Kena upanishad (Madhva commentary)

by Srisa Chandra Vasu | 1909 | 11,760 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165

This is Mantra 4.2 of the Kena-upanishad (Kenopanishad), the English translation and commentary of Madhva (Madhvacharya) called the Bhasya. The Kena Upanishad deals with topics such as Brahman and Atman (soul) and also discusses the symbolic representation of the Gods as forces of nature. It is an important text in the Vedanta schools of Hindu philsophy. This is Mantra 2 of section 4 called ‘Caturtha-Khanda’.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of Kena-upaniṣad mantra 4.2:

तस्माद्वा एते देवा अतितरामिवान्यान्देवान्यदग्निर्वायुरिन्द्रस्ते ह्येनन्नेदिष्ठं पस्पर्शुस्ते ह्येनत्प्रथमो विदाञ्चकार ब्रह्मेति ॥ २ ॥

tasmādvā ete devā atitarāmivānyāndevānyadagnirvāyurindraste hyenannediṣṭhaṃ pasparśuste hyenatprathamo vidāñcakāra brahmeti || 2 ||

tasmāt—therefore; because these Devas had seen and discoursed with Brahman, or because they had ceased to be proud, or because they first learnt the true nature of their self; vai—also, even; ete—These; devāḥ—Gods—Agui, Vāyu and Indra; or brahmā—Vāyu, Śeṣas, Garuḍa, Vīndra, Śiva and their consorts or Kāma, Dakṣa, Bṛhaspati, Svāyambhuva Manu, Aniruddha, Sūrya, Candra, Dharma and Varuṇa; atitarām—excel, to be above, to surpass; iva—as it were; Their superiority to other Devas was innate, as Brahmā, etc; , had no self-pride and never fell into the error of attributing to themselves the victory won by the Warrior Within. anyān—others (than Agni, Nāsikya Vāyu and Indra; devān—Gods (like Candra, Varuṇa, etc); “Other Devas” like Indra, etc; yat—namely; agniḥ—Agni; vāyuḥ—Vāyu; nāsikya—the ordinary air of respiration; indraḥ—Indra; The Devas like Kāma, Dakṣa, etc., should also be included. te—these (Agni, Vāyu and Indra); hi—because; enat—it: the Brahman in the form of Yakṣa; nediṣṭham—nearest, dearest, earliest, first in time; paspṛśūḥ—[?] touched, reflected, cogitated; tehi—because they (Agni, Vāyu and Indra); enat—it (the Brahman in the form of a Yakṣa); prathamaḥ—the first, the foremost (of the Devas), the first, (as an adverb of time); vidāñcakāra—knew; The singular verb used instead of the Plural; brahmā—Brahman; iti—thus.

2. Only for this (reason), these Devas, Brahmā, Vāyu, Śeṣa, etc., are as if, superior to other Devas, namely, to Agni, Vāyu and Indra. And because Agni, Vāyu and Indra reflected first on that Brahman and touched Him the nearest, and because they first knew “This Yakṣa is Brahman” therefore, they are superior to other Devas.

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