Sanskrit sources of Kerala history

by Suma Parappattoli | 2010 | 88,327 words

This study deals with the history of Kerala based on ancient Sanskrit sources, such as the Keralamahatmyam. The modern state known as Keralam or Kerala is situated on the Malabar Coast of India. The first chapter of this study discusses the historical details from the inscriptions. The second chapter deals with the historical points from the Mahatm...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

3. Mushakavamsa (or Mushika-vamsa) by Atula

Poet Atula’s Mushika-vamsa [Mushikavamsa][1] is an epic poem, Mahakavya, dealing with the history of the Musika dynasty that ruled over the kingdom of Ezhimala known by the alternative name of Kolathunadu[2] in 15 cantos. Atula[3] was a court poet of the Musaka king, Srikantha alias Rajadharma. No further informations as to who Atula was, either from this work as from other works as far as is known. Except perhaps from the identification that Ullur[4] makes of king Srikantha with Kantan Karivarman who was defeated by Rajendra Chola I. In that case Srikantha must have lived during the time of Rajendra Chola I ie. 1012 AD-1043. Poet Atula also must have lived during this time. It may also be mentioned here that an Atula is mentioned in the list of kings which the works gives.

This poem should be considered as the earliest among historical kavyas since the poet is a contemporary of the ruler with the name of the Srikantha who flourished in the early decades of the 11th A.D.

The first part of the Mushakavamsa, the author fulfills the requirements of a Mhakavya like the descriptions of messengership, marches for victory, fights, seasons, morning, evenings, drinking of liquor etc. Thus the section forms more or less an epic dealing almost entirely with legendary stories, the details being supplied by the fancy of the poet.

The second part deals with the narration of a long line of kings. Here the names of 97 kings who followed Nandana the son of the founder king are given. In the course of the description of this legendary kings many such rulers are associated with the establishment of ancient temples located in the region. For instance king satasoma is credited with the founding of the cellur temple dedicated to Siva. Some other temples thus connected with these rulers are Ahiranesvara, Kharavana, and Vatukesvara -all consecrated to the same deity. All this is described in the 11th canto of the poem.

The third part which consists of four cantos from 12 to 15 deals with historical kings. Altogether 19 kings are said to have ruled the Musika country during a period of about 250 years from the second half of the 9th century up to the 12 C. AD. Modern researches have shown that many of these kings have some historical footing. Inscriptions recorded by them in some of the temples of the locality are available to posterity. Different arrangement made by them for the protection and preservation of the temple property are known from those records.

Origin of the dynasty

Atula the author of Musaka Vamsa traces the genealogy of the Musaka dynasty from the founder king Ramaghata Musika. He was the son of a queen of Mahismati who escaped slaughter at the hands of Parasurama, though her husband fell a victim to the calamity. Later when he came of age he was consecrated as the king of the region of Eli hill by Parasurama who performed the great Pattabhiseka ceremony pouring potfuls of consecrated water on his head it is on this account that the prince acquired the imposing name of Ramaghata-musaka[5]. His successors also continued to affix this name as a title after their accession to the throne.


Ramaghata was accepted as the king of the locality of by the people, especially became of his accession to it from Parasurama the legendary creator of Kerala. He appointed a minister named Mahanavika who was Sresthin[6] (a member of the merchant community) belonging to Mahismati. The minister is once again referred to in the work pointing out his various qualities[7].

The new king built his own capital which was called Kolam. It was considered as Kularajadhani the residence of the kings of the line[8]. The city was properly built and fortified. Hence the rulers of the Musika line were referred to by the titles of Kolabharata[9], Ramaghatamusaka[10], Hehayesvara[11] and Musikesvara[12]. By the time Ramaghata established his kingdom in the south at Kolam near Eli hill, his patrimony at Mahismati (the capital of Hehage) had been seized by the king of Magadha called Suvarman[13].

Ramaghata not only established a new kingdom in the south but also reigned his patrimonial inheritance at Mahismati is Hehayas. While his senior son ruled over the Northern establishment, he ruled the southern kingdom till he retired to the forest after consecrating Nandana in his place[14]. This is all what we know about the founder king from the account given by Atula. He uses the term Ramaghata as the name of the king as well as a title of sovereignty of Musikas.


