Shad, Śad, Śāḍ: 5 definitions

Introduction

Shad means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śad and Śāḍ can be transliterated into English as Sad or Shad, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śad (शद्).—I. 1 P. (but Ā. in conjugational tenses) (śīyate, śanna)

1) To fall, perish, decay, wither.

2) To go. -Caus. (śādayati-te)

1) To cause to go, impel.

2) (śātayati-te) (a) To fell, throw down, cut down; किं भूभृत्कटकस्थितिव्यसनिना व्यर्थं खुराः शतिताः (kiṃ bhūbhṛtkaṭakasthitivyasaninā vyarthaṃ khurāḥ śatitāḥ) Subhāṣ.; Śi.14. 8;15.24. (b) To kill, destroy. -II 1. P. (śadati) To go (usually with ā).

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Śāḍ (शाड्).—1 Ā. To praise, extol.

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Sad (सद्).—1 P. (6 P. also according to some) (sīdati, sanna; the s of sad is changed to [ṣ] after any preposition ending in i or u except prati)

1) To sit down, recline, lie, lie down, rest, settle; अमदाः सेदुरेकस्मिन् नितम्बे निखिला गिरेः (amadāḥ sedurekasmin nitambe nikhilā gireḥ) Bk.7.58.

2) To sink down, plunge into; सीदन्ति च तदा यक्षाः कूला इव जलेन ह (sīdanti ca tadā yakṣāḥ kūlā iva jalena ha) Rām.7.14.18; तेन त्वं विदुषां मध्ये पङ्के गौरिव सीदसि (tena tvaṃ viduṣāṃ madhye paṅke gauriva sīdasi) H. Pr.24.; where the word has sense 4 also).

3) To live, remain, reside, dwell.

4) To be dejected or low-spirited, despond, despair, sink into despondency; दृष्ट्वैव सागरं वीक्ष्य सीदन्तीं कपिवाहिनीम् (dṛṣṭvaiva sāgaraṃ vīkṣya sīdantīṃ kapivāhinīm) Rām.7.35.4; नाथ हरे जय नाथ हरे सीदति राधा वासगृहे (nātha hare jaya nātha hare sīdati rādhā vāsagṛhe) Gīt. 6.

5) To decay, perish, go to ruin, waste away, be destroyed; विपन्नायां नीतौ सकलमवशं सीदति जगत् (vipannāyāṃ nītau sakalamavaśaṃ sīdati jagat) H.2.77; तं सन्नशत्रुं ददृशुः स्वयोधाः (taṃ sannaśatruṃ dadṛśuḥ svayodhāḥ) R.7.64; H.2.13.

6) To be in distress, be pained or afflicted, be helpless; सीदता- मनुभवन्निवार्थिनां वेद यत्प्रणयभङ्गवेदनाम् (sīdatā- manubhavannivārthināṃ veda yatpraṇayabhaṅgavedanām) Ki.13.6; Ms.8.21.

7) To be impeded or hindered; धर्मे सीदति सत्वरः (dharme sīdati satvaraḥ) Ms. 9.94.

8) To be languid, be wearied or fatigued, droop, sink; सीदति मे हृदयम् (sīdati me hṛdayam) K,; सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि (sīdanti mama gātrāṇi) Bg.1.29.

9) To go, -Caus. (sādayati-te)

1) To cause to sit down, rest.

2) To throw or cast down, place, put.

3) To weary, exhaust.

4) To cause to perish, destroy; बहुसमरनयज्ञः सादयिष्यन्नरातिम् (bahusamaranayajñaḥ sādayiṣyannarātim). -Desid. (siṣatsati) To wish to sit &c.

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Sad (सद्).—f. An assembly; पृष्टः प्राह तमाभाष्य शृण्वत्यास्तत्सदः कथाः (pṛṣṭaḥ prāha tamābhāṣya śṛṇvatyāstatsadaḥ kathāḥ) Bhāg.7.1.21.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaḍ (शड्).—[(i)śaḍi] r. 1st cl. (śaṇḍati) 1. To disease or disorder. 2. To hurt or wound. 3. To collect, to heap together.

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Śad (शद्).—[(au, ḷ,)au śadaḷ] r. 1st cl. (śīyate) 1. To perish gradually, to wither or decay. 2. To fall. 3. To throw down. 4. To go, to move.

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Śāḍ (शाड्).—[(ṛ)śāḍṛ] r. 1st cl. (śāḍate) 1. To flatter, to praise, to coax. 2. To boast. 3. To float or swim.

