Pallava, Pallavā, Pāllavā: 31 definitions
Pallava means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Pallava (पल्लव) refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with ‘dance hands’ (nṛttahasta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Pallava is one of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-seven combined Hands).Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Pallava (पल्लव).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with dance-hands (nṛttahasta);—(Instructions): The two Patāka hands joined at the wrist. The Dance-hands are to be used in forming Karaṇas.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Pallavā (पल्लवा).—Name of a river (nadī) situated near the seven great mountains on the western side of mount Naiṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These settlements consume the water flowing from these seven great mountains (Viśākha, Kambala, Jayanta, Kṛṣṇa, Harita, Aśoka and Vardhamāna). Niṣadha (Naiṣadha) is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Pallava (पल्लव).—A southern tribe.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 40; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 47.
Pallava (पल्लव) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.66) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Pallava) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa
Pallava (पल्लव) refers to 1) a “story” or “narrative”, 2) a “leaf”, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 10.83.—In the latter case, the word may very well mean “red lac paint”. Jinarāja says “pāṇiyugmamapi saha pallavena alaktakarāgeṇa vartane”. This meaning is mentioned by Nārāyaṇa also.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Pallava (पल्लव) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—This name denotes a dynasty which was ruled over the southern India from the fifth to ninth century A.D. with the capital of Kāñchi. The country surrounding Kāñci very probably was known as the Pallava country after its rulers. Because Rājaśekhara mentioned Kāñchi as a separate country in the southern India.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Pallava (पल्लव) refers to a “young leaf” of a tree or plant, as mentioned in a list of four synonyms, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Pallava] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Pallava (पल्लव) refers to “sprouts”, mentioned in verse 3.34-36 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] In groves in which the hot-rayed one is darkened by cloud-grazing huge Sal trees and Palmyra palms, [...] (and which is) covered with the shoots and fruit-pendants of mango-trees; (or) on a couch (which is) prepared from tender banana-leaves, white nymphaeas, lotus-fibres, nelumbos, and blue nymphaeas, (and) in which (are found) opening buds and sprouts [hasatkusuma-pallava]: (there) one shall sleep at noon when pained by the heat of the sun; or in a bath-house”.
Note: Hasatkuswma (“opening bud”) has been replaced by me-tog rgyas-pa (“full-blown flower”) and pallava (“sprout”) left untranslated.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Pallava (पल्लव):—Tender leaves; Synonym of leaf
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Pallava (पल्लव) or Pallavahasta refers to “tendril” and represents one of the twenty-four gestures with a single hand, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Accordingly, pratimā-lakṣaṇa (body postures of the icons) is comprised of hand gestures (hasta, mudrā or kai-amaiti), stances/poses (āsanas) and inflexions of the body (bhaṅgas). There are thirty-two types of hands [viz., pallava-hasta] classified into two major groups known as tolirkai (functional and expressive gestures) and elirkai (graceful posture of the hand).Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images
Pallava (पल्लव) or Pallavamudrā refers to one of the various hand-poses (hastas or mudrās) defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—Pallava-mudrā resemble Ādānahasta in which the palm and finger are slightly bent and the palm faces upward. If the finger are let loose, it appears to be Alapallavamudrā. In the icon of Olayakunnam and of Palani, this [Pallava-mudrā] hand is used to hold the lotus.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
A Damila chief, ally of Kulasekhara. Cv.lxxvii.55, 73.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
India history and geographySource: Wisdom Library: India History
Pallava (पल्लव) is the name of a country included within Dakṣiṇapatha which was situated ahead of Māhiṣmatī according to Rājaśekhara (fl. 10th century) in his Kāvyamīmāṃsā (chapter 17). Dakṣiṇāpatha is a place-name ending is patha mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.Source: Early Chola Temples: Sculpture: stone
The Pallavas should be considered as a power who enriched that tradition by incorporating foreign influences from other equally vital centres of Dravidian art at Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda, Badami and Vengi.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Pallava.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘five’. Note: pallava is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (history)