Nandana who followed Ramaghata the founder of the dynasty based at Kolam is described as an indolent king. He entrusted the duties of the administration to the hands of his able ministers and gave himself upto Carnal pleasures[15]. Since his father has already consolidated the new kingdom it was easy for him to dissociate from the arduous duties of governmental administration. His father ruled for a long period before his retirement to the forest. Nandana himself had a long tenure.

Mushaka-vamsa mentions the Hehay a origin of the kings and their marriage alliances with Cedi and Magadha royal houses during the early period the possibility of the Musakas being identical with the early ruler of Elimalai is almost ruled out.

A long line of Kings

Following Nandana a host of kings ruled over the Musika country from time to time. The Kavya mentions a long line of succession as follows.

Ugra scucceeded his father Nandana and he was followed by his son Ugradhanva. Simhasena who ruled next had a fleet of trained lions to be used in the battlefield and to pull his chariot. Candravarman who succeeded him met a premature death by Submarine fire when he entered the debts of the sea in pursuit of his foes. Then his son Brhatsutra came to power. He was succeeded by the son of his younger brother named Ugresva who retired to the forest for penance after a glorious tenure. Brhatsana who was the son of Ugresva’s elder brother succeeded him to the throne and he died without any issue.

Ugrasena came back to the country from the self imposed exile to save it from the opposing Kerala forces and again ruled over it after driving away the enemies. To have an issue he married again. After his son came of age he again retired to the forest consecrating the son of the throne. Thus the son Citraketana became the king of Musakas. His son ‘Satasoma’ was famous ruler[16]. He performed a hundred sacrifices which threw fear into the mind of Indra who is known as Satakratu. He built a famous temple of ‘Siva at Celara (Cellur -Perumcellur), the fame of which spread all over the world and eulogized in many works[17]. This devotee of Siva was succeeded by Asvasena who is in turn was followed by Simhekatu, Visvapala and Sarmadatta. Twenty one generations of kings beginning with Sarmadatta. Thus he was followed by Rudravarman, Vyaghrasena, Prthudyumna, Vajradhara, Valahaka, Bhimavarman, Brhatsena, Daksa, Atula, Nayavardhana, Mitrasoma, Bhadra, Viravarman, Amitakritu, Jagadasva, Suradyumna, Arjunavarman, Ugrabahu, Jayaditya and Vratasena. All these twenty one generation of kings are said to have enjoyed longevity as long as they choose. Nothing significant is mentioned by the poet in describing their long reign.

The next series of kings in the line were Utpalaksa, Mahakirthi, Devadyumna, Brhadyuthi, Ugra II, Manu and Brahadgriva, Vatukavarman, the son of Brhadgriva is mentioned as a great king. He is credited with the establishment of the temple known as Vatukesvara dedicated to Siva at Alasuddhi[18]. The first half of the name is suggestive of his association with temple as its founder.

Following him Ahirana ascended the throne. On the western banks of the river, Prtana, he established the temple called Ahiraneswara dedicated to Siva[19]. He was followed by Ranabhara well known for his piety[20]. Next came Aryagupta who was followed by Acala the founder of the city called Acalapattana in the vicinity of the Eli mount[21]. He was followed by Asvasena II who was shortly after ousted from the throne by his younger brother Vikramasena. After him came his son Vinayavarman who passed on the rein to his son Rajavarman. He said to have established a jaina monastery known as Rajavihara after his name[22]. But Jayamani the son the ousted king Avasena regained the country with military assistance provided by the Pandya king[23]. The brave son of Jayamani called Ranamani then ruled over the Musika country.

His successor was the much famed ruler Udayavarman who is said to have fed ten thousand Brahmins every day. Then came Udayaditya who was probably the son of Udayavarman. He was followed by Virocana who is a brave battle which claimed many lives, killed a pallava king and claimed for his beautiful daughter in marriage[24]. His son[25] also called Virocana II was in due course succeeded by Kasena, Vyalasana, Satrumtapa, Brhadbhanu, Prthukirti, Amitrajit and Dvipanika Dvipanika had two sons Sasidatta and Janavrata both of whom were killed in the fight for ascendancy.

