Vedana, Vedanā: 33 definitions


Vedana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vedna.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Vedanā (वेदना).—A goddess who caused pain to living things. Adharma married Hiṃsā. Two daughters named Nṛtā and Nirṛti were born to them. From them Bhaya, Naraka, Māyā and Vedanā were born. Mṛtyu was the daughter of Māyā. Duḥkha was the son of Vedanā. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 20).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vedanā (वेदना).—Married Raurava Naraka; son born of Vedanā and Māyā was Duhkham.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 40-1; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 64.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa

Vedanā (वेदना) refers to “mild pain”, according to Āyurveda sections in the Garuḍapurāṇa.—In Garuḍapurāṇa the vraṇa (ulcers/wounds) are classified broadly into two types based on the causative factors i.e.: (1) Āgantuja-vraṇa and (2) Doṣaja-vraṇa. They are sub classified based on the type of Doṣa, [e.g., Śoṇitajavraṇa or Raktajavraṇa—The ulcers / wounds caused due to the derangement in rakta. The main characteristic feature is Manda vedanā (mild pain)] [...].

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Vedanā (वेदना) refers to “pain” (in the place of the snake-bite) and is a symptom of a snake-bite caused by the Śvetamaṇḍalī snakes, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).

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context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Vedana (वेदन) refers to “offering (into fire)” [?], according to the Netratantroddyota commentary on the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 22.15]—“The middle syllable (juṃ) is the middle tattva (vidyā). [By the word] propelled [the text means to] say, [the Mantrin] offers into fire (vedanavedanapradhānayā) by the method of ascending and descending the central domain. That is to say, by this means he casts everything (i.e., the entire universe) into the great fire”.

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context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dhammasangani

Vedana is a term of very general import, meaning sentience or reaction, bodily or mental, on contact or im- pression. Sensation is scarcely so loyal a rendering as feeling, for though vedana is often qualified as "born of the contact" in sense-activity, it is always defined generally as consisting of the three species —

  1. pleasure (happiness),
  2. pain (ill),
  3. and neutral feeling

— a hedonistic aspect to which the term 'feeling' is alone adequate. Moreover, it covers representative feeling.

This general psychical aspect of vedana, as distinct from sensations localized bodily — e.g., toothache — is probably emphasized by the term "mental" (cetasikam) in the answer. The Cy. points out that by this expression ( = cittanissitattam) "bodily pleasure is eliminated" (Asl. 139).

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms

Vedana (“feeling”)—pleasure (ease), pain (stress), or neither pleasure nor pain. See khandha.

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

Vedana (F, “Sensation”) (Pleasing, displeasing or neutral).

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

Vedana (“feeling”) refers to One of the Sabbacittasadharana cetasikas.—Vedana is feeling. It feels the object. Due to its arising citta has a feeling. There are three kinds of feeling according to anubhavana bheda or class of feeling. They are sukha or pleasant feeling that is agreeable feeling, dukkha or unpleasant feeling or disagreeable feeling, and adukkhamasukha or neither pleasant nor unpleasant feeling. It is known as upekkha vedana. According to indriya bheda or faculty of feeling, there are five feeling. They are physical pleasant feeling or sukha, mental pleasant feeling or somanassa, physical unpleasant feeling or dukkha, mental unpleasant feeling or domanassa and neither pleasant nor unpleasant feeling or upekkha.

Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas

Vedana (feeling) refers to “One of the Seven Universals”.—In Pali vedana, is another cetasika among the seven universals. Feeling accompanies every citta, there is no moment without feeling.

When we study the Abhidhamma we learn that vedana is not the same as what we mean by feeling in conventional language. Feeling is nama, it experiences something. Feeling never arises alone; it accompanies citta and other cetasikas and it is conditioned by them. Thus, feeling is a conditioned nama. Citta does not feel, it cognizes the object and vedana feels.

Feeling is a cetasika which accompanies each citta. When there is pleasant feeling, it can accompany kusala citta or akusala citta rooted in attachment, but its quality is different in each case.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

1) Vedanā; further s. khandha. - Contemplation of f.: vedanānupassanā; s. satipatthāna.

2) Vedanā ('feeling', sensation), is the 2nd of the 5 groups of existence (s. khandha II).

