Jataka, aka: Jātaka; 12 Definition(s)
Jataka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Jātaka (जातक).—Genethlialogy; the practice or study of casting nativity horoscopes. Note: Jātaka is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.(Source): Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Jātaka (जातक): The Jataka is a voluminous body of folklore and mythic literature, primarily associated with the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as written in the Pali language (from about the 3rd century, C.E.); The story of Rama is told in one of Jātakas.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
jātaka : (nt.) a birth story. (adj.), born; arisen.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
1) Jātaka, 2 (m.) (jāta+ka, belonging to what has been born) a son J. I, 239; IV, 138. (Page 281)
2) Jātaka, 1 (nt.) (jāta+ka, belonging to, connected with what has happened) 1. a birth story as found in the earlier books. This is always the story of a previous birth of the Buddha as a wise man of old. In this sense it occurs as the name of one of the 9 categories or varieties of literary composition (M. I, 133; A. II, 7, 103, 108; Vin. III, 8; Pug. 43. See navaṅga). -2. the story of any previous birth of the Buddha, esp. as an animal. In this sense the word is not found in the 4 Nikāyas, but it occurs on the Bharhut Tope (say, end of 3rd cent. B. C.), and is frequent in the Jātaka book. ‹-› 3. the name of a book in the Pāli canon, containing the verses of 547 such stories. The text of this book has not yet been edited. See Rh. Davids’Buddhist India, 189—209, and Buddh. Birth Stories, introd. , for history of the Jātaka literature.—jātakaṃ niṭṭhapeti to wind up a Jātaka tale J. VI, 363; jātakaṃ samodhāneti to apply a Jātaka to the incident J. I, 106; DhA. I, 82. ‹-› Note. The form jāta in the sense of jātaka occurs at DhA. I, 34.
—atthavaṇṇanā the commentary on the Jātaka book, ed. by V. Fausböll, 6 vols. with Index vol. by D. Andersen, London, 1877 sq.; —bhāṇaka a repeater of the J. book Miln. 341. (Page 281)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
The tenth book of Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka containing tales of the former births of the Buddha. The Jataka also forms one of the nine angas or divisions of the Buddhas teachings, grouped according to the subject matter (DA.i.15, 24).
The canonical book of the Jatakas (so far unpublished) contains only the verses, but it is almost certain that from the first there must have been handed down an oral commentary giving the stories in prose. This commentary later developed into the Jatakatthakatha.
Some of the Jatakas have been included in a separate compilation, called the Cariya Pitaka. It is not possible to say when the Jatakas in their present form came into existence nor how many of these were among the original number. In the time of the Culla Niddesa, there seem to have been five hundred Jatakas, because reference is made to pancajatakasatani (p.80; five hundred was the number seen by Fa Hsien in Ceylon (p.71)). Bas reliefs of the third century have been found illustrating a number of Jataka stories, and they presuppose the existence of a prose collection. Several Jatakas exist in the canonical books which are not included in the Jataka collection. For a discussion on the Jatakas in all their aspects, see Rhys Davids Buddhist India, pp.189ff.
The Dighabhanakas included the Jataka in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. (DA.i.15; the Samantapasadika (i.251) contains a reference to a Jatakanikaya).
The Jataka consists of twenty two sections or nipatas.(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
N Chronicles of Buddhas past lives.(Source): Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Jātaka (जातक):—Stories of previous lives.(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Jātaka (जातक, “birth-story”) refers to one of the “nine (types of) teachings” (sūtra) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 62). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., jātaka). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgrahaThe sutra to narrate the birth stories of Shakyamuni in present life, past lives, and effects related to the past lives and the present lives.(Source): Buddhist Door: Glossary
Languages of India and abroad
jātaka (जातक).—n (S) The predetermination, from the horoscope &c., of the fortunes and destinies of an individual through life: also that branch of astrology which teaches the calculation. 2 A particular one of the eight varga or significant letters considered in forming a matrimonial connection.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
jātaka (जातक).—n Astrological calculation of a nativity.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Jātaka (जातक).—a. [jāta-svārthe ka] Born, produced.
-kaḥ 1 A new-born infant.
2) A mendicant.
-kam 1 A ceremony performed after the birth of a child (jātakarman); जात- काद्याः क्रियाश्चास्या विधिपूर्वं यथाक्रमम् (jāta- kādyāḥ kriyāścāsyā vidhipūrvaṃ yathākramam) Mb.1.8.12; जातकं कारयामास वर्तयित्वा च मङ्गलम् (jātakaṃ kārayāmāsa vartayitvā ca maṅgalam) Bhāg.1.12.13.
2) Astrological calculation of a nativity.
3) An aggregate of similar things.(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 59 books and stories containing Jataka or Jātaka. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Jataka tales [English], Volume 1-6 (by Robert Chalmers)
Jataka 517: Dakarakkhasa-jātaka < [Volume 5]
Jataka 350: Devatāpañha-jātaka < [Volume 3]
Jataka 112: Amarādevī-Pañha < [Book I - Ekanipāta]
Apadana commentary (Atthakatha) (by U Lu Pe Win)
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
The first attack by the daughters of Māra < [Chapter XXIV - The Virtue of Patience]
The Śaśa-Jātaka < [I. Puṇyakriyāvastu consisting of generosity]
Part 6 - Viśvantara-Jātaka (or Vessantara-jātaka) < [Chapter XX - The Virtue of Generosity and Generosity of the Dharma]
The Life of Sariputta (by Nyanaponika Thera)
The Helper < [Part II - Maturity Of Insight]
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Chapter XXVII - Jātaka of Surūpa (king of the deer) < [Volume II]
Chapter XII - The Jātaka of Śiri < [Volume II]
Gemstones of the Good Dhamma (by Ven. S. Dhammika)
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