Mala, Māḷa, Māla, Mālā: 35 definitions



Mala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Māḷa can be transliterated into English as Mala or Malia, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Maal.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting

Mālā (माला, ‘rosary’) is a weapon (āyudha or bādhra) according to the Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Mala (मल, “excreta”):—Urine, faeces, sweat etc. are malas formed from the ingested food. They are devoid of essence, are collected in their sites and thrown out by their respective passages. Malas are also formed from dhātus as the gross product while the finer portion of them leads to the formation successive dhātus.

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Mala (मल) refers to “dirt” and is mentioned in verse 1.13 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Mala and dri-ma properly signify “dirt, impurity”. As in the case of doṣa and ñes-pa, however, their original meaning has become somewhat obliterated in medical usage. Both terms now denote the waste products or “secretions” of the elements, which are respectively phlegm, choler, dirt in the apertures, sweat, nails & hair, fat of eyes, skin & feces, and vital essence (Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā  113.63 sq.; cf. Jolly, Medicin p. 43).

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Mala (मल):—The waste products of the body formed during various stages of digestion and metabolism. Mala is one of the fundamental constituent of the human body along with Doṣa and Dhātu. They are of two classes: Āhāramala and Dhātumala. Āhāramala are: Mūtra (Urine) and Purīṣa (faeces). Following are the Dhātumalas: Kapha from Rasa, Pitta from Rakta, nose mucus and ear wax from the Māṃsa, Sveda (perspiration) from the Meda, nails and hair from the Asthi, rheum of the eye from the Majja.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Mālā (माला, “garland”) refers to one of the thirty-six “characteristic features” (lakṣaṇa) of perfect ‘poetic compositions’ (kāvyabandha) and ‘dramatic compositions’ (dṛśyakāvya, or simply kāvya). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17, these thirty-six lakṣaṇas act as instructions for composing playwrights. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature.

(Description of Mālā): When for the purpose of accomplishing a desired object one (lit. learned men) suggests to a person his many needs that may be met, it is an instance of Series of Offers (mālā, lit. “garland”).

2) Mālā (माला) refers to one of the ten kinds of yamaka, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17. Yamaka is one of the four “figures of speech” (alaṃkāra), used when composing dramatic compositions (kāvya).

3) Mālā (माला) is the name of a meter belonging to the Dvipadā-caturasra class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of sixteen syllables all long, is mālā”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Mālā (माला).—Name of a river (nadī) situated near the seven great mountains on the western side of mount Naiṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These settlements consume the water flowing from these seven great mountains (Viśākha, Kambala, Jayanta, Kṛṣṇa, Harita, Aśoka and Vardhamāna). Niṣadha (Naiṣadha) is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Māla (माल).—A place of habitation of ancient India. (Śloka 39, Chapter 9, Bhīṣma Parva).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Māla (माल).—A Janapada of the East.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 123.

2) Mālā (माला).—(Cintāmaṇi)—Kubera's wedding present to Kāmeśvara.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 15. 22.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Mālā (माला).—A variety of the utterance of the Veda-Samhita (वेदपाठ (vedapāṭha)); a kind of Krama-Patha, one of the eight artificial recitations.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

1) Mālā (माला) is the alternative name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) mentioned by Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Mālā corresponds to Pramitā. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

1) Mālā is also the name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) (according to Piṅgala) to which Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) assigned the alternative name of Srak.

2) Mālā (माला) refers to one of the seventy-two sama-varṇavṛtta (regular syllabo-quantitative verse) mentioned in the 334th chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (e.g., the mālā metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Mālā (माला) or Mālāmudrā is the name of a mudrā described in the Īśvarasaṃhitā 24.27-29.—Accordingly, “this mudrā of Kaustubha is stated. Listen now to mālāmudra. Four fingers of the two hands are to be brought at their tips not far from each other, hanging gently while being seated or standing. The two arms, O Brahmin, are to be kept hanging down between the thighs with the two wrists being kept down up to the wrists. This is described as mālāmudrā”. Mūdra (eg., Mālā-mudrā) is so called as it gives joy to the tattvas in the form of karman for those who offer spotless worship, drive out the defects which move about within and without and sealing up of what is done.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study

Mala (मल) refers to “impurity”. An important term in Śaivism referring to three bonds, called Pāśa—āṇava, karma and māyā—which limit the soul, preventing it from knowing its true, divine nature.

