Atula, Atulā: 23 definitions

Introduction:

Atula means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Atula (अतुल) refers to “unparalleled” (e.g., “an unparalleled wonder”), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as Bhadrakālī said to Śrīkaṇṭha: “[...] O Śambhu! Supreme Lord! Destroyer of the universe! Why are you pained, O Lord? (There is no need for it), the Lord’s accomplishment is complete. There is no other (truly) knowledgeable being apart from you amongst the wise in the triple world. Why do you worship me, delighting (as it were) in the darkness of ignorance? That is an unparalleled wonder [āścaryaāścaryam etad atulaṃ]. Get up and have mercy on me!”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: academia.edu: Gleanings from Atula’s Musikavamsa

Atula (अतुल) is the author of the Mūṣikavaṃśa, an historical poem.—From the work, it can also be gathered that the author was a court poet of the Mūṣika king, Śrīkaṇṭha, alias Rājadharma. with whose description the existing version of the poem comes to an end. [...]  In view of the fact that the king Śrīkaṇṭha, contemporary of Atula, is referred to by the term Kartṝṇāṃ, which could signify kāri also, M.G.S. Narayanan identifies him with Kandan Kāri of the Eramam—Chalapuram inscription belonging to AD 1020 and maintains that the work has to be assigned to the first half of the 11th century.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Atula (अतुल) refers to “unequalled (prosperity)”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 15.12-16ab, while describing the symbolic significance of mustard (seeds)]—“[...] Indeed, he should offer the highest red mustard together with black sesame sprinkled with three kinds of oils. Instantly, [this] produces the fruit of universal tranquility. Indeed, he should offer the highest red mustard together with black sesame sprinkled with three kinds of oils. Instantly, [this] produces the fruit of universal tranquility. If it is empowered by the [Mantrin] and placed in his hand, that person shall attain unequalled prosperity (atulasaubhāgyam atulaṃ tasya); there is no doubt. After [the Mantrin] chants the mantra over [the mustard seed] seven times, he should drop it on the head of [the beneficiary], who then is released from all faults”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Atula (अतुल) refers to “unrivalled (beauty)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.46 (“The arrival of the bridegroom”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “Menā saw with pleasure lord Śiva, the bridegroom of Pārvatī, served by all the gods and who by that time had come there. [...] He was shining well with the two clothes of great value, fine texture and unrivalled (atula) beauty and purified in fire. Highly embellished in sandal paste, aguru, musk and fine saffron, he had a gemset mirror in his hand and his eyes were lustrous with the collyrium. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Atula - An upasaka of Savatthi. He went with five hundred others to listen to Revata, who, however, being fond of solitude, would not preach to him. In anger he went to Sariputta who, on hearing his grievances, discoursed at length on the Abhidhamma. Annoyed thereat he repaired to Ananda, to whom he told the story. Ananda preached them a very short sermon, and the upasakas in despair sought the Buddha. The Buddha pointed out to them that they had been too hasty in their condemnation. At the end of the discourse Atula and his companions gained the First Fruit of the Path. DhA.iii.325-9.

2. Atula - A naga king. The Bodhisatta in the time of Sumana Buddha. He had music played before the Buddha and gave him a pair of robes. J.i.34; Bu.v.15f.; Mbv.10.

3. Atula - A naga king. The Bodhisatta in Vipassi Buddhas time. He offered the Buddha a golden seat embossed with jewels. J.i.41; Mbv.11; Bu.xx.10f.

