was asked by Brahmā to stop creation as he was procreating immortal progeny and Rudra complied.

[8]:

Derivation of Sthāṇu.

[9]:

Derivation of Mahādeva.

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