According to its nature, it may be divided into 5 classes:

  1. bodily agreeable feeling (kāyikā sukhā-vedanā = sukha);
  2. bodily disagreeable feeling (kāyikā dukkhā-vedanā = dukkhā);
  3. mentally agreeable feeling (cetasikā sukhā-vedanā = somanassa);
  4. mentally disagreeable feeling (cetasikā dukkhā-vedanā = domanassa);
  5. indifferent or neutral (adukkha-m-asukhā vedanā = upekkhā, q.v.).

The above-mentioned 5 kinds of feeling are enumerated amongst the 22 faculties (indriya, q.v.). -

With regard to the 6 senses, one distinguishes 6 kinds of feeling:

  1. feeling associated with seeing,
  2. feeling associated with hearing,
  3. feeling associated with smelling,
  4. feeling associated with tasting,
  5. feeling associated with bodily impression and
  6. feeling associated with mental impression.

The textual wording of it is 'feeling arisen through visual contact' (cakkhu-samphassajā vedanā; S. XXII, 55; D. 22), etc.

Feeling is one of the 7 mental factors inseparably associated with all consciousness whatever, s. nāma.—In the formula of the dependent origination (paticcasamuppāda, q.v.), feeling is the condition for the arising of craving (tanhā).

See M.59; Contemplation of Feeling (Vedanā Samyutta), by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 303/304).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Vedanā (वेदना, “sensation”) refers to the seventh of twelve pratītyasamutpāda (dependent origination) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X. From sparśa there arises vedanā, sensation. Within vedanā there arises an adherence of mind (cittābhiniveśa) called craving or thirst, tṛṣṇā.

According to chapter XXXI, there are two kinds of feelings (vedanā): bodily feeling (kāyikī-vedanā) and mental feeling (caitasikī-vedanā). Bodily feeling is outer (bāhya) and mental feeling is inner (ādhyātmika). Furthermore, the feelings associated with the [first] five consciousnesses are outer, and the feelings associated with the mental consciousness are inner.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Vedanā (वेदना) refers to “feeling”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Furthermore, the recollection of the Buddha is not to see the Lord from his material body, but to be in accordance with the knowledge of recollection through understanding the nature of the material form. It is not to see the Lord from his feeling (vedanā), perception (saṃjñā), formative factors (saṃskāra) or consciousness (vijñāna), but to be in accordance with the knowledge of recollection through understanding their nature. It is not to see the Lord from his parts of personality, realms or fields of perception, but to be in accordance with the knowledge of recollection through understanding their nature. [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Vedana (वेदन) refers to “(great) pain”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, “Now there lived a Brahmin called Viṣṇudatta in Navanagara. [...] He enchanted an iron stake and placed it on the head (mūrdhanmūrdhni dattam) of that Nāga. The head of the Nāga burst and it felt great pain (vedanamahatīṃ vedanām). The Nāga became extremely angry with great fury. Then in a moment, an instant, a short time, the Nāga’s body was overcome with great pain by the intensity of swaying. Then because of this rays came forth from its body and the fields of the Brahmin were burnt. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Vedanā (वेदना, “sensation”) refers to one of the five Skandhas (cosmic elements), according to Vajrayāna or Tantric Buddhism.—The Buddhists believe that the world is composed of five cosmic elements or Skandhas [viz., Vedanā (sensation)...]. These elements are eternal cosmic forces and are without a beginning or an end. These cosmic forces are deified in Vajrayāna as the five Dhyāni Buddhas. In the course of time they were regarded as the five primordial gods responsible for this diversified creation, [..].

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Vedanā (वेदना, “sensation”) or Vedanāskandha refers to “(the aggregate of) sensations”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “There, in the five aggregates, originates the making of I. Vairocana in the aggregate of forms. Vajrasūrya in sensations (vedanā-skandha). Padmanṛtyeśvara in perceptions. Vajrarāja in mental formations. Vajrasattva in consciousness. Śrī Heruka Vajra in the truth of all Tathāgata”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Vedanā (वेदना, “feelings”) refers to the second of the “five components” (pañcaskandha) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 22). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., vedanā). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Vedanā also refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30).

Vedanā also refers the seventh of the “twelve factors of conditional origination” (pratītyasamutpāda) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 42).

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Vedana:—Feelings of pleasure, pain, or indifference.