The Magadha princess, the wife Sasidatta was pregnant at the time and her son Vajrasara came to the throne in due course. He was scucceeded by a long line of kings whose names are given as: Sura, Visala, Mahasvan, Ajita, Puskala, Bahukirti, Suketu, Vikata, Sudhanva, Satyavrata, Caturaketu, Udarakirti, Svarbhanu, Uttamakala, Sakala, Adriketu, Kamaprada, Nayadhana, Kavikarkasa, Parjanya, Paramayasas, Nipatavarman, Tivrasva, Sumati, Amitraha, Vicanda, Aksobhya, Samaresaha and Mahodaya. Mahodaya was succeeded by his pious son Sivacarite who had a virtuous son called Isane. The son of this great king was known as Kuncivarman and it is from him that the later of the Musika kingdom real begins.

Later Kings: Kuncivarman

It is from Kuncivarma, the renowned son of Isana, the really historical portion of the genealogy begins. Kuncivarman is supposed to have held sway over a big territory and he is reckoned as one among the learned[26]. He had a daughter and a son called Isanavarman[27], the daughter was married to the king of Kerala and the country was passed on to his son before he left the world[28].

Son in law of Kuncivarman

It is made clear that the Kerala king who married the princes was Raghupati alias Jayaraga and that a son was born to them by the name of Goda alias Keralaketu. The identity of this king of Kerala has become a vexed problem among the historians. Thus different views are found expressed in this connection.

Isanvarman II Alias Ranamani

When Isanavarman reached the marriageable age his minister suggested to him that he may enter into matrimony with the daughter of the Cedi king who was then living in exile disguised as a Brahmin in the neighborhood of the Musaka country. The minister informed him that the Cedi ruler has a daughter called Nandini who is then in her teens[29]. It seems that the new relationship with the cedi royal family infuriated the Kerala king who was the brother in law of the Musika. Raghupati alias Jayaraga of Kerala launched an attack on Musaka country before Isanavarman could reach his capital after rendering assistance to his father in law, the king of Cedi[30]. Isana continued to rule over the kingdom in peace, though he was worried over his childness with a view to having a scion he married the daughter of the king of Cola. The marriage was successful and soon he be got a son called Nrparama[31]. Isanavarman who built many temples dedicated to siva was incapacitated by fever to which he ultimately succumbed. Towards the end of his days he performed the rare Mahadane ceremony by giving away sixteen valuable things to recipients[32] when Isanavarman passed away, his second son Palaka was living in Cedi with his maternal grandfather.


It is stated that immediately after the death of Isanavarman the people approached Palaka to assume the reings of the government. Palaka reportedly sent back the popular representatives with the reply that so long as a capable and strong elder brother like Nrparame was alive, he could not agree to their demands[33]. Naturally Nrparama was crowned as the king of the Musakas after his father.


Nrparama did not live long and his baby son Chandravarman was places on the throne while yet young. The boy was rather imbecile and unhealthy and he ruled practically lying in couch. In a short time he expired leaving the country exposed to enemies[34].

Palaka I

The long awaited opportunity presented itself before Palaka who was again approached by the minister and citizens through a messenger. They were pulling on with the administration of the country where anarchy had set in. The chieftains of the neighborhood rallied around him and he was coronated in a grand ceremony as the king of the Musakas[35].


With the demise of Palaka after a long and glorious reign a new chapter in the history of the Musaka dynasty began. He was succeeded to the throne by Validhara the son of his sister[36]. In the long history of the dynasty, it is for the first time that a nephew succeeds his uncle to the throne.


The nephews succeeding to the throne of the Musaka kingdom. If the king dies early his brother will naturally succeed. But after that it is invariably the son of the sister of the ruling prince that assumes the reins. The nephew who succeeded Validhara was Ripurama who was compared to great kings like Bharata and Nahusha by his prowess[37]. His rule was rather peaceful nothing untoward happening in his days.


He was succeeded by Vikramarama who was most probably his younger brother. There is some doubt regarding his relationship with his predecessor for the manuscripts of the Musakavamsa give a doubtful regarding when this relationship is mentioned[38].


Following Vikramarama Janamani who was most probably his nephew occupied the Musaka throne. He is described as a great ruler with a bias to the well-behaved. He had also performed many sacrifices which earned for him much merit[39].


Next in the line of succession was Sankhavarman probably the nephew of his predecessor Jayamani Sankhavarman was followed by Jayamani who ruled over Kolam or Musaka country for a long time. His was a glorious rule. During his period the capital was at the zenith of its splendor with tall buildings, bazars, abounding in commodities drawn from all over the world and highways frequented by important royalties and citizens. Though he was a devout saivaite his reign gave a feeling of secularism.