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Ṣad (षद्).—[(au ḷ)auṣadḷ] r. 1st and 6th cls. (sīdati) 1. To wither, to wane, to perish gradually. 2. To be low-spirited, to despond, to be wearied or distressed, to lack energy. 3. To break or destroy. 4. To go or move. With āṅ prefixed, āṣadḷ r. 1st and 10th cls. (āsādati āsādayati-te) 1. To go. 2. To assail, to encounter. With ava prefixed, 1. To be exhausted or languid. 2. To finish. With āṅ, 1. To obtain, to attain, to reach or arrive at. 2. To attack. With ut, 1. To ascend. 2. To destroy. With upa, 1. To approach. 2. To worship. With ni, 1. To sit in or on. 2. To stand. 3. To protect. With pra, 1. To be propitious to, to favour or be pleased with. 2. To please or propitiate. 3. To purify. 4. To smile. With vi, To be languid or sorrowful. With sam, 1. To attain. 2. To be in company or society with.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śad (शद्).— substitutes in the pres., imperf., imperat., and potent. the pass. of śī, viz. śīya; in the remaining forms, [Parasmaipada.] To fall, [Bhaṭṭikāvya, (ed. Calc.)] 17, 77 (śīya). [Causal.] I. śātaya (probably a [denominative.], perhaps from an anomal. ptcple. of the pf. pass. śāta for śatta, cf. the substitution of a vowel long by nature for one long by position, and vice versā in the [Prakrit] languages), To fell, to throw down, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 66, 10. śātita, Cut off, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 66, 12, Seramp. Ii. śādaya, To drive, [Pāṇini, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] vii. 3, 42.

— With the prep. pra pra, [Causal.] śātaya, To break off, Mahābhārata 1, 5561.

— With vi vi, [Causal.] śātaya, To break to pieces, Mahābhārata 3, 11971.

— With sam sam, [Causal.] śātaya, The same, Mahābhārata 3, 865.

— Cf. [Latin] cadere.

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Śāḍ (शाड्).—or śāl ŚĀL, i. 1, [Ātmanepada.] To praise.

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Sad (सद्).—i. 1 and 6, sīda (for sisada), [Parasmaipada.] (in epic poetry also Atm., Mahābhārata 1, 5184), 1. To sink down, to lie, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 74, 31. 2. To sit down (ved.). 3. To become helpless, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 191; to be in distress, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 24. 4. To be impeded, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 94. 5. To be low-spirited, dejected, Mahābhārata 1, 2061; [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 6. 6. To decay, to perish, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 34; [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 75. Ptcple. of the pf. pass. sanna. 1. Lying motionkess, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 56; still. 2. Shrunk, diminished. 3. Gone, lost, [Kirātārjunīya] 3, 38. 4. Dispirited. 5. Oppressed, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 7, 85. 6. Spoiled, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 19, 19. [Causal.] sādaya, 1. To throw down, [Draupadīpramātha] 8, 29. 2. To afflict, Mahābhārata 3, 50. 3. To destroy, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 42. sādita, 1. Exterminated. 2. Exhausted. 3. Decayed. 4. Broken. 5. Distressed, [Kirātārjunīya] 14, 57. 6. Drawn.

— With the prep. ava ava, 1. To wither, to perish gradually, Mahābhārata 3, 2674; to perish, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 193, 10. 2. To be exhausted, to pine, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 187. 3. To be afflicted, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 5, 47. avasanna, 1. Ended, [Hitopadeśa] 14, 6, M.M. 2. Languid, weak, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 194, 12. 3. Dispirited, unhapapy, [Cāṇakya] 65 in Berl. Montasb. 1864, 411. 4. Bent. 5. Separated. 6. Nonsuited. [Causal.] 1. To destroy, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 6, 5. 2. To mitigate, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 103. Comp. absol. an -avasādya, Without desponding, Da- śak. in Chr. 189, 9.

— With vyava vi-ava, 1. To sink down, Mahābhārata 3, 713. 2. To perish, Mahābhārata 3, 823.

— With samava sam -ava, samavasanna, Sorrowful, Mahābhārata 2, 956.

— With ā ā, To sit down, Chr. 291, 6 = [Rigveda.] i. 85, 6. i. 1 and 10, sādaya, 1. To approach, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 56, 33; to come to, [Pañcatantra] 127, 17; 247, 8 (rātrim āsādya, at night); to reach, [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 47, M. M.; to overtake, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 6, 7. 2. To attack, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 21, 12. 3. To find, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 227. 4. To obtain, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 73, 4; Mahābhārata 3, 10472; with garram, To become proud. [Pañcatantra] 26, 3. āsanna, Near, [Hitopadeśa] 84, 7, M. M. Comp. Mahā-, m. Kuvera. āsādita, 1. Gone to, reached. 2. Obtained, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 196, 5. 3. Spread. 4. Effected. Comp. An-āsādita, adj. not tested, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 41 (but cf. Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 3202). Absol. āsāāya, 1. Having found. [Hitopadeśa] iv. [distich] 60 (kāryam, a motive. i. e. if it is one’s interest). 2. Agreeably to, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 324.

— With abhyā abhi-ā, 1. To step on, [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 52. 2. To obtain, Mahābhārata 3, 17101.

— With pratyā prati-ā, To be near, [Kirātārjunīya] 11, 36. pratyāsanna, Near, [Pañcatantra] 10, 9; imminent, [Hitopadeśa] 115, 15.

