Kritrima, Kṛtrima, Kritrama: 22 definitions

Introduction:

Kritrima means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kṛtrima can be transliterated into English as Krtrima or Kritrima, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Kratrim.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Kṛtrima (सहज, “artificial”) is a variation of Silver (rajata), which is “obtained” from mercurial transformation, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra. Silver itself is a metal (dhātu/loha) from the sub-group named Śuddhaloha.

Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara, chapter 4-5

Kṛtrima silver (artificial): It is prepared from the transformation of tin metal through the vedha-process of mercury. Such silver is known as Kṛtrima silver. That mean the silver obtained from the transformation of lower metals through the effect of mercury is considered as Kṛtrima (artificial) silver.

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Shodhganga: The Vyavaharadhyaya of the Yajnavalkyasmriti

Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम) refers to one of the twelve types of sons (putra) defined in the Vyavahārādhyāya of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti verse 2.128-132.—Kṛtrima is a son, whom a man himself adopts or makes his son. It is explained that the son is adopted by the man himself, who being desirous of a male issue, entices by the show of money and land, either an orphan, or if parents are living, with their consent only.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम).—Artificial; technical, as opposed to derivative. In grammar, the term कृत्रिम (kṛtrima) means 'technical sense', as contrasted with अकृत्रिम (akṛtrima) 'ordinary sense'; cf. कृत्रिमाकृत्रिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः (kṛtrimākṛtrimayoḥ kṛtrime kāryasaṃpratyayaḥ) Par. Śek. Pari. 9.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम) refers to “false objects” (viz., of enjoyment), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as the Goddess said: “In (this my) eighth birth having enjoyed pleasure (bhoga), with me, this is the debt that remains. We have mutually enjoyed the false object of enjoyment [i.e., kṛtrimakṛtrimaṃ māyayā bhogyaṃ bhuktaṃ] as it is (in the world and created) by Māyā. In this, the eighth age of Māyā, there is no return anymore”.

2) Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम) refers to “artificial sound”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Sound (nāda) has arisen from Resonance (dhvani) and is said to be of five kinds as 1) subtle (sūkṣma), 2) very subtle (susūkṣma), 3) manifest (vyakta), 4) unmanifest (avyakta), and 5) artificial (kṛtrima). It is placed within the half-portion of the Self, in the lower place. From there it brings about emanation, which is of many forms. The subtle bliss is in Udyāna. That which is within the very subtle is in Jālākhya. Similarly, the unmanifest is in Pūrṇākhya, the manifest is in Kāmākhya. The artificial (sound) is (brought about) by the conjunction (of objects) and is located in space (ākāśa). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Kritrima in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम) refers to “dolls (for playing with)” [?], according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.7.—Accordingly, after the Goddess (Umā/Śivā) incarnated as Pārvatī by becoming the daughter of Menā:—“[...] Just as a lamp in the house is praised by leaping flames of brilliance, just as the path of the good by the Gaṅgā, so also the lord of mountains was respected on account of Pārvatī. During her childhood, the goddess played frequently on the sandy banks of the Gaṅgā in the middle of her playmates with balls and dolls [i.e., kṛtrima]. [...]”.

2) Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम) refers to an “unreal friend”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.17 (“The dialogue between Indra and Kāmadeva”).—Accordingly, as Kāma said to Brahmā: “Why do you say like this? I make no answer to you. A helping unreal friend [i.e., upakṛt-kṛtrima] is neither seen nor spoken of in the world. He who speaks much at the time of adversity will not turn out much. Yet, O king, my lord, I shall say something. Please listen. O dear friend, I shall cause the downfall of that enemy of yours who is performing a severe penance to usurp your position. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम) refers to “perfumes”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 15) (“On the nakṣatras—‘asterisms’”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Those who are born on the lunar day of Puṣya will be dealers in barley, wheat, rice, sugar-canes and in the produce of the forest; will be either ministers or rulers; will live by water; will be Sādhus and will delight in sacrificial rites. Those who are born on the lunar day of Āśleṣā, will be dealers in perfumes (kṛtrima), roots, fruits, reptiles, serpents and poison; will delight in cheating others of their property; will be dealers in pod grains and will be skilled in medicine of every sort. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम), name for a type of durga (communal settlement in the form of a fort).

Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Kritrima in India is the name of a plant defined with Altingia excelsa in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Liquidambar altingiana Blume.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Journal of the Arnold Arboretum (1977)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Verhandelingen van het bataviaasch genootschap van kunsten en wetenschappen (1790)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kritrima, for example chemical composition, extract dosage, side effects, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṛtrima (कृत्रिम).—n (S) Falsity, guile, deceit.