context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Mālā (माला) is the name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) [defined as उ.उ.इ.इ] of the Upajāti type as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—We find ten examples of Mālā variety of Upajāti metre in the Bhīṣmacarita. The example of it is verse IV.18. [...] The other examples are as follows: X.29, XI.8, XI.24, XIV.1, XIV.20, XIV.39, XIV.42, XIV.53 and XIV.60.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Mālā (माला) refers to “frieze of the entablature § 3.26.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Mala (मल) refers to “impurities”, according to the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Even though the Command [i.e., ājñā] itself is purifying, the degrees in which it manifests depends on the purity of the recipient: the “descent of power” of one who has been purified of his previous Karma is very pure. He quickly attains an intense “descent of power”. It is very weak for one whose body is full of impurity (mala). The transmission of the Command from the teacher to his or her disciple serves to remove this impurity. This is the first step and the first form of the Command.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Mala is a medical term used in Ayurveda meaning "excrement".

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Mālā (माला) or Mālyā refers one of four dance-deities, commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—Her Colour is red; her Symbol is the garland; she has two arms.—All these four deities (viz., Mālā) are popular in the Vajrayāna pantheon and are described times without number both in the Sādhanamālā as well as in the Niṣpannayogāvalī.

Mālā is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī (pañcaḍāka-maṇḍala) as follows:—

“Mālā is of red colour and holds in her two hands the garland of jewels”.

[All these dance-deities are violent in character with garland of severed heads, and dance in pratyālīḍha. They show the tarjanī against the chest as the common gesture.]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Mala (मल) refers to “personal uncleanliness” and represents one of the hardships (parīṣaha), or “series of trials hard to endure” according to the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra 10.1 (Incarnation as Nandana). While practicing penance for a lac of years, Muni Nandana also endured a series of trials hard to endure (e.g., mala). Nandana is the name of a king as well as one of Mahāvīra’s previous births.

2) Mala (मल) refers to “impurity” and represents one of the seven magic powers, according to chapter 4.7 [sanatkumāra-cakrin-caritra].—Accordingly:—“[...] Magic powers were acquired by him enduring all the trials hard to endure, indifferent to any expedient for relief. The seven magic powers, namely: phlegm, vipruṣ, dried perspiration (jalla), impurity (mala), excrement, touch, and also ‘everything’, are called remedies”.

Note: Jalla (Pravacanasāroddhāra, p. 430b), is defined as “mala arising from the ear, mouth, nose, eye, tongue, and from the body”. Mala is defined in the same way in Yogaśāstra 1.8 com. and Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra 1.1.845. It is hard, therefore, to see just what distinction to make between jalla and mala. From the Rājendra, Pāiasaddamahaṇṇavo and Ardha-Māgadhī Koṣa, I think perhaps that jalla is limited to ‘dried perspiration,’ when a distinction must be made. In the other enumerations of the labdhis which I know, either jalla or mala is given, but not both; neither are vipruṣ and viṣṭa named together. In the Prakrit version, vippa and jala occur. Sarvauṣadhi means that the nails, hair, teeth, and every part of the body are medicines.

Source: Shodhganga: A cultural study on the jain western Indian illustrated manuscripts

Mālā (माला, “flower garland”).—The fifth of “fourteen dreams” of Triśalā.—The fragrant flower garland that fell from the skies was predominantly white in color and had as many as twenty five types of flowers tied in bunches.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Mālā (माला).—Why are there 108 beads in the rosary (mālā)? Multiplying the different types of passions (A.VI.8.1) gives 108 subtypes. Empirical souls while living and involved in auspicious or inauspicious activities are invariably associated with one of these passions (Kaṣāya). To purify from each of these passions and so there are 108 beads in the rosary.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Mala (मल, “excretion”) refers to one of the eight types of extraordinary healing (auṣadhi), which itself is a subclass of the eight ṛddhis (extraordinary powers). These powers can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people) in order to produce worldly miracles. The Āryas represent one of the two classes of human beings according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46, the other being Mleccha (barbarians).

What is meant by extraordinary power to heal by excretion’s (mala-riddhi)? It is the extraordinary power by which the air which touches the excretions from teeth, ears, nose and eyes of an ascetic cures a patient when it touches his body.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Māla.—(EI 22), an elevated ground. Note: māla is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Māḷa, (& Māla) (Non-Aryan, cp. Tamil māḍam house, hall) a sort of pavilion, a hall D. I, 2 (maṇḍala°, same at Sn. p. 104, which passage SnA 447 explanations as “savitānaṃ maṇḍapaṃ”); Vin. I, 140 (aṭṭa, māla, pāsāda; explained at Vin. III, 201. In the same sequence of Vbh. 251 explained at VbhA. 366 as “bhojana-sālā-sadiso maṇḍala-māḷo; Vinay’aṭṭha-kathāyaṃ pana eka-kūṭasaṅgahito caturassa-pāsādo ti vuttaṃ”); Miln. 46, 47.—Cp. mālaka.—(The BSk. form is either māla, e.g. MVastu II. 274, or māḍa, e.g. Mvyut 226, 43. ) (Page 531)

