The Nilamata Purana
201-204. O lord of kings and controllerof enemies, Janardana Hari, having got erected such establishment of S'ambhu and the goddess (Parvati) in that pose, made his abode on the head of Jalodbhava. O lion among men, the sages, the gods, the Nagas, the Gandharvas, the hosts of the heavenly maidens, all came there at the head of Jalodbhava to see this (statue) in which both Kesava and S'iva - the destroyers of all sins - are represented and to see Janardana, the god of gods who erected the divine image.
205-206. When the chief gods, sages and Nagas had taken their seats, Kas'yapa, standing in front with joined hands, said to the boon-giver Visnu, "O god, let this country be inhabited by human beings and be holy as well as charming." When Kas'yapa had spoken thus, the Nagas uttered these words:
207-208. "O best among the sages, we would not live in the Company of men." Then Prajapati Kas'yapa certainly became angry and said to them, "As you speak audaciously; without paying regard to my words, so you shall have to dwell in the company of the Pisacas. There is no doubt here.
209. Kas'yapa having spoken thus, Nila said with joined hands, "O Brahman, they are overpowered by anger and know nothing".
210-212. Then Kas'yapa, the most pious sage, spoke to him, "In the centre of the Sea of Sand, there is an oasis six yojanas long. There dwell highly terrible Pis'acas belonging to the side of the Daityas. Nikumbha - the noble and strong lord of the Pisacas - has been appointed by Kubera for keeping them in check. Every time in the month of Caitra, he along with many Pisacas goes to fight.
213-214. There are five crore Pis'acas who are the followers of Nikumbha. Nikumbha goes along with them and fights continuously (against the evil-minded Pisacas) for six months. Of the evil-minded Pisacas, too, there live only five crores.
215. O Nila, those who exceed ten crores on both the sides are destroyed every time, in the period of six months.
216. Due to the favour of the god (Kubera), the mighty Nikumbha, along with his five crore (followers), comes again everytime on the bright fifteenth of As'vayuj.
217-218. For six months he lives happily on the Himacala. From today I have allotted to him a dwelling-place here for six months (of each year). You shall have to live here for six months with him along with his armies and for six months, after his departure, in the company of men."
219-220. Addressed thus, the pious Nila said to his father, "We are ready to live always in the company of men. We would not live with the Pisacas who are cruel and who like cruelty." When Nila the Naga-chief spoke thus, Visnu said :
221. "O Nila, the words of the sage will be effective for one Caturyuga (i.e. four aeons). After that you will live~ in the company of men only.
222. Here the Pisacas will always become weak. Endowed with strength, they will go, to the Sea of Sand for six months.
223-224. The men will worship the Naga in whose territory they shall dwell, with flowers, incense, ointments, eatable offerings, incenses of various types and excellent gifts of dramatic performances.
225. Those men in this country, who will follow the good customs laid down by you, will be endowed with animals and grains.
226. Prajapati is called Ka, and Kasyapa is also Prajapati. Built by him this country will be called Kas'mira.
227. Because water called Ka was taken out by Balarama (the plough-wielder) from this country, so this will be called Kas'mira in this world.
228-229. O Naga, because Kas'mira is the same as Uma so - She - nourished by me, celebrated as Vis'oka and assuming the form of a woman shall dwell at Vrddhatirtha.
230. O Naga, at that sacred place there shall always be the dwelling-place of Vasuki, the king of the Nagas. Worship him who lives there.
231. O chief of the Nagas, that lord of the kings of the Nagas is a part of my ownself. He who disobeys his order meets destruction at my hand.
232-233. O Naga, the dwelling of the Nagas is the city named Bhogavati. Having become a Yogi that Naga-chief (Vasuki) dwells there as well as here. But with his primary body, Vasuki, protecting the Nagas, shall live in Bhogavati. O sinless one, you (also) dwell here constantly."
234. Having said so, Visnu then went on his desired course. The gods, the sages, the Nagas, and the Gandharvas went away as they had come.
