Makshika, Mākṣika, Makṣika, Makṣīkā, Mākṣīka: 24 definitions


Makshika means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Mākṣika and Makṣika and Makṣīkā and Mākṣīka can be transliterated into English as Maksika or Makshika, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Mākṣika (माक्षिक) is another name for Tāpya (‘chalcopyrite’), which is one of the eight mahārasa (‘superior minerals’), according to the Sanskrit work Rasaprakāśasudhākara (treatise on rasaśāstra, or ‘Indian medicinal alchemy’).

It has the following two varieties:

  1. Rukma-mākṣika or Svarṇamākṣika (produced from the mountains of kānyakubja area)
  2. Tāpya-mākṣika or Rajatamākṣika (found on the banks of the Tapti river).
Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara, chapter 4-5

Mākṣika (Pyrite):—There are two varieties of mākṣika i.e.

  1. Rukma (suvarṇa) mākṣika; (produced from the mountains of kānyakubja area)
  2. Tāpya (rajata) mākṣika; (found on the banks of Tapti river).

It can destroy all the diseases and may always prove as good as amṛta (nectar) for pāradakarma and pārada preparations. It proves helpful in mixing the metals with each other, and is best in Rasāyana.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Critical Review of Rasaratna Samuccaya

Mākṣika (माक्षिक) refers to “pyrite”, and mentioned in the Rasaratnasamuccaya: a 13th century C.E. alchemical treatise, authored by Vāgbhaṭa, is a useful compilation related to preparation and properties of drugs of mineral and metallic origin.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

1) Mākṣika (माक्षिक) refers to one of the eight kinds of honey (madhu) according to the Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 45.133, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Honey was possibly, the earliest sweet thing Indians knew. [...] According to Suśruta the eight varieties of honey are mākṣika, bhrāmara, kṣaudra, pauttika, chātra, ārghya, auddalika and dāla each of these being obtained from different types of bees.

Caraka (Carakasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 27.242) states that of all these varieties, the mākṣika type (the honey collected by small bees) was considered the best and bhrāmara type (the honey collected by big black bees) was considered heavy to digest. Aṣṭāṅgasaṅgraha (Sūtrasthāna VI.98), a medieval period text states that among the eight varieties of honey bhrāmara, pauttika, kṣaudra and mākṣika are considered good in the increasing order.

Mākṣika is also mentioned as one of the eight kinds of honey (madhu) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).

2) Mākṣika (माक्षिक) refers to “flies” and is mentioned in a discusses regarding the reaction of certain insects and other living beings on consumption of poisionous food. The after-effect of intake of poison for Mākṣika (flies) is defined as: “die after tasting poisoned food”.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Mākṣika (माक्षिक) refers to a type of Honey which is included in a (snake) poison antidote recipe, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—In the Añjana or Collyrium segment of the eighth Adhyāya, Kāśyapa prescribes eight types of permutation and combination of herbs that effectively arrest poison. According to Kāśyapasaṃhitā (verse VIII.39b-40), “Arjuna, Kuṣṭha, Nata, Vyoma, Tulasī, Śāribā, Dhana, Helā, Hiṅgu,Vacā,Yaṣṭhi,Vilaṅga, Sindhu, honey (mākṣika) boiled in the latex of Palāśa and salt water and stored in the horn of a cow, applied as collyrium treats poison effectively”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Mākṣika (माक्षिक):—Variety of honey which is collected from the reddish variety of honey bee. It is considered as the best among other varieties of honey. Color of this honey will be similar to seasam oil.

2) Makṣikā (मक्षिका):—[makṣikāḥ] Flies with poisonous stings.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Makshika in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Makṣika (मक्षिक).—Do not sit on poisoned food.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 219. 17.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Makṣika (मक्षिक) [or mākṣika] refers to “honey”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 15) (“On the nakṣatras—‘asterisms’”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Those who are born on the lunar day of Pūrvaphālguni will delight in dance, in young women, in music, in painting, in sculpture and in trade; will be dealers in cotton, salt, honey (makṣika) and oil and will be forever in the enjoyment of the vigour of youth. Those who are born on the lunar day of Uttaraphālguni will be mild, cleanly, modest, heretical, generous and learned; will be dealers in grains; will be wealthy, virtuous and in the company of princes. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Makṣikā (मक्षिका) refers to “bees” (responsible for crop-destruction, etc.), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān teaches a pacification ritual]: “[...] All stinging insects, mosquitos, ants, flying insects, bees (makṣikā), quivering bees, bumble bees, worms, ones with a sting, vātālikas, owls, mice, long-mouthed ones and so on and various sorts of pests perish. They will not appear. They will be destroyed. All crows, large birds, sparrows, cañcaṭikas, pigeons, surikas, owls, wagtails, parrots, mynas and so on perish. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Makṣikā (मक्षिका) refers to “flies”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “If this body were not covered with skin, then who would be able to protect [it] from flies (makṣikā), worms and crows (makṣikākṛmikākebhyaḥ syāt trātuṃ)? The structure of the body of embodied souls is always filled with diseases, always the abode of impurity [and] always destined for death”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

makṣikā (मक्षिका).—f (S) A fly. prathamagrāsē makṣikāpātaḥ A Sanskrit phrase expressing the occurrence of deterring or obstructing circumstances at the very outset of a business.