— With samā sam-ā, 1. To approach, Chr. 58, 10. 2. To concounter, to meet with, [Pañcatantra] 120, 9; Mahābhārata 2, 553. 3. To attach, Mahābhārata 1, 5453. 4. To find, [Pañcatantra] 87, 7; Mahābhārata 1, 2346. 5. To obtain (cetanām, To recover), [Pañcatantra] 58, 19. samāsādita, 1. Attained. 2. Obtained, [Pañcatantra] 69, 16. 3. Finished, performed.

— With ud ud, 1. To perish, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 3, 24. 2. † To ascend. [Causal.] 1. To destroy, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 3, 21. 2. To draw forth, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 267.

— With prod pra-ud, [Causal.] 1. To destroy, to remove, Mahābhārata 2, 235. 2. To draw forth, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9. 261.

— With samud sam-ud, [Causal.] To destroy, Mahābhārata 3, 8832.

— With upa upa, 1. To approach. 2. To worship, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 100, 1 = [Rigveda.] vii. 15, 1.

— With ni ni, 1. To sit down, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 20, 14; [Pañcatantra] 8, 18 (to fall down); to plunge, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 41. 2. To be afflicted, Mahābhārata 3, 333. Ni- ṣaṇṇa, 1. Sitting, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 184, 7. 2. Placed in. 3. Reciined, supported, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 64, 12. 4. Gone to [Causal.] To cause to sit down, to kneel, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 91, 9.

— With sani sam-ni, 1. To sink down, Chr. 31, 15. 2. To sit down, Mahābhārata 1, 8077 (saṃniṣidatuḥ, corr. ºṣedatuḥ).

— With pra pra, 1. To be propitious, gracious, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 39 (for the transition to this signification, cf. inclined, [Latin] propensus, Germ. geneigt); to favour, Mahābhārata 1, 1259. 2. To be soothed, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 72, 5; [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 150. 3. To be calm, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 54; to be glad, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 46, 12. 4. To become clear, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 67. prasanna, 1. Favourable, soothed, [Pañcatantra] 223, 9; kind, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 53; propitious, Chr. 39, 5. 2. Quiet, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 200, 6. 3. Pleased. 4. Clear, [Nala] 12, 112. 5. True, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 20, 3. f. , Spirituous liquor. [Causal.] 1. To propitiate, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 54; [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 66, 24. 2. To soothe, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 205. 3. To solicit. to beg, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 45, 9 Gorr.; to beg pardon, [Pañcatantra] 223, 11. prasādita, 1. Worshipped. 2. Reconciled, Chr. 42, 15. 3. Cleansed, purified.

— With abhipra abhi-pra, [Causal.] To soothe, Mahābhārata 3, 14063.

— With saṃpra sam-pra, To be soothed, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 26, 34. [Causal.] To propitiate, Mahābhārata 3, 14039.

— With vi vi, 1. To be exhausted, Mahābhārata 3, 448. 2. To be afflicted. [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 1, 28. 3. To be sorrowful, Mahābhārata 3, 3075. 4. To despair, [Hitopadeśa] 82, 18. viṣaṇṇa, Dejected, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 43, 2; sad, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 40, 24; desponding, spiritless. Comp. Su-, adj. very sad, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 50, 28. [Causal.] To afflict, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 53, 31.

— With sam sam, To be in distress, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 24; to pine, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4. 33.

— Cf. probably, [Gothic.] sinths; [Anglo-Saxon.] in-sidhian, To enter (= sādaya ?); [Latin] solum; [Latin] sedeo; [Gothic.] sitan; [Anglo-Saxon.] on-settan, sittan; (= sid + yāmi); [Latin] sidere, probably de-sidero, sella (i. e. sed + la); [Gothic.] sitls; [Old High German.] sezal; [Anglo-Saxon.] sadl, sadel; [Old High German.] satul;

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Sad (सद्).—[-sad], latter part of comp. words, Sitting, dwelling; e. g. araṇya-, adj. Living in forests, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 133, 6. āśrama-, m. An anchorite, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 28, 11. gagaṇa-, m. An inhabitant of the air, [Śiśupālavadha] 4, 53.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śad (शद्).—1. only [Intensive] śāśadus etc., [participle] śāśadāna distinguish one’s self, prevail.

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Śad (शद्).—2. [†śad] [perfect] śaśāda, [participle] śanna fall, decay.

vyava fall off or asunder. pari fall by the side.

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Sad (सद्).—1. sīdati (te), [participle] satta & sanna (q.v.) sit, seat one’s self ([especially] for a sacrifice) on, at, or in ([accusative] or [locative]); lie down, around or in wait for ([accusative]); sink beneath a burden, feel ill, become feeble, tired or languid, be overcome, fall into trouble, distress, or despair; decay, vanish. [Causative] sādayati cause to sit down; set or place in, at, or on ([locative]); afflict, distress, bring down, ruin, destroy.

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Sad (सद्).—2. [adjective] sitting or dwelling in (—°); [masculine] leaping upon, covering (a female).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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