235. Since then, the country is inhabited for six months (of the year), by human beings belonging to various countries, and for six months by the eaters of raw flesh.
236. O chief of the kings, having collected rice, grains etc. the human beings go away after taking permission and came back always on (the full-moon day of) Caitra.
237-238. O king, pleased to see Kasnura thus populated, Kas'yapa worshipped the god S'ankara and induced the goddess Uma to purify this country by the gift of water. She - the in destroying one - is renowned as the river Vitasta.
239. Having worshipped the god Kesava, he induced Laksmi to purify this country. She is glorified as Vis'oka.
240. Induced by Kas'yapa, Aditi, the mother of the gods also, having become the river named Trikoti, flows in this country.
241. Induced by Kas'yapa, Saci also, who is the wife of Indra, became in this country, Harsapatha, by name the destroyer of sins.
242. Diti, following the advice of the sage, became (the river) Candravati. The goddess Yamuna gave her own Drtion to the Vitasta.
243. Thus, by the order of Kas'yapa, the mothers of the gods and the demons and the holy wives of the gods assumed the forms of rivers.
244. O lord of the earth, then, due to the advice of Kas'yapa, the sacred waters, the oceans and the rivers went to Kas'mira and her vicinity.
245. O lord of the kings, thus, on the arrival of Vaivasvata Antara, the highly meritorious and beautiful wife of Hara was born as Kas'mira.
246. Desiring continuous welfare, you should regard the king Kasmira as born of a portion of Hara and never disobey him.
247. Gonanda (spoke): "How did Sati, Saci, Ganga, Aditi, Yamuna, Diti and the goddess Karisini obtain the forms of rivers here?"
248. Brhadasva (said): "Once the glorified goddesses went to see Kas'yapa. The venerable sage Kas'yapa induced them there (thus).
249. The beautiful country named Kas'mira has been created by me. O possessed of pure smiles, cherish that (country) by gift of water.
250. Aditi, Diti, Saci and the river Ganga said,"Let it be so" but neither Uma nor Karisini (spoke).
251. Then he worshipped S'ankara for (inducing) Sati, Hara thereafter said to his wife: "Do as has been said by Kas'yapa."
252. The goddess then spoke to the sage. "That country being my own body is already purified. What is to be done by me there ?"
253. Kas'yapa (said): "As the human beings are always associated with Pis'achas there, so their intellect does not always diverge from sin.
254. Dishonoured in all countries, possessed of evil practices and covered with impurities .....
255. O beautiful faced, their sin can be allayed by you alone, as the sin committed in this land is regarded to be very weighty by me.
256. Brhadas'va ( said): After knowing this fact, the goddess, having a face beautiful like the moon and possessed of great compassion, said to her lord:
257-59. "O father of the world, I shall assume the form of a river in the Nether World. Make a stroke with your spear near the abode of Nila, where, O lord, while breaking the mountain, was (placed) the point of the plough. By that stroke of the spear I shall come out of the Nether World and shall follow the way made with the plough up to the place where thereis the great river Sindhu." The god Hara (accordingly) did this and so did lhe beautiful Sati.
260-61. S'ankara himself named her as Vitasta. Because Hara had excavated with the spear a ditch measuring one Vitasti, through which the good river - gone to the Nether World - had come out, so she was given the name Vitasta by Svayambhu.
262. Then, O king, the people in all the countries heard that the goddess Sati, after assuming the form of a river, had appeared in Kas'mira.
263-64. Then the people, possessed of great sins, came to have bath in that (river). Being afraid of them, she went away quickly from that way excavated by means of spear to the Nether world. Propitiating her, Kas'yapa again brought her out near Pancahasta.
265. Issuing forth from the abode of the Naga Pancahasta, she had covered a distance of one gavyuti only when an ungrateful person, verily, saw her.
266-67. Seen by an ungrateful one, she again disappeared. Persuaded once more by the sayings of Kas'yapa, the best of the rivers allowed her person to be seen at a distance of a Kros'a from that Cakra. Then seen by one who had illicit relation with a friend's wife, she again disappeared.
