Malika, Mālika, Mālikā: 28 definitions

Introduction:

Malika means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD

Mālikā (मालिका) is a cloistered verandah built on the inner side of the prākāra wall. The mālikās according to the Texts may be built up to three storeys. Mālikās are also referred to as āvṛtamaṇḍapas i.e. the pavilions that are built surrounding or enclosing a structure or a courtyard. Generally mālikās are constructed surrounding the courtyard but in a few instances they are built surrounding the main shrine too. Rare instances of mālikās constructed like pavilions/corridors outside the prākāra are noticed. No mention of such mālikās outside the temple complex is foimd in the Texts. Therefore, it is possible that it is a construction made for the convenience of the pilgrims who visit the temple during the festival season.

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Mālikā (मालिका) refers to “gallery forming cloister §§ 3.12, 32, 33, 35; 4.2, 36; 5.8, 9.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Mālika (मालिक) is the name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) to which Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) assigned the alternative name of Ujjvala in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mālikā (मालिका) refers to a “garland” (of skulls), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.27 (“Description of the fraudulent words of the Brahmacārin”).—Accordingly, as Śiva (in guise of a Brahmacārin) said to Pārvatī: “[...] Where your necklace and where the garland of skulls [i.e., muṇḍa-mālikā] that he wears? Where your rich divine unguent and where the ash from the funeral pyre that He has on His body? O divine lady, everything concerning you and Śiva, such as form, features etc. is mutually discordant. I do not like your resolution. You can do whatever you please. You yourself have evolved taste for all bad objects. Turn your mind from Him. If not, do whatever you please”.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Malika (मलिक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.65) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Malika) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Mālikā (मालिका) refers to a “necklace”, according to the Kaulajñānanirṇaya.—Accordingly, “The Nameless (energy) [i.e., anāmā] is fixed in the Heart [i.e., hṛdaya]. This is the Gesture (mudrā) that bestows the goddess. If one sees her in the End of the Twelve, she shines (like) a necklace of gems [i.e., maṇi-mālikā]. This is the Gesture (mudrā) called Anāmā; once (it is) known (one attains) the (liberated) sky-faring state. O beloved, one must break though the door which, endowed with consciousness, is sealed with the Five Seals (of the lower Wheels) and is well obstructed by the chain (of the door). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Mālikā (मालिका) refers to a “garland (of flowers)”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Jasmine born of spring, a mystical flower species, Thus beginning joined together, an ascending flower garland (puṣpamālikā)”.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Mālikā (मालिका) refers to “being crowned with a string”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “[Vajravārāhī holds] an adamantine knife in the right [hand] and a skull bowl in the left hand; hugs the Blessed One (Heruka) around [his] hips with [her] two shanks and loves [him]; [has] one face; [has her] hair untied; is naked; is red in color; wears a garland of hairless heads [as a necklace]; is adorned with sexually attractive ornaments; is crowned with a string of skulls on [her] head (śirakapāla-mālikā); [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Google Books: Medieval Orissa: A Socio-economic Study

Mālika (मालिक) refers to a “florist” and represents one of the occupational groups commonly found in Townships or Urban centers (nagari) in ancient India (Medieval Orissa).—An example (of Township) is provided by the Nagari plates of Anangabhima III, dated A.D. 1230, which describe an assigned township which contained four large houses of the dimension of royal residences and thirty other houses. The occupational groups present in the settlement were [e.g., a florist (mālika)]. The range of occupations is large, some of them being rural in character. The context in which the township (or Urban centres—nagari) is assigned suggest that nagaris in such cases were perhaps extended villages, formed out of a cluster of several contiguous villages and thus assuming physical and consequently, economic dimensions much larger than those of an ordinary village settlement.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Malika.—(EI 4; BL), Muslim title of nobility; same as Arabic Malik; also spelt in Indian languages as Mallika. Note: malika is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

See also (synonyms): Malik.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Malika in Tibet is the name of a plant defined with Jasminum sambac in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Nyctanthes goa Steud. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Prodromus Stirpium in Horto ad Chapel Allerton vigentium (1796)
· Biodiversidad del estado de Tabasco (2005)
· Journal of Cytology and Genetics (1989)
· Prodr. (DC.) (1844)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Cytologia (1992)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Malika, for example side effects, health benefits, pregnancy safety, chemical composition, diet and recipes, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

mālika : (adj.) having garlands or flowers.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Mālika, 2 (fr. mālā) a gardener, florist Abhp 507. (Page 530)

2) Mālika, 1 (nt.) (fr. mālā or mala?) name of a dice J. VI, 281. (Page 530)

— or —

Mālikā, (f.) (fr. mālā) double jasmine Dāvs 5, 49. (Page 530)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mālīka (मालीक).—c ( A) An owner: also a lord, master, ruler. See mālaka.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mālīka (मालीक).—e An owner. A master.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Malika (मलिक).—A king.

