Samskrita, Saṃskṛta: 14 definitions

Introduction

Samskrita means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Saṃskṛta can be transliterated into English as Samskrta or Samskrita, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous (S) next»] — Samskrita in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Saṃskṛta (संस्कृत).—Corrected. Note: Saṃskṛta is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous (S) next»] — Samskrita in Hinduism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Saṃskṛta (संस्कृत) is a Sanskrit word referring to “sanctified” or “purified”.

Source: Google Books: Tantra, Its Mystic and Scientific Basis

Saṃskṛta (संस्कृत).—The Saṃskṛta alphabets are of Tāntric origin. They are not called simply ‘alphabet’ but Varṇamālā. Its fifty letters, from a to kṣa, arc the fifty basic vibrations of the Cosmos. Each letter is bīja-mantra of fifty human instincts. Here bīja-mantra means the acoustic root of different psychic expressions. It is said that the divine nectar that secretes from the pineal gland (Sahasrāra) takes different forms of letters in six different cakras or Padains. These six cakras arc : Mūlādhāra, Svādhiṣṭhāna, Maṇipūra, Anāhata, Viśudha and Ājñā. They are called Padmas (Lotuses) because they are in the form of a lotus with a distinct colour and petals. The different petals of the respective cakras represent the different basic human longings and instincts.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous (S) next»] — Samskrita in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Saṃskṛta (संस्कृत) refers to “conditioned dharmas” and represents one of the  two main divisions of dharmas (things), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLVIII. Dharmas or things occur in two main categories: unconditioned (asaṃskṛta) dharmas and conditioned (saṃskṛta) dharmas. The saṃskṛtas, also called saṃskāras, formations, are dependently originated (pratītya-samutpanna) from causes and conditions (hetupratyaya) and furnished with three (or four) conditioned characteristics: birth (utpāda), extinction (vyaya) and duration-change (sthityanyathātva) as a function of which they arise, endure and disappear: cf. Nidānasaṃyukta.

The canonical texts arrange the saṃskṛtas into three classes, all three covering one single grouping:

(Saṃskṛta group I). The five skandhas or aggregates: 1) matter or corporeality (rūpa). 2) sensation (vedanā), 3) concept (saṃjñā), 4) volition (saṃskāra), 5) consciousness (vijñāna).

(Saṃskṛta group II). The twelve āyatanas or bases of consciousness, namely, the six inner bases (ādhyātmika-āyatana): 1) eye (cakṣus), 2) ear (śrotra). 3) nose (ghrāṇa), 4) tongue (jihvā), 5) body (kāya), 6) mind (manas); and the six outer bases (bāhya-āyatana): 7) matter (rūpa), 8) sound (śabda), 9) odor (gandha), 10) taste (rasa), 11) touch (sparṣṭavya), 12) dharma.

(Saṃskṛta group III). The eighteen dhātus or elements, namely the six organs and the six objects in the previous list, plus: 13) eye consciousness (cakṣurvijñāna). 14) ear consciousness (śrotravijñāna). 15) nose consciousness (grāṇavijñāna), 16) tongue consciousness (jihvāvijñāna), 17) body consciousness (kāyavijñāna), 18) mental consciousness (manovijñāna).

The grouping of conditioned dharmas defined by each of the three classes is called sarvam, ‘everything’.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous (S) next»] — Samskrita in Buddhism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Saṃskṛta (संस्कृत) or saṃskṛtaśūnyatā refers to “emptiness of the conditioned” one of the “twenty emptinesses” (śūnyatā) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 41). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., saṃskṛta). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Shambala Publications: General

“Conditioned phenomena” (Skt., samskrita; Pali, sankhate) means everything that exists is mutually conditioned owing to causes and conditions; things come into existence, persist for some time, and then disintegrate, thus suggesting the impermanent nature of the empirical world.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Saṃskṛta.—see Sanskrit. Note: saṃskṛta is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Samskrita in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saṃskṛta (संस्कृत).—p (S) That has been the subject of a Sanskar or of an operation or a work; wrought, worked, elaborated. 2 Hence s n & a Language formed by perfect grammatical rules; the classical and sacred language of the Hindus,--the Sanskrit: also relating to Sanskrit;--as a word, a composition &c. 3 p Decorated or embellished; dressed or cooked; cleansed, purified, finished, perfected; done or made in general throughly or well.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

saṃskṛta (संस्कृत).—p Wrought. Decorated; purified. n The Sanskrit language.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Samskrita in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃskṛta (संस्कृत).—p. p.