Pallava dynasty.—The Pallavas ruled Kanchi in the 4th century AD and it was during the period of Mahendravarman I (AD 600630), the son of Simha Visnu, that importance was given to the arts. The attitude of the artists towards their task of converting rock into the representation of an event is most obvious in the masterworks of the Pallava period. Being struck by the beauty of the Pallava temples at Kanchi, Vikramaditya I induced some of the sculptors and architects of the Pallava realm to come to his kingdom.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
pallava : (m.) a young leaf; sprout; name a country.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pallava, (nt.) (cp. Class Sk. pallaka) a sprout J. I, 250; II, 161. See also phallava. (Page 442)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
pallava (पल्लव).—m (S) Sprouting or shooting. v phuṭa, lāga, yē, esp. in pl. 2 The extremity of a branch bearing new leaves; a spring of luxuriant foliage: also a tuft of foliage; a cluster of shoots or sprouts. 3 fig. An addition in narrating a circumstance, an embellishment. 4 An end of a piece of cloth. Ex. pallavīṃ bāndhavēla vāyu kaisā ||. 5 An appendage or additament, a skirt, tail, wing.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
pallava (पल्लव).—m Sprouting or shooting. A sprig of luxuriant foliage fig. An embellish- ment. An end of a piece of cloth.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Pallava (पल्लव).—1 A sprout, sprig, twig, करपल्लवः (karapallavaḥ); लतेव संनद्धमनोज्ञपल्लवा (lateva saṃnaddhamanojñapallavā) R.3.7; Ku.3.54.
2) A bud, blossom.
3) Expansion, spreading, dilating.
4) The red dye called Alakta, q. v. पाणियुग्ममपि सह पल्लवेन अलक्तरागेण वर्तते (pāṇiyugmamapi saha pallavena alaktarāgeṇa vartate); cf. Jinarāja com. on N.1.83.
5) Strength, power.
6) A blade or grass.
7) A bracelet, an armlet.
8) Love, amorous sport.
9) The end of a robe or garment; क्षौममाकुलकरा विचकर्ष क्रान्तपल्लवमभीष्टतमेन (kṣaumamākulakarā vicakarṣa krāntapallavamabhīṣṭatamena) Śi.1.83.
1) Unsteadiness (cāpalam).
11) A story, narrative; सपल्लवं व्यासपराशराभ्यां (sapallavaṃ vyāsaparāśarābhyāṃ)... यद् ववृते पुराणम् (yad vavṛte purāṇam) N.1.83.
-vaḥ A libertine; Viś. Guṇa.425.
Derivable forms: pallavaḥ (पल्लवः), pallavam (पल्लवम्).
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Pāllavā (पाल्लवा).—A game with twigs.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-vaḥ-vaṃ) 1. A sprout, a shoot, the extremity of a branch bearing new leaves. 2. A branch. 3. Spreading, expansion. 4. A wood. 5. The red dye of lac or Alakta. 6. Love, the sentiment or passion. 7. A catamite. 8. A bracelet. 9. Unsteadiness, moral or physical. E. pad the foot, lū to cut or break, ap aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pallava (पल्लव).—probably for original parṇa + vant, 1. m. and n. A sprout, a shoot, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 34. 2. m. pl. The name of a people. 3. The red dye of lac; cf. pallavita.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pallava (पल्लव).—[masculine] [neuter] sprout, shoot, twig (lit. & [figuratively]); edge of a garment.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Pallava (पल्लव):—1. pallava mn. (ifc. f(ā). ) a sprout, shoot, twig, spray, bud, blossom (met. used for the fingers, toes, lips etc.), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
2) a strip of cloth, scarf, lappet, [Kādambarī; Bālarāmāyaṇa; Rājataraṅgiṇī]
3) spreading, expansion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. below)
4) strength, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (= bala; [varia lectio] = vana, a wood)
5) red lac (alakta), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) a bracelet, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) sexual love, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) unsteadiness, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) m. a [particular] position of the hands in dancing, [Catalogue(s)]
10) a libertine, catamine, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) a species of fish, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [plural] Name of a people, [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa] ([varia lectio] for pahlava)
13) of a race of princes, [Inscriptions]
14) 2. pallava [Nominal verb] [Parasmaipada] vati, to put forth young shoots, [Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya]
15) Pāllavā (पाल्लवा):—f. ([from] pallava, sc. krīḍā) a game played with twigs, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pallava (पल्लव):—[(vaḥ-vaṃ)] 1. m. n. A sprout, or shoot; a branch; spreading; a wood; lac; love; catamite; bracelet; unsteadiness.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Pallava (पल्लव):—m. n. [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa.3,5,10.] m. [Siddhāntakaumudī 250,a,3.]
