Vibhaga, Vibhāga: 34 definitions


Vibhaga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vibhag.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Vibhāga (विभाग, “disjunction”).—One of the ten Parādiguṇa, or, ‘10 pharmaceutical properties’.—It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. According to Caraka, these ten properties (guṇa) are the means to success in therapeutic treatment. Vibhāga refers to the modification of dvavya (‘substance’) in order to obtain different parts of a plant.

Source: Pitta Ayurveda: Samanya Guna

Vibhaga means splitting; to divide something into more than one piece. It is the opposite of sanyoga. Often there are separate departments in schools, colleges, shopping malls, etc. Infact, there are 3 types of vibhagas in Hindu philosophy. The efforts made by one side, efforts made by both sides and effort made by all sides.

Source: Shodhganga: Ayurveda siddhanta evam darshana

Vibhaga-guna has been defined as separation or division. It can be partial selection as well. Chakrapani comments on this as vibhakti is division. Viyoga is separation of Samyoga. Here one question arises as does Vibhaga has separate existence than samyoga-nasha? If vibhaga is samyoga-abhava only; then it will be like accepting abhava as an entity which is against Ayurveda principles. Answer to this question is yes, by partial selection of Samyoga; a bhava-padartha is to be taken which has its existence and is not abhava-rupa. It can be said as partial selection or separation.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Vibhāga (विभाग):—Division or partial withdral

2) Dissociation; one among 10 paradi gunas.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Vibhāga (विभाग, “disjunction”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Vibhāga (विभाग) refers to “partition”, and is commonly classified as one of the eighteen vyavahārapada, or “law titles” in the ancient Dharmaśāstras. These vyavahārapadas are categories of ‘legal procedures’ and define a major type of crime for which a person may be tried. The term is derived from vyavahāra (“lawsuits” or “case”) which defines the case between the plaintiff and the defendant, which is often related to social and commercial transactions.

Vibhāga is mentioned in the following sources as one of the eighteen vyavahārapadas: the Manusmṛti (8.4-7). In the Arthaśāstra this is known as Dāyavibhāga and in the Nāradasmṛti as Dāyabhāga.

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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Vibhāga (विभाग).—Lit, division, splitting; the splitting of a sentence into its constituent parts viz. the words; , the splitting of a word into its constituent parts viz. the base, the affix, the augments and the like;

2) Vibhāga.—Understanding or taking a thing separately from a group of two or more; cf.अवश्यं खल्वपि विभज्यो-पपदग्रहणं कर्तव्यं यो हि बहूनां विभागस्तदर्थम् (avaśyaṃ khalvapi vibhajyo-papadagrahaṇaṃ kartavyaṃ yo hi bahūnāṃ vibhāgastadartham) ! सांकाश्यकेभ्यश्च पाटलिपुत्रकेभ्यश्च माथुरा अभि-रूपतराः (sāṃkāśyakebhyaśca pāṭaliputrakebhyaśca māthurā abhi-rūpatarāḥ), M. Bh. on P.V.3.57;

3) Vibhāga.—Splitting of a Saṃhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada text; cf. अथादावुत्तरे विभागे ह्रस्वं व्यञ्जनपरः (athādāvuttare vibhāge hrasvaṃ vyañjanaparaḥ) T. Pr. III.1, where विभाग (vibhāga) is explained as पदविभाग (padavibhāga) by the commentator cf. also R.Pr.XVII.15;

4) Vibhāga.—The capacity of the Kārakas (to show the sense); cf. कारकशक्तिः विभागः (kārakaśaktiḥ vibhāgaḥ) Nyāsa on Kāś.I.2.44.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Vibhāga (विभाग) refers to a “multitude of divisions”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Mālinī of the Void (vyomamālinī) abides (both) as one and as many divisions (vibhāga). The End of the Twelve is the Void which (is the abode of Mālinī that, as) the Self, is the nectar (Mālinī showers down below). (Thus Mālinī) resides in the midst of the ocean of nectar and, residing in the movement (cāra) (of the vital breath), she is the one who impels (its) motion (cāravāhinī). 'Movement' is said to be the activity of the vital breath (prāṇagati). Thus she who, residing there, impels (it, is said to be) the one who impels (its) motion (cāravāhinī)”.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)

Vibhāga (विभाग) or Vibhāgatantra refers to one of the twenty-eight Gāruḍatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Vibhāga belonging to the Garuḍa class.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vibhaga in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Vibhāga (विभाग, “disjunction”) or Pṛthaktvaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Vibhāga (disjunction) is that quality (guṇa) which destroys conjunction (saṃyoga). This quality exists in all dravyas. At first there must have previous conjunction, after that there may be disjunction. Praśastapāda also defines this quality as the separation of thing from other which are previously joined.