4. Atula - A celebrated physician of old, mentioned in a list with six others. Mil.272.

5. Atula - Son of Sikhi, who later became Sikhi Buddha. His mother was Sabbakama. Bu.xxi.17; DA.ii.422.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Atula (अतुल) refers to “extraordinary”, according to the Bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhi section of Jagaddarpaṇa’s Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya, a text within Tantric Buddhism dealing with construction manual for monasteries etc.—Accordingly, “[...] If a parasol, lotus, banner, muraja drum, flagpole, ornament, a woman of the court, fish, milk, the best curd, wine, blazing fire, and fruits [are seen], then there are victory, extraordinary (atula) increase of grain, property, [the number of] sons, and other [merits], and the completion of duties. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Atula (अतुल) refers to “unequalled (trouble)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Here in the cycle of rebirth consisting of endless misfortune, sentient beings roam about repeatedly, struck down by spear, axe, vice, fire, corrosive liquid or razor in hell, consumed by the multitude of flames from the fire of violent actions in the plant and animal world , and subject to unequalled trouble (atula-prayāsa-vaśaga) in the human condition [or] full of desire among the gods. [Thus ends the reflection on] the cycle of rebirth.”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 1963

Atulā is the name of a vihāra situated in an unknown area of Anurādhapura.—Mahinda IV (956-972) installed a gold Image of the Buddha in Atulā-vihāra.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

atula (अतुल).—a S pop. atūḷa a Unequaled, unrivalled, unparalleled.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

atula (अतुल).—a Unequalled, unparalleled

--- OR ---

atūḷa (अतूळ).—a Unequalled, unparalleled

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Atula (अतुल).—a. [na. ba.] Unequalled, unsurpassed, matchless, peerless, incomparable, very great; भयमतुलं गुरुलोकात् (bhayamatulaṃ gurulokāt) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.31; so °पराक्रम, °रूप (parākrama, °rūpa) &c.

-laḥ 1 The sesamum seed and plant (tilakavṛkṣa).

2) Cough Nigh.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Atula (अतुल).—(1) (-gandharāja), some kind of perfume: Gaṇḍavyūha 153.14; (2) m. (Pali id.), name of a nāga-king, previous in- carnation of Śākyamuni: Mahāvastu i.249.18; 251.12; [(3) a high number: in Gaṇḍavyūha 105.25 text sattvatulasya, read certainly sattvā°; but possibly sattvātulyasya (see atulya).]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Atula (अतुल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) Unequalled, m.

(-laḥ) A plant that has an oily seed, (Sesamum orientale.) E. a neg, tula to be like, ka aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Atula (अतुल).—[adjective] unequalled, unparalleled.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Atula (अतुल):—[=a-tula] mfn. unequalled

2) [v.s. ...] m. (destitute of weight), the Sesamum seed and plant.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Atula (अतुल):—[bahuvrihi compound] I. m. f. n.

(-laḥ-lā-lam) Unequalled. Ii. m.

(-laḥ) A plant bearing an oily seed (Sesamum orientale). See tila. E. a priv. and tulā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Atula (अतुल):—[a-tula] (laḥ) 1. m. A plant (Sesamum orientale). a. Unequalled.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Atula (अतुल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Aula, Atula.

[Sanskrit to German]

Atula in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Atula (अतुल) [Also spelled atul]:—(a) unparalleled, unequalled; immense; also ~[lanīya] (a); ~[lita] (a); ~[lya] (a) out and away.

context information

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Atula (अतुल) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Atula.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Atula (ಅತುಲ):—

1) [adjective] being without a like or equal; being the only one of that particular sort; unequalled; incomparable.

2) [adjective] having no or little weight; destitute of weight.

--- OR ---

Atula (ಅತುಲ):—

1) [noun] the plant Sesamum indicum of Pedaliaceae family, a widely cultivated tropical or sub-tropical annual herb; sesame.

2) [noun] the small seeds of sesame, used esp. for getting oil and as a flavouring agent.

3) [noun] phlegm i.e. a) the one of the four humours in early physiology that was considered to be cold and moist and to cause sluggishness; b) viscid mucus secreted in abnormal quantity in the respiratory passages.

4) [noun] the act or sound of coughing.

--- OR ---

Atuḷa (ಅತುಳ):—[adjective] = ಅತುಲ [atula]¹.

--- OR ---

Atuḷa (ಅತುಳ):—[noun] = ಅತುಲ [atula]².

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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