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Māla, (māḷa) (?) 1. mud (is it mis-spelling of mala?), in pakka-m°-kalala (boiling mud) J. VI, 400. Kern, Toev. s. v. believes to see the same word in phrase mālā-kacavara at J. II, 416 (but very doubtful).—2. perhaps= froth, dirty surface, in pheṇa° Miln. 117 (cp. mālin 2), where it may however be māla (“wreaths of foam”). ‹-› 3. in asi° the interpretation given under asi (as “dirt” see above p. 88) has been changed into “sword-garland, ” thus taking it as mālā. (Page 530)

— or —

Mālā, (f.) (cp. Epic Sk. mālā) garland, wreath, chaplet; collectively=flowers; fig. row, line Sn. 401; Pug. 56; Vism. 265 (in simile); Pv. II, 316 (gandha, m. , vilepana, as a “lady’s” toilet outfit); II, 49 (as one of the 8 or 10 standard gifts to a bhikkhu: see dāna, deyyadhamma & yañña); PvA. 4=J. III, 59 (ratta-kaṇavera° a wreath of red K. flowers on his head: apparel of a criminal to be executed. Cp. ratta-māla-dhara wearing a red garland J. III, 179, an ensign of the executioner); PvA. 51, 62.—asi °-kamma the sword-garland torture (so correct under asi!) J. III, 178; Dāvs III, 35; dīpa° festoons of lamps Mhvs 5, 181; 34, 77 (°samujjota); nakkhatta° the garland of stars VvA. 167; puppha° a garland or wreath of flowers Mhvs 5, 181.—On mālā in similes see J. P. T. S. 1907, 123. In compn māla° sometimes stands for mālā°.

— or —

Mala, (nt.) (Vedic mala, see etym. under malina. The Dhtm (395) only knows of one root mal or mall in meaning “dhāraṇa” supporting, thus thinking of māḷaka) anything impure, stain (lit. & fig.), dirt. In the Canon mostly fig. of impurities. On mala in similes see J. P. T. S. , 1907, 122.—S. I, 38 (itthi malaṃ brahmacariyassa), 43 (id.); A. I, 105 (issā°); Sn. 378, 469, 962, 1132 (=rāgo malaṃ etc. Nd2 500); Nd1 15, 478 sq.; Dh. 239 sq.; Vbh. 368 (tīṇi malāni), 389 (nava purisa-malāni); Pv. II, 334 (macchera°); PvA. 45 (id.), 80 (id.), 17 (citta°); Sdhp. 220.—Compar. malatara a greater stain A. IV, 195=Dh. 243.—See also māla.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mala (मल).—m n (S) Dirt, filth, foulness. 2 Excretion of the body; as serum, semen, blood, marrow, urine, fæces, earwax, nails, phlegm, tears, rheum, sweat. 3 Dregs, sediment, dross, rust, feculence or recrement gen. 4 fig. Evilmindedness or evil intent, malignity, moral corruption. Mem. For compounds besides those occurring below in order see under maḷa.

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maḷa (मळ).—m (mala S) Dirt, filth, feculence, foulness. For compounds besides those occurring below see under mala.

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maḷa (मळ).—f R (Usually maḷī) A roll of the sordes or scurf of the body.

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maḷā (मळा).—m (mālā S) A plantation of fruits or vegetables, an orchard &c.: also a tract of ground fit to be so used, i.e. alluvial or rich and low and level. 2 A species of sesamum.

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māla (माल).—m ( A) Property or possessions. 2 Goods, wares, merchandise, commodities. 3 An article or a thing considered with relation to worth or value. Ex. hā āṭhā rupayāñcā māla āhē. mālacā māla (The commodity or thing itself; the article exactly in statu quo ante.) A phrase used of money, goods &c. of which, after such application or employment as might augment or improve, or diminish or injure it or them, no change has taken place whether for better or for worse.

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mālā (माला).—f (S) A garland, a string or wreath of flowers. 2 A string of beads, a necklace, a rosary. 3 A line or row.

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mālā (माला).—m (Or mālū) A whitish and unctuous earth with which writing-boards &c. are rubbed.