268. By the word of Kas'yapa and praised by thousands of Brahmanas, the beautiful river was brought out at the hermitage of Narasimha.
269. Again at a distance of one Krosa, the great river, seen by a Brahmana-killer, vanished at once and then Kas'yapa said to her:
270. "Salutation to you, O daughter of the king of mountains; salutation to you, loved by the best sages; salutation to you, the giver of boons, worthy of being solicited and possesed of sacred character by association with Hara.
271-72. O goddess - devoid of impurities and grief, having holy and cool water, with the banks approached by the frolicsome wives of the gods, embraced by the twice-born and the gods - afraid of whom you are running away, those very men - devoid of all sins and shining with great lustre - surround you.
273. O goddess, just as a thing burnt in the fire gets purity, so is the purity (obtained ) from your sight. All sins become purified in the same way. O great goddess, be favourable !
274. O great river, you have been requested for the purification of the sinners, so purify the sins. O swiftly going one, do not go out of sight."
275. Gratified thus with devotion of the high-minded Kas'yapa, the goddess spoke to Kas'yapa who was speaking in that way.
276-78. "I do not dare purify those who are associated with too much of sin. For this implore Laksmi, the beloved of the bowholder (i.e. Visnu). She is capable of purifying even the three worlds. Aditi, Diti, the great river Ganga and all other rivers do not bear any comparison to her. Request today only Laksmi - the beloved of Kes'ava."
280-81. Govinda said to Laksmi. "O goddess go, do not be late." Addressed thus by Kesava, Laksmi - filled with grief - spoke this sentence: "O Lord, Sati has already gone there. She will, verily, take away the credit of me who shall go afterwards.
282. Knowing her full of grief, Kas'yapa spoke again. You are the supreme power appearing in various forms.
283-84. O goddess, daughter of the sea, devoid of dust, holy, abode of auspiciousness, it is you who are Kas'mira, it is you who are glorified as Uma, it is you who, O goddess, are living in the forms of all goddesses.
285. The water of the Vitasta, mixed with your water, may be such as is the honey mixed with nectar. Bathed in your water, even the sinners become free at once and are purified."
286-87. Lauded by Kasyapa, she became devoid of grief. The giver of boons, (she) thought, "I must act according to the words of my lord and of the sage. Certainly, there is no use of my thinking. Having assumed the form of a river she went quickly. Kas'mira spoke:
288-89. "Go soon before Sati reaches here to wait for you. O beautiful one, purify (this) country with water before she purifies it first. You will get a good name." Having heard her words she became griefless.
290. That river, therefore is always called Vis'oka (Griefless) by the people. Kasmira, whose speed is like that of the mind, also told (everything) to the goddess Sati.
291. Having listened to the activities of Laksmi, Sati, who had heard all the details, became pleased and stood waiting in the way near the hermitage of Dhaumya.
292. Vis'oka, too, afterwards, came through the hole of Akhu as it was vacant and saw Vitasta who was standing in front.
293. O chief of the kings, Viskoa - freed of all jealousy on seeing Vitasta - joined her. Then Vitasta, who had reached there first, appropriated her name.
294-96. O lord, then angry Visolca cursed Kas'mira, "O wicked one, as I have been absorbed by you today by means of falsehood and you have informed Sati about my activities, so your people will be mostly liars, possessed of impurities, hired servants and dishonoured in the worlds.
297. As regards taking away of my prestige by Sati, there is no humiliation to me as the goddess Sati, O Kas'mira, undoubtedly is the same as I.
298. Then the best among the rivers, namely Sati accompanied by Laksmi, went slowly through the way made with the plough, purifying the people.
299. Aditi, the mother of the gods celebrated as Trikoti, joined the goddess Vitasta.
300. O king, then (joined) Saci, the wife of Indra, named as river Harsapatha, and Diti, the mother of Daityas, Chandravati by name.