1) Made perfect, refined, polished, cultivated.

2) Artificially made, highly wrought, carefully or accurately formed, elaborated.

3) Made ready, dressed, prepared; cooked.

4) Consecrated, hallowed; संस्कृतश्चापि रामेण जगाम गतिमुत्तमाम् (saṃskṛtaścāpi rāmeṇa jagāma gatimuttamām) Rām.4.57.11.

5) Initiated into worldly life, married.

6) Cleansed, purified.

7) Adorned, decorated.

8) Excellent, best.

-taḥ 1 A word formed regularly according to the rules of grammar, a regular derivative.

2) A man of any one of the first three castes over whom all the purificatory rites have been performed.

3) A learned man.

-tam 1 Refined or highly polished speech, the Sanskṛt language; संस्कृतं नाम दैवी वागन्वाख्याता महर्षिभिः (saṃskṛtaṃ nāma daivī vāganvākhyātā maharṣibhiḥ) Kāv.1. 33.

2) A sacred usage.

3) An offering, oblation (mostly Vedic).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Saṃskṛta (संस्कृत).—ppp. (Sanskrit id., Pali saṃkhata), in the special sense belonging to saṃskāra (2), conditioned; in nt. substantially = saṃskāra (2): dṛṣṭījālaṃ uddharī °tātaḥ Lalitavistara 195.12 (verse), thou hast (wilt have) removed the net of wrong views from the conditioned (state of existence); similarly 196.2 (verse); see anarthika for Lalitavistara 180.12; tāny etāni catvāry api °ta-lakṣaṇāny abhisamasya saṃskārāṇāṃ samāsato dvayāvasthā-prabhāvitāni Bodhisattvabhūmi 278.25; Gaṇḍavyūha 496.6, see s.v. avacara; the Buddha's doctrine (dharma) is a-saṃ- skṛtaḥ (unconditioned) ṣaḍviṣayasamatikrāntaḥ Lalitavistara 392.13 (prose); prāpto mi dharmo hy amṛto 'saṃskṛtaḥ (read with v.l. asaṃ-, m.c.) 393.1 (verse); uncertain, kalpākoṭī saṃskṛtā me anantā, bodhīmārgo śodhito me praṇītaḥ Lalitavistara 196.7 (verse), shortly after 196.2 (above), but here Tibetan ḥkhor bar (= saṃskṛtā; this Tibetan word regularly = saṃsāra! whereas saṃskṛta is ḥdus byas in Lalitavistara 195.12 and 196.2, as regularly, Mahāvyutpatti 940, 2187 etc., compare ḥdu byed = saṃskāra; Foucaux for Tib…kalpas d'une vie émigrante, for [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit]…kalpas dans le monde de la trans- migration, following Tibetan, and suggesting em. to saṃsṛtā in his Notes 144, where he cites a v.l. saṃbhṛtā) bskal pa bye ba mthaḥ yas su, during endless crores of kalpas in succession? did saṃskṛtā here mean conditioned = in the conditioned state of life, as in line 2 above? or perhaps complete(d)?; applied to samādhi and the like as taught by the imperfect teacher Rudraka, °tānāṃ sāśravāṇāṃ… dhyānasamādhi-samāpattīnāṃ Lalitavistara 244.2, and °ta-samā- dhīnām (asāratām upadarśayeyam) 7, in contrast with the Bodhisattva's own samādhi (sva-samādhi-guṇaviśeṣod- bhāvanārthaṃ, 6); in this context conditioned (by the sentient world), not absolute, as perhaps in Lalitavistara 196.7 above.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃskṛta (संस्कृत).—mfn.

(-taḥ-tā-taṃ) 1. Wrought, made, artificially produced. 2. Excellent, best. 3. Decorated, ornamented. 4. Cooked, dressed. 5. Clean, cleansed. 6. Purified. 7. Finished, perfect, completed. 8. Consecrated. 9. Initiated. m.

(-taḥ) 1. A word regularly formed, a regular derivative. 2. A learned man. 3. A man of the three first classes who have received all the purificatory rites. n.

(-taṃ) 1. Language formed by perfect grammatical rules, the classical and sacred language of the Hindus. 2. Offering oblation. E. sam implying completion or perfection, kṛta made, and suṭ augment.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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