Valabha I

With the advent of Valabha I on the throne a new chapter is begun. He was a proud ruler and once he was offended by the cheiftain of a particular region called Bhatashali. What exactly was the nature of the offence, the poet is vague about that. But it was of such a magnitude that it prompted valabha to take up arms against the revolter. It was a fullscale assault inwhich many lost their lives and many others fled their country. It was not just an ordinary punishment that was meted out to the provincial chief. The place was taken under the direct control of the Musaka king and a cion of the line by the name of Nrparama alias Ripurama was appointed governor of the locality. Nrparama was put in complete authority of the province. After accomplishing this Valabha returned to his capital[40]. It seems that the region was enjoying the status of a province under the dominion of the Musaka.


Valabha I was succeeded by Kundavarman, a benevolent administrator. He amazed much wealth by legitimate means and used it for auspicious purposes. He built the famous temples of Narayanapuram dedicated to Vishnu the enemy of Mura[41].

Palaka II

Palaka II the nephew of Kundavarman was the next king of Muskas. But he did not last long. His untimely demise posed a problem since there was no direct descendant fit enough to follow him.


Ripurama alias Nrparama a member of the family who was ruling over Bhutasthali was consecrated as the new king[42]. At the time the nephew of Palaka II must have been quite young. Hence he was superseded by the more experienced Ripurama who had already established his reputation as the provincial governor of Bhutasthali. By the time Ripurama expired the natural heir was ready to shoulder the responsibility. Thus Gambhira the direct nephew of Palaka II came to the throne[43].


Gambhira was a powerful monarch and he expected his writes to be carried out explicitly. He did not tolerate slightest offence on his authority. On one occasion the provincial chief of Marupura intercepted his political dispatches and challenged his authority[44]. He was only inviting trouble by his careless action. Gambhira took prompt steps and beseiged Marupura with an army. He returned from the expedition only after razing down the city and reducing it to ashes. Such was his prowess that he did not tolerate any infringement upon his authority[45].

Jayamani II

His younger brother Jayamani II[46] who succeeded him was a patron of art and literature[47]. He had a comparatively long reign and a peaceful rule ensured. He found enough time to encourage artists and men of letters.


He was most probable a member of the royal family though not in the direct line of succession to the throne[48].

Valabha II

The accession of Valabha to the throne heralded a new era for the dynasty. He was interested in the promotion of trade and other progressive measures. At the confluence of the river Killa with the ocean he built the city called Marahi for the development of foreign trade. Ships and other sea going vessels hauled a variety of rare merchandise from distant Islands. This must have naturally helped in the export of goods to foreign countries. The bazars of the city were abounding in foreign goods[49]. He also fortified the city called Valabhapattana by erecting a fort with high walls having lofty towers surrounded by deep moats[50]. He was also interested in the promotion of religion in the vicinity of the temple of Vatukesvara dedicated to Siva he constructed a new shrine for Arya (Sasta)[51]

It appears that Valabha had a well organised naval power, for he is said to have ruled over several islands. It is possible that he might have held sway over some time islands of the Arabian sea, probably with a view to promoting the trade. This is poetically hinted at by Atula when he says that the great Rama had subdued only a single Island called Lanka where as Valabha had controlled several Islands[52].


The most glorious chapter of the history of the dynasty and the last as far as we know from the pen of Atula begins with the advent of Srikantha. Athula is all praise for the many good qualities of his royal patron who is introduced in glowing terms[53]. It is made clear that the king was the elder brother of Valabha II who he succeeded to the throne.

From the legendary Ramaghata Musaka upto the times of Srikantha, the contemporary and patron of the author a long line of succession is enumerated. Altogether 118 kings appear through the pages of this history. Every aspect of history is dealt with in vivid details, chaos and conquests, usurpation and ascendancy, invasions of foreign Islands, suppression of revolts, marriage alliances, marches for victory, establishment and renovations of temples, monasteries and cities all find a place in this remarkable account.

Thus though the Musakavamsa of Atula contains much legendary matter pertaining to the origin of the Musaka royal family it yields some genuine historical information also. In the midst of a lot of legendary stories we find a few grains of what appears to be real history of which however epigraphy is utterly ignorant -observes T.A. Gopinadha Rao who first noticed this work in 1916 AD.

In short the poem is an interesting record of regional history corroborated to some extent by facts. A detailed study into these aspects will be of great interest to a student of Kerala History[54].