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kṛtrima (कृत्रिम).—a (S) Made, factitious, artificial.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kṛtrima (कृत्रिम).—n Guile, falsity. a Made, artificial.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम).—a. [kṛtyā nirmitam; cf. P.IV.4.2]

1) Artificial, fictitious, not spontaneous, acquired; °मित्रम्, °शत्रुः (mitram, °śatruḥ) &c.; न स्यन्दनैस्तुलितकृत्रिमभक्तिशोभाः (na syandanaistulitakṛtrimabhaktiśobhāḥ) R.13.75;14.17.

2) Adopted (as a child); see below.

3) Adorned, ornamented; तदप्रमेयप्रतिकारकृत्रिमं कृतं स्वयं साध्विति विश्वकर्मणा (tadaprameyapratikārakṛtrimaṃ kṛtaṃ svayaṃ sādhviti viśvakarmaṇā) Rām.5.8.2.

-maḥ, °putraḥ an artificial or adopted son; one of the 12 kinds of sons recognised by the Hindu law; he is a grown up son adopted without the consent of his natural parents; °putrikā adopted daughter; अद्यैव नर्मणा सा हि कृतकृत्रिमपुत्रिका (adyaiva narmaṇā sā hi kṛtakṛtrimaputrikā) Kathāsaritsāgara 24.29; cf. कृत्रिमः स्यात्स्वयं कृतः (kṛtrimaḥ syātsvayaṃ kṛtaḥ) Y.2.131; cf. also Manusmṛti 9.169.

2) Incense. olibanum.

3) Benzoin.

-mam 1 A kind of salt.

2) A kind of perfume.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) Made, factitious, artificial, the reverse of what is naturally or spontaneously produced. m.

(-maḥ) 1. Incense, olibanum. 2. An adopted son, used for kṛtrimaputra. n.

(-maṃ) A kind of salt, the common Bit Noban or Bit Lavan. E. kṛ to make, ktri Unadi affix, and mam added.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम).—[kṛ + trima], I. adj., f. . 1. Factitious, the reverse of what is natural, [Pañcatantra] 110, 16. 2. Feigned, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 192, 5 (cf. ārti). 3. Adopted, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 169. 4. False, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 247. Ii. m. An adopted son, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 159.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम).—[adjective] artificial, factitious, adopted (putra): unnatural, accidental; false, feigned.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम):—[from kṛ] a mf(ā)n. made artificially, factitious, artificial, not naturally or spontaneously produced, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] falsified, [Yājñavalkya ii, 247; Kathāsaritsāgara]

3) [v.s. ...] not natural, adopted (as a son), [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya ii, 131; Mahābhārata; Kathāsaritsāgara]

4) [v.s. ...] assumed, simulated

5) [v.s. ...] not necessarily connected with the nature of anything, adventitious, [Pañcatantra]

6) [v.s. ...] m. incense, olibanum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] an adopted son, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] n. a kind of salt (the common Bit Noben, or Bit Lavan [viḍ-lavaṇa], obtained by cooking), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] a kind of perfume (= javadi), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] sulphate of copper (used as a collyrium), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Kṛtrimā (कृत्रिमा):—[from kṛtrima > kṛ] f. a channel, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

12) Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम):—[from kṛtnu] b etc. See, [ib.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम):—[(maḥ-mā-maṃ) a.] Artificial. 1. m. Incense; adopted son. n. A kind of salt, called Bit-lavan.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Koṭṭima.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kritrima in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kritrima in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kṛtrima (कृत्रिम) [Also spelled kratrim]:—(a) artificial; synthetical; pseudo; spurious; fictitious; sham; affected; laboured; —[garbhādhāna] artificial insemination ; ~[] artificiality, sham, affectedness.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kṛtrima (ಕೃತ್ರಿಮ):—

1) [adjective] not natural; made by or resulting from art or artifice; constructed, contrived.

2) [adjective] affected; insincere; feigned; factitious; sham.

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Kṛtrima (ಕೃತ್ರಿಮ):—

1) [noun] an ingenious expedient; a cunning trick; an underhand, deceitful plan; an artful or sly trickery.

2) [noun] he who deceives; a cheat.

3) [noun] the practices of a witch or witches, esp. the use of magic or sorcery; the exercise of supernatural power supposed to be possessed by a person in league with the devil or evil spirits; witchcraft.

4) [noun] a boy who has been adopted without the permission of his parents by another person.

5) [noun] a kind ofrtificial salt.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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