Derivable forms: malikaḥ (मलिकः).

--- OR ---

Mālika (मालिक).—[mālā tannirmāṇaṃ śilpamasya ṭhan]

1) A florist, gardener.

2) A dyer, painter.

3) A garland-maker.

4) A kind of bird.

Derivable forms: mālikaḥ (मालिकः).

--- OR ---

Mālikā (मालिका).—[mālaiva kan ata itvam]

1) A garland; पाशाक्षमालिकाम्भोज (pāśākṣamālikāmbhoja) Lakṣmīdhyānam.

2) A row, line, series.

3) A string, necklace.

4) A variety of jasmine.

5) Linseed.

6) A daughter.

7) A palace.

8) A kind of bird.

9) An intoxicating drink.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mālikā (मालिका).—name of a queen, wife of Prasenajit: Avadāna-śataka ii.9.6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mālika (मालिक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) Relating to a garland, &c. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A florist, a flower-gatherer or seller. 2. A sort of bird. 3. A colorist, a painter. f.

(-kā) 1. Double jasmine, (Jasminum zambac, floribus multiplicatis.) 2. A daughter. 3. A necklace, any ornament of the neck. 4. A garland of flowers, a wreath. 5. The name of a river. 6. A spirituous or vinous liquor. 7. Linseed, (Linum utilatissimum.) 8. A palace. 9. A row, a series. E. mālā a garland, ṭhan aff., or kan added, fem. form.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mālika (मालिक).—i. e. mālā + ika, I. adj. Relating to a garland. Ii. m. 1. A flower-gatherer, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 55 (cf. [Pañcatantra] 156, 20). 2. A painter. 3. A sort of bird. Iii. f. . 1. A garland of flowers, [Pañcatantra] 236, 16. 2. A multitude, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 89. 3. A necklace. 4. A daughter. 5. A palace. 6. A spirituous liquor. 7. Double jasmine.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mālika (मालिक).—[masculine] wreath-maker.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Malika (मलिक):—m. (= ملك) a king, [Catalogue(s)]

2) Mālikā (मालिका):—[from mālaka > māla] a f. a garland, [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]

3) [v.s. ...] a necklace, [Harivaṃśa]

4) [v.s. ...] a row, series, collection of things arranged in a line, [Kāvya literature]

5) [v.s. ...] a white-washed upper-storied house, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of various plants (double jasmine, Linum Usitatissimum etc.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] a kind of bird, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] an intoxicating drink, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] a daughter, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Mālika (मालिक):—[from māla] m. a garland-maker, gardener, [Kāvya literature; Pañcatantra]

12) [v.s. ...] a painter, dyer, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] a kind of bird, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) Mālikā (मालिका):—[from mālika > māla] b f. See under mālaka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mālika (मालिक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. A florist; a painter; a sort of bird. f. () Double jasmin; a daughter; a necklace; a garland; a river; wine; linseed; a palace. a. Of a garland.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mālika (मालिक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Mālia, Māliā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Malika in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Malikā (मलिका):—(nf) a queen.

2) Malika (मलिक) [Also spelled malik]:—(nm) a king, ruler; an honourable title for muslims; hence [malikā] see.

3) Mālika (मालिक) [Also spelled malik]:—(nm) a master, employer; owner, lord (as landlord); proprietor; husband; -[naukara] the employer and the employee; -[majadūra] the employer and the worker; -[majadūroṃ kā jhagaḍā] labour dispute; [mālikāna] plural form of [mālika].

4) Mālikā (मालिका):—(nf) a row, line; series.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mālika (ಮಾಲಿಕ):—

1) [noun] = ಮಾಲಿ - [mali -] 4.

2) [noun] a man who makes and sells strings of flowers, garlands, etc.

--- OR ---

Mālika (ಮಾಲಿಕ):—[noun] he who owns something; a owner.

--- OR ---

Mālīka (ಮಾಲೀಕ):—[noun] = ಮಾಲಿಕ [malika]2.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

1) Mālika (मालिक):—n. 1. proprietor; owner; master; possessor; 2. God; 3. husband; 4. leader; protector; guardian;

2) Mālikā (मालिका):—n. 1. a garland; 2. a row; line; series; 3. a string; necklace; 4. a species of jasmine;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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