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māḷa (माळ).—f (mālā S) A garland, a wreath, a string of flowers. 2 A row of petals, a corol. Esp. in comp. with the numerals; as ēkamāḷa, dumāḷa, timāḷa. 3 A string of gems or beads; a necklace; a rosary. 4 fig. A string, line, series; a regular succession or concatenation of things in general (as of waterpots around a waterwheel, of laborers to pass from hand to hand, of persons, legend-expounders, priests &c. to officiate by turns): also the rope of a waterwheel to which the pots are fastened. v lāva, lāga. 5 A day of the navarātra;--because a fresh string of flowers is used every day of this period. Ex. ājacī kitavī māḷa āhē. 6 The roll of sūta around the wheel passing on to the cāta or whirler. In spinning or drawing threads.

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māḷa (माळ).—m An elevated and extended tract of ground, esp. as somewhat stony or sterile; a plain, a down, a heath. 2 A loft. It is floored with bamboos, thus differing from māḍī & māḷā.

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māḷā (माळा).—m The room formed by overlaying with slight sticks the cross beams of a house, a loft. 2 An erection or a stand in a cornfield for the person that watches it: also a stand generally to see or look out from. 3 Scaffolding (of a building).

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mala (मल).—m n Dirt. Dregs. Excretion of the body. Fig. Evil-mindedness.

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maḷa (मळ).—m Dirt, filth.

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maḷā (मळा).—m An orchard.

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māla (माल).—m Goods; property.

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mālā (माला).—f A garland. A rosary. A row.

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māḷa (माळ).—f See mālā. m A plain. A loft.

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māḷā (माळा).—m A loft; scaffolding (of a building).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mala (मल).—a. [mṛjyate śodhyate mṛj-kala ṭilopaḥ Tv.]

1) Dirty, foul; आमिषं यच्च पूर्वेषां राजसं च मलं भृशम् (āmiṣaṃ yacca pūrveṣāṃ rājasaṃ ca malaṃ bhṛśam) Rām.7.74.16.

2) Mean, covetous.

3) Unbelieving, infidel, godless.

4) Wicked.

-laḥ, -lam 1 Dirt, filth, impurity, dust, any impure matter; मलदायकाः खलाः (maladāyakāḥ khalāḥ) K.2; छाया न मूर्छति मलोपहतप्रसादे शुद्धे तु दर्पणतले सुलभावकाशा (chāyā na mūrchati malopahataprasāde śuddhe tu darpaṇatale sulabhāvakāśā) Ś.7.32.

2) Dregs, refuse, sediment, excrement, feces, dung.

3) Dross (of metals), rust, alloy.

4) Moral taint or impurity, sin; फलैधःकुसुमस्तेयमधैर्यं च मलावहम् (phalaidhaḥkusumasteyamadhairyaṃ ca malāvaham) Ms.11.7.

5) Any impure secretion of the body; (according to Manu these excretions are twelve:-vasā śukramasṛṅ majjā mūtraviḍ ghrāṇakarṇaviṭ | śleṣmāśrudūṣikā svedo dvādaśaite nṛṇāṃ malāḥ Ms.5.135).

6) Camphor.

7) Cuttle-fish bone.

8) Tanned leather; a leather-garment.

9) The three humours of the body (vāta, pitta and kapha).

-lam A kind of base metal.

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Māla (माल).—1 Name of a district in the west or south-west of Bengal.

2) Name of a tribe of barbarians, a mountaineer.

3) Name of Viṣṇu.

-lam 1 A field.

2) A high ground, rising or elevated ground (mālamunnatabhūtalam); क्षेत्रमारुह्य मालम् (kṣetramāruhya mālam) Me.16 (śailaprāyamunnatasthalam Malli.).

3) A wood near a village.

4) Fraud, deceit.

Derivable forms: mālaḥ (मालः).

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Mālā (माला).—[mal saṃjñāyāṃ kartari ghañ]

1) A garland, wreath, chaplet; अनधिगतपरिमलापि हि हरति दृशं मालतीमाला (anadhigataparimalāpi hi harati dṛśaṃ mālatīmālā) Vās.

2) A row, line, series, succession; गण्डोट्टीनालिमाला (gaṇḍoṭṭīnālimālā) Māl.1.1; आवद्धमालाः (āvaddhamālāḥ) Me.9.

3) A group, cluster, collection.

4) A string, necklace; as in रत्नमाला (ratnamālā).

5) A rosary, chain; as in अक्षमाला (akṣamālā).

6) A streak; as in तडिन्माला, विद्युन्माला (taḍinmālā, vidyunmālā).

7) A series of epithets.

8) (In dramas) The offering of several things to obtain a wish.