Vibhāga (disjunction) has three divisions anyatarakarmaja, ubhayakarmaja and vibhāgaja. According to Śivāditya, it is known as vibhāga (disjunction) as the generality of vibhāgatva resides in it. Moreover, this quality is the special cause of separation of substances. But in the Tarkasaṃgraha, Annaṃbhaṭṭa describes it as the destroyer of the conjunction. In the Dīpikā, Annaṃbhaṭṭa states that the word quality (guṇa) is added in the definition to reject the over-pervasion to time, space etc. The word saṃyoganāśako (destroyer of contact) is added in the definition to avoid over-pervasion to colour etc. Thus it is seen that disjunction is not simply the negation of conjunction, but it is an actual separation.

Nyaya book cover
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Vibhāga (विभाग) refers to “division (of the nature) (of fire)”, according to Somānanda’s Śivadṛṣṭi verse 3.42cd–47.—Accordingly, “[...] But, if you say (in reply) that injunctions involving the rites of passage for fire are explained in the (Śaiva) teachings, (we reply:) what is the goal of the (ritual) action (in question)? It is the action itself. There is no division of its [i.e., the fire’s] nature (svarūpa-vibhāga), here. It is the same for his [i.e., Śiva’s] abiding there [in the world]: that [i.e., the distinguishing of ‘pure’ from ‘impure’ elements in the world, or the distinction of that which is said to be Śiva and that which is said not to be] is conceived of merely as the assignation of names for the purpose of everyday speech/everyday activity”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Vibhāga (विभाग) refers to the “(three) kinds (of Tattvas)”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 21.15-19]—“[...] Everything that is seen is made out of the three tattvas. O Devī, without three kinds of tattvas, no meaning of a word [can be] known. From this are all three kinds of tattvas, [from] highest to lowest. Mantras possess the nature of Śiva, are to be known as the form of Śakti, [and] in that manner [are] aṇu. Unbounded energies proceed [through] the distribution of the three kinds of Tattvas (tattvatraya-vibhāga)”.

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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

1) Vibhāga (विभाग) refers to an “area”, according to the Devyāmata (chapter 105).—Accordingly, [while describing the layout of the residence (gṛha) for the prāsādāśramin]—“One should carefully arrange the residence in such a way that is has the characteristics that have been taught. Then [one should arrange] the area in between (antaradiś-vibhāga) the residence and temple. [...]”.

2) Vibhāga (विभाग) refers to the “divisions (of the site)”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “Next, I shall, as told before, teach the characteristics of extraneous substances, which exist beneath the site and cause calamities to people. When the site, which has been made square, is being divided with cords, [the officiant] who has knowledge of divisions of the site (vāstudeha-vibhāga-jña) should investigate extraneous substances by omens, etc. [...]”.

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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vibhaga in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Vibhāga (विभाग) refers to “division”, according to the Niśvāsakārikā (Jñānakāṇḍa verse 12.162-63).—Accordingly: “When a Brahmin, Kṣatriya, Vaiśya or Śūdra is a knower of the highest reality, [then] no distinction exists [between them], just as no division (vibhāga) exists [between] fire placed in fire, milk in milk [or] water poured into water. [This] truth has been spoken by Śiva”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vibhāga (विभाग) refers to “divisions (of castes and outcastes)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.5.5 (“The Tripuras are fascinated).—Accordingly, as Arihan said to the Lord of the Three Cities: “[...] It is unnecessary to divide the people into different castes. When all are men who is superior and who is inferior? [...] Some of the ancestors thought that the four castes are born of mouth, arms, thighs etc. of Brahmā. But when we consider, this does not fit in properly. How can sons born of the same body or from the same body be of four different castes? Hence the divisions (vibhāga) of castes and outcastes do not appear to be sound [varṇāvarṇavibhāgo'yaṃ tasmānna pratibhāsate]. Hence no difference between man and man should be entertained. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Vibhāga (विभाग) refers to an “analytical (explanation)” [?], according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then the bodhisatva Gaganagañja addressed himself to the Lord: ‘O Lord, please give the Tathāgata’s blessing over this exposition of the dharma so that, in the latter time, in the latter age, it will be disseminated and practiced throughout the Jambūdvīpa’. The Lord said: ‘For that reason, son of good family, I will invoke the Four Great Kings so that they will come and strive to keep this exposition of the dharma for a long time with detailed and analytical explanation (vistara-vibhāga-nirdeśa)’”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The Original Paṇhavāyaraṇa/Praśnavyākaraṇa Discovered

Vibhāga (विभाग) refers to the “distinction” (e.g., of shapes or colours), as taught in the Paṇhavāgaraṇa (Sanskrit: Praśnavyākaraṇa): the tenth Anga of the Jain canon which deals with the prophetic explanation of queries regarding divination.—The Praśnavyākaraṇa deals with the praśnavidyā in a rather complex way. It is divided into at least 33 short chapters, some of which are further divided into sub-chapters. Some contents of the text, mainly those related with articulation and pronunciation can have significance far beyond the scope of the praśnavidyā.