Footnotes and references:


Ed. by Dr. Raghavan Pillai, Travancore Sanskrit Series No. 246 (1977)—Last 3 cantos pub. by T.A. Gopinatha Rao in Travancore Arceological Series II -87 -105—Then pub., text with introduction and English translation by Dr. K.P.A. Menon C.K.S.L. 53 -56, History of Classical Sanskrit Literature -170, Kerala Sahitya Caritram, Ullur I -150-51, Keraleya Samskrita Sahitya Caritram I -344, KSLB 366 -367


The poem gives the history of the land till about the 12th century A.D. Later this kingdom came to be known as Kolattunadu and the kings Kolattiris. After the 12th century the history of the land for about two countries is completely shrouded in obscurity, then it only by the beginning of the 15th century that be find clear reference to the Kola country in literature.


Atula could be the Sanskritised name of Tolan, but the author of this poem can not be identified with the Tolan, famous introduction as the friend and advisor of the royal dramatist Kulasekhara


Kerala Sahitya Caritram, Ullur -Vol. I -P -150


bile'bhavad yena sa mūṣikasya rāmācca yaḥ prāpa ghaṭābhiṣekam |
babhūva tenāsya jagatprakāśam samūṣikaṃ rāmaghaṭābhidhānam ||


mahiṣmatīyo matimān kulīnaḥ śreṣṭhī mahānāvikanāmadheyaḥ
mantrī mahīyān kṣitibharturasya vācaspatirvṛtrariporivāsīt
|| 2 -41


uttamo'tha vinayena mantriṇāṃ nāviko vacanamityabhāṣata || 4-36


rāṣṭre sa tatra svaguṇānurakte śobhāvatīmāhitaguptiyogām
cakre gururmūṣikabhūpatīnāṃ kolābhidhānāṃ kularājadhānīm
||2 -42


kolabharturiti śaṃsati dūte bhāratīṃ sadasi vītaviśaṅkam || 5-54


Mushakavamsa 14 -1,16,18,69,71


Ibid 4-24; 5 -16, 21, 23, 29; 6 -19; 12 -14, 44; 14 -70


Ibid 5 -1, 11, 23, 28, 48, 67; 6 -53, 55; 12 -15; 14 -7, 73


śuśruvānatha hṛtānanāthavanmāgadhena sa nṛpeṇa hehayān |
kopadoṣakaluṣīkṛtāśayo mantribhissaha rahasyamantrayan
yā nṛpeṇa vihitā mahiṣmaṇā pālitā ca gurubhirnirantaram
mādhavena (māgadhena) kila dūravartinassā hṛtā mama purī suvarmaṇā ||


bhūvanabharasahe sute sa tasmin suciraghṛtāṃ dhṛtimātmano nidhāya |
atha vanamadhigamya yoganiṣṭhaḥ śivamanapāyi padāntaraṃ prapede ||


atha vāsaraśriyamivāhimayutiḥ paramaḥ punāmiva ca padmadevatāṃ
sakalamuvāha dharaṇīṃ sa nandanaḥ parirambhasāmiva nadīṃ trivartmagām || 
pitṛnirviśeṣapaṭunā svatejasā jagati prajāsviha vinītavṛttiṣu
saciveṣu bhāramavasajjya bhūpatirviṣayopabhoganirato babhūva saḥ ||


The name of the king is mentioned twice in the work. The manuscript in grantha script gives the name as Sutasoma on one occasion. While the second manuscript uniformly gives the form Satasoma. Vide N.V. Krsnavariar Vinjanakairali, 6.6, P -539


Works like Cellurnathodayam Campu, Cellurisavilasam, Cellurnathastavam (all in Malayalam) and Cellurstotra (in Sanskrit) eulogise the God.


sa cakāra śubhākāro bhaktyā muktyāgamārthayā
ālaśuddhimanuprāptaṃ śāśvataṃ vaṭukeśvaram
|| 11-61


pṛtanāsaritastīre paścime pṛthivīpatiḥ
āhīraṇeśvaraṃ nāma dhāma cakre sa śūlinaḥ
|| 11-69


ahīraṇasuto rājā mahīṃ raṇabharāhvayaḥ |
apālayadāpavṛtya kṛpālayamanā nṛpaḥ ||


svasāramahimākrānta kuberapuravaibhavam
eliśailasanīḍe yaścakārācalpattanam ||


citrairabhraṃlihābhrairyaḥ prāsādairupaśobhitam
vihāraṃ rājanāmāṅkaścakre ratnatrayāspadam ||
11 -84


putrastato'śvasenasya daṇḍamādāya pāṇḍyataḥ
pratyasīdatsvakaṃ rājyaṃ jayamānī jagatpatiḥ ||
11 -85


nihatya pallavaṃ saṃkhye mahatyasuhare nṛṇām
jahāra hariṇīṃ so'sya kanyāmanyāmiva śriyam ||
11 -90