9) A vocabulary, dictionary.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Māla (माल).—(1 = Sanskrit mālā, garland, as prior member of [compound], so also in Sanskrit, see [Boehtlingk and Roth]: samantajvālā-māla-parye- ṣitām (Tārām) (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 65.14;) (2) = māḍa, hall, pavilion, [Page431-b+ 71] in maṇḍala-māḍa, °māla, q.v. Perhaps this same word is to be recognized in the [bahuvrīhi] [compound] candana-māla, having halls of sandalwood, epithet of prāsāda, palace, in Divyāvadāna 43.1, 7; 49.27 ff., and of a vihāra in Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 64.1. But Lévi in his note ad loc. identifies (3) -māla here with mālā, q.v., and supports his theory with the [compound] mālā- vihāra, q.v.; he may be right (in that case, having tops or crowning pavilions of sandālwood); the matter seems to me doubtful.

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Mālā (माला).—(1) (compare AMg. id., ‘upper deck or storey on a ship’, [Ardha-Māgadhī Dictionary]; see mālikā in Acharya, Dict. Hind. Arch. s.v., and compare mālāvihāra, -māla 3), upper part, top, crown, of a building; in navachadanā āveśana-mālā (so mss. each time; Senart em. °śālā) Mahāvastu i.328.6, 9, 10, 12, 14, 20; 329.1, the newly-thatched crown (top) of a (potter's) work- shop. The AMg. meaning could be derived from a meaning pavilion (on top), so cabin (on the deck of a ship); (2) name of a goddess or yoginī (Garland personified): Sādhanamālā 324.6 (replacing Mālyā of 157.12 etc.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mala (मल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) 1. Dirty. 2. Miserly, niggardly. mn.

(-laḥ-laṃ) 1. Excretion of the body, as serum, semen, blood, marrow, urine, fæces, ear-wax, nails, phlegm, tears, rheum, and sweat. 2. Sin. 3. dirt, filth. 4. Dreg, sediment. 5. Rust. 6. Camphor. 7. Cuttlefish-bone. 8. Tanned leather. n.

(-laṃ) A particular base metal. f.

(-lā) A plant, (Flacourtia cataphracta:) see jhaṭāmalā. E. mal to hold or contain, (in the body.) aca aff.; or mṛj to cleanse, Unadi aff. kala, and the penultimate and final radical rejected.

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Māla (माल).—n.

(-laṃ) 1. A field. 2. Rising round. 3. Fraud, deceit. m.

(-laḥ) 1. A man. 2. A mountain, a barbarian, one of a particular tribe. 3. A country, lying west and south-west of Bengal: Ramghur, &c., or according to Wilford, Malbhum in Midnapur. 4. A name of Vishnu. f.

(-lā) 1. A line, a row. 2. A gar land, a string or wreath of flowers. 3. A chaplet of flowers. 4. A string of beads, a rosary. 5. (In rhetorical or poetical description,) a series or string of epithets, smiles, &c. E. fortune, to get or be, affs. aṅ and ṭāp; or to measure, Unadi aff. ra, and ra changed to la; or mala-saṃjñāyāṃ karttari ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mala (मल).—I. adj. 1. Dirty. 2. Niggardly. Ii. (m. and) n. 1. Dirt, filth, Dāśak. in Chr. 184, 9. 2. Sediment, dregs. 3. Filthy refuse, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 93. 4. Excretion of the body, as fæces, etc., [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 132. 5. Sin, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 102. 6. Defilement, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 70. 7. Rust. 8. Camphor. 9. Cuttle fishbone.

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Māla (माल).—I. m. 1. A name of a barbarous tribe, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 38, 14. 2. The name of a country, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 16. 3. Viṣṇu. Ii. i. e. mala + a, f. . 1. A line. 2. A garland, a necklace, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 174, M. M. (dhṛta-kanaka-māla, adj. Bearing a gold necklace). 3. A chaplet of flowers. 4. A rosary. 5. A chain, [Pañcatantra] 255, 19. Iii. n. A field.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mala (मल).—[neuter] [masculine] dirt, impurity (lit. & [figuratively]); a dirty garment (only [neuter]).

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Māla (माल).—[masculine] [Name] of a country, [plural] of a people; [feminine] ā wreath, garland, chaplet, necklace, row, line, collection, [especially] of words, dictionary; [neuter] field, garland (only °—).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mala (मल):—n. (in later language also m.; [probably] [from] √mlai) dirt, filth, dust, impurity (physical and moral), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

2) (in med.) any bodily excretion or secretion ([especially] those of the Dhātus q.v., described as phlegm from chyle, bile from the blood, nose mucus and ear wax from the flesh, perspiration from the fat, nails and hair from the bones, rheum of the eye from the brain; cf. also the 12 impurities of the body enumerated in [Manu-smṛti v, 135]), [Suśruta; Vāgbhaṭālaṃkāra] etc.