Source: Buddhist Door: Glossarysee Sensation or Five Skandhas.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vedanā : (f.) pain; sensation.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vedanā, (f.) (fr. ved°: see vedeti; cp. Epic Sk. vedanā) feeling, sensation (see on term, e.g. Cpd. 14 Mrs. Rh. D. B. Psy. ch. iv.) D. I, 45; II, 58 (cp. Dial. II. 54), 66; III, 58, 77, 221, 228, 238 (°upādāna); S. III, 86 sq.; A. I, 39, 122, 141; II, 79, 198, 256; III, 245 sq. 450; IV, 301, 385; Kh III, (tisso v.); Sn. 435, 529, 739, 1111; Nd1 109; Nd2 551 (tisso v.); Ps. I, 6, 50 sq. 145 sq. 153 sq.; II, 109 sq. 181 sq.; Vbh. 135 sq. 294, 401, 403 sq.; Dhs. 3, 1348; Nett 27, 65 sq.; 83, 123, 126; Tikp 246, 317 sq. 345 sq.; Vism. 460 sq.; DA. I, 125; VbhA. 13 sq. 39 sq. 80, 178, 193, 221 (°ânupassanā, in detail), 263 sq. 382 (various).—Three modes of feeling (usually understood whenever mention is made of “tisso vedanā”): sukhā (pleasant), dukkhā (painful) adukkha-m-asukhā (indifferent) D. III, 275; S. II, 53, 82; IV, 207; A. III, 400; It. 46; Tikp 317 sq.—or: kusalā, akusalā, avyākatā Vism. 460.—Five vedanās: sukhaṃ, dukkhaṃ, somanassaṃ, domanassaṃ, upekkhā Vism. 461. Categories of 2 to 108 modes of Vedanā, S. IV, 223 sq.—vedanā is one of the 5 khandhas (see khandha II. B).—On relation of old and new sensations (purāṇa°›nava°) see e.g. A. II, 40; III, 388; IV, 167; Vism. 33; and see formula under yātrā.—In the Paṭiccasamuppāda (q. v.) vedanā stands between phassa as condition and taṇhā as result; see e.g. Vism. 567 sq.—2. (in special application) painful sensation, suffering, pain (i.e. dukkhavedanā) M. I, 59; A. I, 153 (sārīrikā bodily pain); II, 116 (id.); III, 143 (id.); Pv. I, 1015; Miln. 253 (kāyikā & cetasikā); VbhA. 101 (maraṇ’antikā v. agonies of death).—vedan’aṭṭa afflicted by pain Vin. II, 61; III, 100; J. I, 293.—As adj. vedana suffering or to be suffered Pv III, 106 (=anubhūyamāna PvA. 214).—vedana at J. III, 349 is to be read as vetana. (Page 648)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vēḍaṇa (वेडण).—n R (vēḍhaṇēṃ) A clumsy and coarsely wrought ring (of gold or silver); worn on the fingers or toes.

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vēdanā (वेदना).—f (S) Acute pain in general. 2 S Representing, intimating, making known. Pr. hyā bōṭācī vē0 tyā bōṭālā yēta nāhīṃ One man little knows the affliction of another.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vēdanā (वेदना).—f Accute pain in general.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vedana (वेदन) or Vedanā (वेदना).—[vid-lyuṭ]

1) Knowledge, perception.

2) Feeling, sensation; सत्त्वं रजस्तमश्चैव प्राणिनां संश्रिताः सदा । त्रिविधा वेदना चैव सर्वसत्त्वेषु दृश्यते (sattvaṃ rajastamaścaiva prāṇināṃ saṃśritāḥ sadā | trividhā vedanā caiva sarvasattveṣu dṛśyate) || Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.194.29. [also 'sensitivity (to the driver's stimuli) of an elephant'. It is of 7 kinds :अत्यर्थ, उत्तान, गम्भीर, अन्वर्थ, प्रत्यर्थ, कर्कश (atyartha, uttāna, gambhīra, anvartha, pratyartha, karkaśa) and सिद्ध (siddha)].

3) Pain, torment, agony, anguish; अवेदनाज्ञं कुलिशक्षतानाम् (avedanājñaṃ kuliśakṣatānām) Kumārasambhava 1.2; R.8.5.

4) Acquisition, wealth, property.

5) Marriage; वसनस्य दशा ग्राह्या शूद्रयोत्कृष्टवेदने (vasanasya daśā grāhyā śūdrayotkṛṣṭavedane) Manusmṛti 3.44;9.65; Y.1.62.

6) Presenting, giving.

7) The marriage of a Śūdra woman with a man of a higher caste.