T.A. Gopinatha Rao (Travancore Arceological Series II -P -110) gives the name as Dvirocana


atha pṛthumabhujavīryopārjitāśeṣabhūbhṛnmukuṭamaṇimayūkhāmṛṣṭapadāṃbujanmā |
aśiṣadavanimenāmuddhṛtaikātapatraṃ jagati budhajanānāmañcitaḥ kuñcivarmā ||
12 -1


M.V. -12 -5


Ibid 6


Ibid 9, 10, 13, 14


svabhūvamabhijigīṣuḥ mūṣikendro balaughaissarathagajaturaṅgaissārthamṛddhānubhāvam |
calitamacalitaśrīḥ keralendraṃ purātsvāt puramathanasamānasso'tha śuśrāva tāvat ||


M.V. 12-61, 62


Ibid 73 -74


pitari divamupete pālakaścedisaṃsthaḥ prakṛtibhirathasadyaḥ prāpitāṃ rājalakṣmīṃ |
vipulabalabhujo'pi jyeṣṭhabhāvānuvṛtya kathamapi nṛparāmaṃ ruddhabuddhirviṣehe ||


M.V. 12-77, 78, 79


Ibid 80, 81, 82, 83


Ibid 90


Musakavamsa 12 -93


vrajati gatimamartyamīśvare'smin jagatyassapadi tadanujanmā janmabhajāṃ purogaḥ
abhajadavanicakraṃ vikramodghātanāmā kṛtamatiratha rāmaḥ somavaṃśapradīpaḥ ||


M.V. 12 -110


Musakavamsa 13 -6, 9, 12


Ibid 14, 16


Ibid 13 -17, 18


tamanu pramanāḥ samākhyayā bhuvi gambhīra iti pratītimān
suta eva tu pālakaḥ svasuḥ kṣitimenāṃ kṣapitāriragrahīt |


N.V. Krsnavaryar does not include Gambhira among the rulers though he had quoted the verse mentioning the king. He assumes that it was palaka, who was opposed the chieftain of Marupura. The name of the locality is given by him as Manipura.


M.V. 13-26,28,31,38


N.V. Krsnavaryar postulates that Jayamani was the younger brother of Palaka II. This is because he misses the intervening ruler Gambhira in his chronological account.


vrajati tridaśeṣu gaṇyatāṃ nṛpatau tasya nirastavidviṣaḥ
anujo manujottamaściraṃ jayamānī jagatīmapālayat |


M.V. 14 -18


Ibid 66


Ibid 67


Ibid 68


Ibid 69


śrīkaṇṭha ityavarājo'tha nṛpasya tasya śrīkaṇṭhapādasarasīruharājahaṃsaḥ
śrīkaṇṭhanātha iva śauryaguṇena harṣaśrīkaṇṭhasaṅgini bhuje bhujamāsasañje ||


More details see—
(a) A history of Musakavamsa, Tvm 1980 -Dr. N.P. Unni
(b) Mushikavamsa as a source of Kerala History -M.G.S. Narayanan, Tvm,1970
(c) Clio and her incarnations: Keralolpathi and Musakavamsa as specimens of historical writing by Kesavan Veluthat (Papers from the Aligarh historians society in Indian history congress -69th session -Kannur Uty -Dec. 2008
(d) Studies in Musakavamsa -Govindavariar. A. -VI, VII -117 -139, VIII - PP 9 -36 (Bullettin of Ramavarma Research Institute)
(e) K.V. Subrahmania Iyyer -Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, London -1922 -161 -175
(f) K. Maheswaran Nair -the date of Musakavamsa -Epigraphia Malabarica, Tvm 1972
(g) K. Unnikkidavu -Musakavamsa padhanam -Vinjanadeepika -6, 7
(h) A survey of Kerala History -P -24, Ullur Sahityaparishat Traimasikam V -Pp -383 -405

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