3) (with Śaivas), original sin, natural impurity, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

4) camphor, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Os Sepiae, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) m. the son of a Śūdra and a Mālukī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Malā (मला):—[from mala] f. Flacourtia Cataphracta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) Mala (मल):—n. tanned leather, a leathern or dirty garment (?), [Ṛg-veda x, 136, 2]

9) a kind of brass or bell-metal, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) the tip of a scorpion’s tail, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([varia lectio] ala)

11) mfn. dirty, niggardly, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) unbelieving, godless, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) cf. [Greek] μέλας; [Latin] mălus; [Lithuanian] mólis, mélynas.

14) Māla (माल):—m. (derivation doubtful) Name of a district (lying west and south-west of Bengal), [Meghadūta]

15) of one of the 7 islands, of Antara-dvīpa; [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.], of Viṣṇu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) of the son of a Śūdra and a Sūta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [plural] Name of a barbarous tribe or people, [Mahābhārata]

18) Mālā (माला):—[from māla] a f. See [column]3

19) Māla (माल):—n. a field, [Inscriptions; Mahābhārata]

20) a forest or wood near a village, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) fraud, artifice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) (in some [compound]) = mālā, a wreath, garland.

23) Mālā (माला):—[from māla] b f. a wreath, garland, crown, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.

24) [v.s. ...] a string of beads, necklace, rosary, [Kāvya literature; Pañcatantra] (cf. akṣaand ratna-m)

25) [v.s. ...] a row, line, streak, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

26) [v.s. ...] a series, regular succession (with nāmnām, a collection of words arrayed in a series, a vocabulary, dictionary; cf. nāma-m)

27) [v.s. ...] a kind of Krama-pātha (cf. krama-mālā)

28) [v.s. ...] Name of various metres, [Colebrooke]

29) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) a series of epithets or similes, [Horace H. Wilson]

30) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) a series of offerings for obtaining any object of desire ([Śakuntalā iii, 17]), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

31) [v.s. ...] (in [astrology]) a [particular] Dala-yoga (q.v.), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā [Scholiast or Commentator]]

32) [v.s. ...] Trigonella Corniculata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

33) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Mahābhārata]

34) [v.s. ...] of a glossary.

35) c mālin See p. 813, col. 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mala (मल):—[(laḥ-laṃ)] 1. m. n. Any excretion of the body, dirt; sin. f. () Rust; a plant. a. Dirty; miserly.

2) Māla (माल):—(laṃ) 1. n. A field. m. A man; a mountaineer; a country; Vishnu. f. A row; garland; rosary.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Mala (मल):—

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Mala (मल):—

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Māla (माल):—gaṇa saṃkalādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 2, 75.]

1) m. a) pl. Nomen proprium eines Volkes (= mlecchajāti [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 934.] [Halāyudha 2, 444]) [Mahābhārata 6, 347] [?(Viṣṇupurāṇa 185).] sg. Nomen proprium einer Gegend [Meghadūta 16.] = jātyantara [Medinīkoṣa l. 44.] = jana [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 505.] [VIŚVA] bei [UJJVAL.] zu [Uṇādisūtra 2, 28.] — b) Beiname Viṣṇu’s: māṃ lakṣmīṃ lātīti mālo viṣṇuḥ .. tamatatīti mālatī(!) [Bharata] zu [Amarakoṣa] [Śabdakalpadruma] —

2) n. a) Feld [Medinīkoṣa] (lies mālaṃ kṣetre) . [VIŚVA a. a. O.] utpalamālāni [Mahābhārata 3, 433.] savṛkṣamālākulā (bhūmi) Inschr. in Journ. of the Am. Or. [S. 7, 27, 19.] śaivāla [Spr. 2520] (die Aenderung in jāla war nicht nothwendig). — b) Wald [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] ein Wald im Bereich eines Dorfes (grāmāntarāṭavī) [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 963.] — c) Betrug, Hinterlist (kapaṭa) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] — d) = mālā in mālabhañjikā und mālabhārin. māla [Lassen’s Anthologie 38, 14] wohl fehlerhaft.

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Mālā (माला):—f. [Uṇādisūtra 2, 28.]