Derivable forms: vedanam (वेदनम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vedanā (वेदना).—rarely °na (Pali only °nā recorded, so usually in Sanskrit in this meaning but rarely °na), feeling, sensation: as in Pali there are three, e.g. Mahāvyutpatti 1913, listed 1914—6 as sukhāḥ, duḥkhāḥ, aduḥkhāsukhāḥ; these are correlated in Śikṣāsamuccaya 232.11 ff. with rāga (for sukha), dveṣa (also doṣa, for duḥkha), and moha (in regard to aduḥkhāsukha), all of course to be abandoned; sarva-°nāsu vītarāgo (mss. tīvra-rāgo; Senart em. with Pali Sn 529) Mahāvastu iii.397.19 (verse); vedanā is the 7th link in the pratītyasamutpāda, q.v. (compare e.g. sparśena tisra anuvartati vedanā ca Lalitavistara 420.2, verse, in pra°sam°); it is also the 2d of the 5 skandha, q.v. and the 2d of the 4 smṛtyupasthāna, q.v. (Śikṣāsamuccaya 232.6 ff. discusses it in this connection); as nt., vedako vedanād anyaḥ pṛthagbhūto na vidyate Śikṣāsamuccaya 233.11 (verse).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vedana (वेदन).—nf.

(-naṃ-nā) 1. Sensation, perception, knowledge conveyed by the senses. 2. Pain, smart, agony. 3. Knowledge. 4. The ceremony of holding the ends of a mantle, to be observed by a Sudra female, on her marriage with a man of either of the first three classes. 5. Presenting, delivering. 6. Acquisition, wealth. f. (-nī) The true skin or cutis. E. vid to know, &c., lyuṭ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vedana (वेदन).—i. e. vid + ana, I. n., and f. . 1. Perception, knowledge conveyed by the senses. 2. Knowledge. 3. Pain, [Pañcatantra] 146, 23 (); agony, [Pañcatantra] 44, 2 (). 4. Presenting. 5. The ceremony of holding the ends of a mantle, to be observed by a Śūdra female on her marriage with a man of either of the three first classes. Ii. n. Marrying, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 24; marriage, 9, 65.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vedana (वेदन).—1. [adjective] making known, announcing; (also [feminine] ā) understanding, knowledge; [feminine] ā (also [neuter]) feeling, sensation, [especially] pain, ache.

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Vedana (वेदन).—2. [adjective] finding, getting, procuring (—°); [neuter] finding, acquiring, marrying (of both sexes), wealth, property.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vedana (वेदन):—[from veda] 1. vedana mfn. (for 2. See p. 1017, col. 2) announcing, proclaiming (See bhaga-v)

2) [v.s. ...] n. perception, knowledge, [Nirukta, by Yāska; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (rarely f(ā). )

3) [v.s. ...] n. making known, proclaiming, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

4) Vedanā (वेदना):—[from vedana > veda] f. pain, torture, agony (also personified as a daughter of Anṛta), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc. (exceptionally n.)

5) Vedana (वेदन):—[from veda] n. feeling, sensation, [Yājñavalkya; Śiśupāla-vadha] (with Buddhists one of the 5 Skandhas, [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 109])

6) [from veda] 2. vedana mfn. finding, procuring (See naṣṭa and pati-v)

7) [v.s. ...] n. the act of finding, falling in with ([genitive case]), [Mahābhārata]

8) [v.s. ...] the act of marrying (said of both sexes, [especially] the marriage of a Śūdra woman with a man of a higher caste; cf. [Manu-smṛti iii, 44, and] utkṛṣṭa-v), [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya]

9) [v.s. ...] the ceremony of holding the ends of a mantle (observed by a Śūdra female on her marriage with a man of a higher caste), [Horace H. Wilson]

10) [v.s. ...] property, goods, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vedana (वेदन):—[(naṃ-nā)] 1. n. f. Sensation; pain; knowledge; presenting. f. () The skin.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vedanā (वेदना) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Viaṇā, Veaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vedana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vedanā (वेदना) [Also spelled vedna]:—(nf) ache, pain; agony; ~[grasta] in agony, suffering from pain, afflicted.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vēdana (ವೇದನ):—

1) [noun] the act, process or power of perceiving, gaining knowledge.

2) [noun] the power or process of receiving conscious sense impressions through direct stimulation of the bodily organism; sensation.

3) [noun] a sensation of hurting or strong discomfort, in some part of the body, caused by an injury, disease or functional disorder, and transmitted through the nervous system; pain.

4) [noun] wealth; riches.

5) [noun] the act or an instance of marrying or getting married; marriage; wedding.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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