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mākṣika (माक्षिक).—n (S) A certain mineral substance. It is distinguished into suvarṇamākṣika & raupyamākṣika. 2 (Produce of makṣikā or bees.) Honey.

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mākṣika (माक्षिक).—a S Pertaining to honey-flies or flies.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

makṣikā (मक्षिका).—f A fly.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Makṣika (मक्षिक) or Makṣikā (मक्षिका) or Makṣīkā (मक्षीका).—A fly, bee; भो उपस्थितं नयनमधु संनिहिता मक्षिका च (bho upasthitaṃ nayanamadhu saṃnihitā makṣikā ca) M.2.

Derivable forms: makṣikaḥ (मक्षिकः).

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Mākṣika (माक्षिक) or Mākṣīka (माक्षीक).—a. (- f.) Coming or derived from a bee.

-kam [mākṣikābhiḥ saṃbhṛtya kṛtam aṇ]

1) Honey; धुर्यैरपि माधुर्यैर्द्राक्षाक्षीरेक्षुमाक्षिकसुधानाम् (dhuryairapi mādhuryairdrākṣākṣīrekṣumākṣikasudhānām) Bv.4.43.

2) A kind of honeylike mineral substance; माक्षीकधातुमधुपारदलोहचूर्ण (mākṣīkadhātumadhupāradalohacūrṇa) Rāja. T.

-kaḥ 1 A spider.

2) Honey.

3) Pyrites.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Makṣikā (मक्षिका).—f.

(-kā) A fly. E. makṣ to be angry, Unadi aff. sikan; or makṣ the same, kkun aff.

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Makṣīkā (मक्षीका).—f.

(-kā) A fly. E. See the last, the pen. vowel made long.

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Mākṣika (माक्षिक).—n.

(-kaṃ) 1. A mineral substance, of which two kinds are described; the svarṇamākṣika or gold Makshika, of a bright yellow colour, apparently the common pyritic iron ore: and the rūpyamākṣika or silver Makshika, which answers in appearance to the Hepatic pyrites of iron; other names of these ores occur; as viṭmākṣika and kāṃsyamākṣika, or feculent Makshika and mixed metal Makshika they are however, perhaps rather synonymes of the gold and silver ore, respectively, than names of distinct species. 2. Honey. E. makṣikā a bee, aṇ aff. of derivation; the name is applied to the ore, from its honey-like colour.

Mākṣika can also be spelled as Mākṣīka (माक्षीक).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Makṣikā (मक्षिका).—makṣīkā, f. A fly, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 59.

Makṣikā can also be spelled as Makṣīkā (मक्षीका).

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Mākṣika (माक्षिक).—i. e. makṣikā + a, n. 1. Honey. 2. A peculiar mineral substance.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Makṣika (मक्षिक).—[masculine] = [preceding] or bee.

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Makṣikā (मक्षिका).—[feminine] = [preceding] or bee.

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Mākṣika (माक्षिक).—[adjective] coming from a bee, [neuter] honey.

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Mākṣīka (माक्षीक).—[masculine] ā [feminine] spider; [neuter] = [preceding] [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Makṣikā (मक्षिका):—[from makṣ] f. (mc. also, mka.) a fly, bee, [Ṛg-veda]; etc.

2) Makṣīkā (मक्षीका):—[from makṣ] f. = makṣikā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Mākṣika (माक्षिक):—mfn. ([from] makṣikā) coming from or belonging to a bee, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

4) n. ([scilicet] madhu) honey, [Varāha-mihira; Suśruta]

5) a kind of h°-like mineral substance or pyrites, [Mahābhārata]

6) Mākṣīka (माक्षीक):—[from mākṣika] m. a spider, [Brahma-upaniṣad] (also f(ā). )

7) [v.s. ...] n. honey, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] pyrites, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. mākṣika).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Makṣikā (मक्षिका):—(kā) 1. f. A fly.

2) Makṣīkā (मक्षीका):—(kā) 1. f. Idem.

3) Mākṣika (माक्षिक):—(kaṃ) 1. n. A mineral; honey.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mākṣika (माक्षिक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Makkhia, Makkhiā, Macchiyā, Macchī.

[Sanskrit to German]

Makshika in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Makshika in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Makṣikā (मक्षिका):—(nf) a fly; —[sthāne makṣikā] copying blindly, stupidly letter-bound.

2) Mākṣika (माक्षिक):—(a) pertaining to a fly or flies.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Makṣika (ಮಕ್ಷಿಕ):—

1) [noun] = ಮಕ್ಷಿ [makshi].

2) [noun] any of a large superfamily Apoidea of broad-bodied, four-winged, hairy hymenopteran insects that gather pollen and nectar, have biting as well as sucking mouthparts, and often live in organised colonies (as the honeybee).

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Mākṣika (ಮಾಕ್ಷಿಕ):—[adjective] of, relating to, produced by honey-bees.

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Mākṣika (ಮಾಕ್ಷಿಕ):—[noun] a thick, sweet yellow liquid produced by bees from the nectar of flowers in honeycombs; honey.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

[«previous next»] — Makshika in Nepali glossary
Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

1) Makṣikā (मक्षिका):—n. 1. a fly; housefly; 2. a bee;

2) Mākṣika (माक्षिक):—n. honey;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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