1) Kranz [Amarakoṣa 2, 6, 3, 36.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 651.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 506.] [Medinīkoṣa l. 44.] [Halāyudha 2, 397.] [ĀŚV. GṚHY. 3, 8, 17. 18.] [GOBH. 3, 5, 10.] [Kauśika’s Sūtra zum Atuarvaveda 36. 38.] [Mahābhārata 3, 16125. fg.] nalada (solche Compp. haben nach gaṇa gho-ṣādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 6, 2, 85] den Ton auf der ersten Silbe) [Aśvalāyana’s Śrautasūtrāni 6, 10.] mandāra [Śākuntala 161.] vakula [Ṛtusaṃhāra 2, 25.] suvarṇacampaka [Scholiast] zu [Caurapañcāśikā 1.] dāman [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 33, 2.] pṛthutaraguṇamāla adj. Inschr. in Journ. of the Am. Or. [S. 6, 505, Śloka 16.] lāvaṇyamālā [506, Śloka 24.] ābaddhamāla adj. [Meghadūta 9.] navadalamāla (tamāla) [Gītagovinda 1, 29.] pratisūryāṇāṃ mālā [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 37, 2.] —

2) Rosenkranz [Oxforder Handschriften 93,a,36. fgg. 102,a,30.] śuddhasphaṭika [PAÑCAR. 1, 7, 83.] —

3) Halsband: ratnamālālaṃkṛtakaṇṭha [Pañcatantra 255, 19. 25.] dhṛtakanakamāla (śvan) [Spr. 2822.] mahāśaṅkhamayī (s. u. mahāśaṅkhamaya). nārācamālāṃ (raudracāpapramuktāṃ) rāmasya lalāṭe pratyamuñcata [Rāmāyaṇa 6, 79, 61.] —

4) Reihe, Streif [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1423.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] upapakṣma [Suśruta 2, 338, 3.] taḍinmālā [Spr. 993.] vidyunmālākula (nabhas) [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 25, 5.] jvālā [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 21, 86.] samudraṃ pracaladūrmimālākulam [Spr. 1876.] kiṃ mālāḥ kumudasya Inschr. in Journ. of the Am. Or. [S. 6, 502, Śloka 2.] ali [MĀLATĪM. 1, 7.] meghānām [kāvyādarśa 2, 118.] megha [Mahābhārata 3, 16126] (ein Kranz von Wolken). [KĀM. NĪTIS. 3, 11.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 165.] [Halāyudha 1, 59.] chattramālāḥ (so die ed. Bomb.) [Mahābhārata 7, 1573.] ṣṭhīvanaṃ śmaśrumālāsu [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 157.] ābaddhamāla adj. (zugleich Kranz) [Meghadūta 9.] nāmnāṃ mālā (vgl. nāmamālā) eine in Reihen geordnete Sammlung von Wörtern, Wörterbuch (mit Ausschluss der Wurzeln) [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1.] krama Bez. einer best. Lese- oder Schreibweise [Weber’s Indische Studien 3, 269.] mālā schlechtweg [Weber’s Verzeichniss No. 368.] —

5) Trigonella corniculata Lin. [Medinīkoṣa]; vgl. marunmālā . —

6) Name verschiedener Metra: a) a, b: {Ç} {Ç}; c, d: {Ç} [Journ. of the Am. Or. S. 6, 514.] — b) 4 Mal {Ç} [Colebrooke II, 161] [?(X, 2). Weber’s Indische Studien 8, 390]; vgl. sraj . — c) ein Prākrit-Metrum von 45 x 2 und 43 + 27 Moren [Colebrooke II, 156 (25).] —

7) Nomen proprium eines Flusses [Mahābhārata 2, 795.] [Griechischen und Indoskythischen Könige] [?( Kunde des Morgenlandes 2,

23) und MUIR (Stenzler 2, 423)] fassen mālāṃ carmaṇvatīm als einen Fluss auf. —

8) Titel eines Wörterbuchs (vgl. nāma) [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 170,] [Scholiast] — Vgl. akṣamāla, akṣamālā (auch [Pariśiṣṭa des Atharvaveda 43, 4, 11.] [Rāmāyaṇa 6, 82, 84]), kāñcana, kāraṇa, ketumāla, gaṇḍamālā, candra, japa, dīpa, nakṣatra ( [Z. 4 lies 105, 13 Stenzler 106, 9]), nara, nāma, pattramāla, puṣpamālā, prati, pramāṇa, bhakta, maṇi, mandāra, mayūkha, marunmālā, mahāmāla, mālatīmālā, muṇḍa, ratna, vana, vandana, varṇa, vākya, haṃsa, hema .

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Mala (मल):—1.