Several chapters deal with Vibhāga (“distinction”), viz.:

  1. saṃsthāna-vibhāga-prakaraṇa (on distinction of the shape [of lost or stolen object]);
  2. varṇa-vibhāga-prakaraṇa (on distinction of colour);
  3. ghanacchidra-vibhāga-prakaraṇa (on distinction of solidness and hollowness [density]);
  4. gandha-vibhāga-prakaraṇa (on distinction of smell);
  5. rasa-vibhāga-prakaraṇa (on distinction of taste);
  6. dig-vibhāga-prakaraṇa (on distinction of the direction [of lost/stolen object]).
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vibhāga.—(HRS), king's share of the output of mines; as suggested by the Arthaśāstra, rent from mines and from the private manufacturers of salt. Note: vibhāga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vibhaga in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vibhāga : (m.) distribution; division; classification.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vibhāga, (fr. vibhajati, cp. vibhaṅga & vibhajana) distribution, division; detailing, classification J. IV, 361; Vism. 494; VbhA. 83; ThA. 100; VvA. 37; PvA. 122.—attha° detailing of meaning Vism. 569; dhātu° distribution of relics VvA. 297; PvA. 212; pada° division of words SnA 269; PvA. 34.—Cp. saṃ°. (Page 629)

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vibhāga (विभाग).—m (S) A share or division. 2 S Divided or separated state.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vibhāga (विभाग).—m A share or division. Divided state.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vibhāga (विभाग).—

1) Division, partition, apportionment (as of inheritance); समस्तत्र विभागः स्यात् (samastatra vibhāgaḥ syāt) Manusmṛti 9.12,21; Y. 2.114.

2) The share of an inheritance.

3) A part or share in general.

4) Division, separation, disjunction (regarded in Nyāya phil. as a Guṇa); Kumārasambhava 2.4; तत्त्ववित्तु महाबाहो गुणकर्मविभागयोः (tattvavittu mahābāho guṇakarmavibhāgayoḥ) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 3.28.

5) The numerator of a fraction.

6) A section.

7) Arrangement.

Derivable forms: vibhāgaḥ (विभागः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vibhāga (विभाग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. Part, portion, share. 2. The share or portion of an inheritance. 3. Partition of inheritance. 4. (In arithmetic.) The numerator of a fraction. 5. Separation, disjunction, (considered as a Guna in Nyaya Phil. E. vi implying variously, bhāga a portion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vibhāga (विभाग).—i. e. vi-bhaj + a, m. 1. Dividing, Bhāṣāp. 3; division, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 207, 23; [Hitopadeśa] 119, 18; arrangement, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 198, 15. 2. Part, [Pañcatantra] 243, 20; 241, 7. 3. Distribution, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 111. 4. Partition of inheritance, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 115. 5. The share or portion of inheritance.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vibhāga (विभाग).—[masculine] distribution, apportionment, division, partition, [especially] of an inheritance; share, portion, part; separation, distinction, difference.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Vibhāga (विभाग) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—See Śārīrakabhāṣyavibhāga.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vibhāga (विभाग):—[=vi-bhāga] [from vi-bhaj] m. distribution, apportionment, [Ṛg-veda; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] partition of patrimony, law of inheritance (one of the 18 titles or branches of law), [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya] etc. (cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 261])

3) [v.s. ...] a share, portion, section, constituent part of anything, [Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] division, separation, distinction, difference, [Nirukta, by Yāska; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra] etc. (ena, separately, singly, in detail; cf. also yoga-v)

5) [v.s. ...] disjunction (opp. to saṃ-yoga and regarded in Nyāya as one of the 24 Guṇas), [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 68]

6) [v.s. ...] (in [arithmetic]) the numerator of a fraction, [Colebrooke]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva, [Rāmāyaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vibhāga (विभाग):—[vi-bhāga] (gaḥ) 1. m. Part, share, partition; numerator of a fraction.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vibhāga (विभाग) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vibhāga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vibhaga in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vibhaga in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vibhāga (विभाग) [Also spelled vibhag]:—(nm) a department; division; portion, part; ~[ta:/śa:] departmentwise; divisionwise.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Vibhāga (विभाग) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Vibhāga.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vibhāga (ವಿಭಾಗ):—

1) [noun] a dividing or being divided; division.

2) [noun] a portion or division of a whole that is separate or distinct; a part.

3) [noun] the full or proper portion or part allotted or belonging to or contributed or owed by an individual or group; a share.

4) [noun] an administrative division of a state; a division; a district.

5) [noun] division or a separately located unit of an organisation; a branch.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of vibhaga in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

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