1) m. n. Sprosse, ein junger Schoss, - Zweig; = kisala, kisalaya [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 1, 14.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 4, 4. 3, 3, 417.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1123.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 704.] [Medinīkoṣa v. 40.] [Halāyudha 2, 30.] = viṭapa [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 417.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [VIŚVA im Śabdakalpadruma] (aśokaḥ) pallavāpīḍitaḥ [Mahābhārata 3, 2501.] puṣpaiḥ pallavadhāribhiḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 96, 30.] [Suśruta 1, 220, 7. 2, 13, 13.] [Śākuntala 84.] bālataru [147.] [Raghuvaṃśa 1, 83.] rāgatāmra [2, 15.] [Spr. 680.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 47, 5. 59, 1.] svedaṃ mamārja tarupallavaiḥ [Brahmapurāṇa] in [Lassen’s Anthologie 59, 9. 10.] lateva saṃnaddhamanojñapallavā [Raghuvaṃśa 3, 7. 9, 29. 13, 24.] Uneig. von den Fingern der Hand: kara [Devīmāhātmya 4, 26.] [Caurapañcāśikā 34.] [Dhūrtasamāgama 67, 6.] pāṇi [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 77, 28.] aśokāṅkurapāṇipallave (voc. f.) [Śrutabodha] [?(BROCKH.) 34.] von den Zehen: aṅghri [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 9, 11, 36.] aśokāṅkurapādapallave (voc. f.) [Śrutabodha 34.] von den Lippen: oṣṭha [Spr. 472] [?(Nalopākhyāna). 1265.] adhara [620.] [Amaruśataka 32.] [Pañcatantra 220, 1]; vgl. adharaṃ navapallavena vidhāya dhātā [Spr. 423.] —
2) aṃśuka Schärpe [Spr. 1229.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4,] [?576; vgl. 573.] —
3) m. Bez. einer best. Stellung der Hände beim Tanz [Oxforder Handschriften 202,a,30.] —
4) Ausdehnung (vistara), m. [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 417.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] m. n. [Medinīkoṣa] [VIŚVA]; vgl. pallavay . —
5) Kraft (vala), m. [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] m. n. [VIŚVA im Śabdakalpadruma]; st. dessen vana Wald [Medinīkoṣa] —
6) die alakta genannte rothe Farbe, m. [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] m. n. [Medinīkoṣa] [VIŚVA.] —
7) das Gefühl der Liebe (śṛṅgāra), m. [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] m. n. [Medinīkoṣa] [VIŚVA.] —
8) m. Mädchenjäger, Wüstling (ṣiḍga) [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] —
9) m. n. Armband [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] —
10) m. n. = cāpalaḥ (!) [Śabdaratnāvalī] ebend. Unbeständigkeit [Wilson’s Wörterbuch] —
11) m. pl. Nomen proprium eines Volkes [Mahābhārata 3, 1990.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 57, 36. v. l.] für pahlava [Viṣṇupurāṇa 195,] [Nalopākhyāna 158.]
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Pāllavā (पाल्लवा):—(von pallava) f. (sc. krīḍā) ein Spiel mit jungen Schossen [Amarakoṣa 3, 6, 1, 5.]
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1) atrodyāne mayā dṛṣṭā vallarī (Hand) pañcapallavā . pallave pallave (Finger) tāmrā yasyāṃ kusumamañjarī .. [Spr. 3427.] (rājakanyām) pāṇipreṅkhitapallavām [Kathāsaritsāgara 71, 77.] —
2) aṃśuka [Spr. 2653.]