1) m. [Weber’s Indische Studien 9, 26, 6.] bei den Śaiva die angeborene geistige Unreinheit [SARVADARŚANAS. 74, 13. 19. 85, 14. fgg. 86, 6. fgg. 88, 18. 89, 9.]

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Mālā (माला):—

4) Reihe im Gegens. zu kevala [Sāhityadarpana 671. 675] (wo mālākevalarūpatvāt zu schreiben ist). mālārūpatā [199, 19.] In der Dramatik das Darbringen (Anbieten) mehrerer Dinge um das Gewünschte zu erreichen [459. 434.] Beispiel [Śākuntala 69.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Mala (मल):——

1) m. n. (älter) — a) Schmutz , Unrath , Unreinigkeit (in der physischen und in der moralischen Welt). In der Medicin Ausscheidung überh. , insbes. diejenige der Dhātu. Bei den Śaiva die angeborene geistige Unreinheit. Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā. — b) *Kampfer. — c) *Os sepiae.

2) *f. malā Flacourtia cataphracta.

3) n. — a) etwa ein schmutziges Gewand [Ṛgveda (roth). 10,136,2.] — b) ein best. geringes Metall. Nach [Hemacandra's Abhidhānacintāmaṇi] Messing.

4) *Adj. — a) geizig. — b) ungläubig , gottlos.

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Māla (माल):——

1) m. — a) Nomen proprium — α) Pl. eines Volkes. — β) einer Gegend. — b) *Beiname Viṣṇu's. —

2) f. ā — a) Kranz. — b) Rosenkranz. — c) Halsband. — d) Reihe , Streif. nāmnāṃ mālā eine in Reihen geordnete Sammlung von Wörtern , Wörterbuch (mit Ausschluss der Wurzeln). — e) eine best. Form des Kramepāṭha. — f) Name verschiedener , Metra. — g) in der Dramatik das Darbringen ( Anbieten ) mehrerer Dinge um das Gewünschte zu erreichen. — h) in der Astrol. ein best. Dalajoga [Bādarāyaṇa’s Brahmasūtra] bei [UTPALA] zu [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka 12,1.] — i) *Trigonella corniculata. — k) Titel eines Wörterbuchs. — l) Nomen proprium eines Flusses. —

3) n. — a) Feld. — b) *Wald. — c) *ein Wald im Bereich eines Dorfes. — d) *Betrug , Hinterlist. — e) am Anfange einiger Comp. = mālā Kranz.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of mala in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Mala (मल) [Also spelled mal]:—(nm) faeces, stool, excrement; sewage; rubbish, filth, dirt; ~[kūpa] a sink; ~[tyāga] excretion of faeces; ~[dvāra] the anus; —[parīkṣā] stool test; ~[pātra] a commode; —[māsa] an intercalary month; -[mūtra] urine and faeces, excrement; [rodhaka] constipative; -[visarjana] excretion of facces; ~[śuddhi] purgation.

2) Māla (माल) [Also spelled maal]:—(nm) goods; commodity; things, articles; effects; stuff; merchandise; cargo; produce; stock; wealth, riches; property; public revenue; dainties; (slang) a youthful and good-looking woman; (nf) a wide highway; garland; series; —[adālata] a revenue court; ~[khānā] warehouse, storehouse; ~[gāḍī] a goods train; ~[gujāra] a tenant, one who pays land revenue; ~[gujārī] land revenue, rent; ~[godāma] a godown, warehouse; store-house; -[ṭāla] wealth, riches, money; assets; ~[dāra] wealthy, rich; opulent; ~[puā] a kind of sweet cake fried in ghee; -[maṃtrī] revenue minister; —[matā] assets, riches, wealth; effects; ~[masta] money-proud, arrogant on account of opulence; ~[mastī] money-pride, arrogance inspired by opulence; —[mahakamā] the department of revenue; —[sūcī] the stock list; goods inventory; —[ugalavānā/nikalavānā] to recover (stolen) things; —[uḍānā] to consume dainties, to take rich meals; to misappropriate; to spend lavishly; —[e-muphta dile berahama] freely got is lavishly spent; —[kāṭanā] to eat dainties, to take rich meals; to earn large amounts through dubious means; to be amassing wealth; —[barāmada honā] (stolen) things to be recovered; —[māranā] to embezzle, to misappropriate, to usurp somebody’s money.

3) Mālā (माला):—(nf) a garland; wreath; rosary, string of beads; series; chain, row, line; ~[kāra] a garland-maker; circular; —[japanā/pheranā] to tell beads, to remember God by feeling the beads of a rosary one by one; —[pahanānā] to garland.

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