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6) [morgenländischen Gesellschaft 27, 34.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) m. n. — a) Sprosse , ein junger Schoss , — Zweig. Uneigentlich werden Finger , Zehen und Lippen so genannt. Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā — b) Streifen , Zipfel [Bālarāmāyaṇa 165,21.Kād.43,19.58,21.] — c) *Armband. — d) rother Lack. — e) *Ausdehnung. — f) *Kraft ( bala) oder *Wald ( vana) — g) *Geschlechtsliebe. — h) *Unbeständigkeit —
2) m. — a) eine best. Stellung der Hände beim Tanz. — b) *Wüstling , ein liederlicher Geselle. — c) eines Fürstengeschlechts [Indian antiquary (Roth) 1876.S.50,8,275.] — b) eines Volkes. richtig pahlava. Vgl. aṃśuka in Nachtr. 3.
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Pāllavā (पाल्लवा):—f. ein Spiel mit jungen Schossen.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Pallava (पल्लव) [Also spelled pallav]:—(nm) a new tender leaf; ~[grāhitā] superficiality; smattering knowledge; ~[grāhī] a smatterer; smattering, superficial; ~[grāhī jñāna/pāṃḍitya] smattering knowledge, superficial scholarship; hence ~[na] (nm).
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+4): Pallavabhogga, Pallavada, Pallavadhara, Pallavadharin, Pallavadru, Pallavagrahin, Pallavagrahita, Pallavahasta, Pallavaka, Pallavamaya, Pallavamudra, Pallavana, Pallavanguli, Pallavankura, Pallavapidita, Pallavapura, Pallavaragatamra, Pallavastra, Pallavati, Pallavavala.
Ends with (+13): Alapallava, Ambhodhipallava, Amrapallava, Amshukapallava, Baddhapallava, Bahupallava, Bijapallava, Cautapallava, Dhumapallava, Dirghapallava, Ghanapallava, Jambupallava, Karagrahapallava, Karagrapallava, Karapallava, Lulitapallava, Navapallava, Oshthapallava, Pamcapallava, Pancapallava.
Full-text (+173): Karapallava, Pallavastra, Shitapallava, Pallavadhara, Ghanapallava, Pallavadru, Oshthapallava, Pallavada, Navapallava, Vanapallava, Sapallava, Pallavita, Pallavankura, Pallavagrahin, Panipallava, Dirghapallava, Pallavika, Pallavaka, Karagrapallava, Pallavagrahita.
Search found 40 books and stories containing Pallava, Pallavā, Pāllavā; (plurals include: Pallavas, Pallavās, Pāllavās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD) (by Yashoda Devi)
Part 1 - The Pallavas of Guntur (A.D. 1100-1300) < [Chapter XII - The Pallavas]
Part 10 - End of the Guntur Pallava dynasty < [Chapter XII - The Pallavas]
Part 12 - The Pallavas of Virakuta A.D. (1100-1420) < [Chapter XIII - The Dynasties in South Kalinga]
Later Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Part II - Contributions of the Later Pallavas to the Chola-Pallava Phase < [Chapter XVII - Chola-Pallava Phase (The Later Pallavas)]
Part I - Manavalap-perumal and Kopperunjinga < [Chapter XVII - Chola-Pallava Phase (The Later Pallavas)]
Dasarupaka (critical study) (by Anuru Ranjan Mishra)
Part 13 - Status of Women in the Mattavilāsa < [Chapter 3 - Prahasana (critical study)]
Part 12 - Society in the Mattavilāsa < [Chapter 3 - Prahasana (critical study)]
Part 1 - Mahendravarman—Author of the drama (Mattavilāsa-Prahasana) < [Chapter 3 - Prahasana (critical study)]
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Temples in Tiruchchennampundi (14th year) < [Chapter X - Historical Survey]
Part II, Bronzes < [Chapter XI - Sculpture]
Dravidian Art < [Chapter XIV - Conclusion]
The Religion and Philosophy of Tevaram (Thevaram) (by M. A. Dorai Rangaswamy)
Nayanar 47: Aiyadigal Kadavarkon (Aiyatikal Katavarkon) < [Volume 4.1.1 - A comparative study of the Shaivite saints the Thiruthondathogai]
Symbology of khatvanga in the Mahavrata < [Volume 2 - Nampi Arurar and Mythology]
Chapter 7 - Age of Nampi (Sundarar)—Examined < [Volume 1 - Nampi Arurar’s Tevaram (his life and age)]
Middle Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)