Parishaha, Parīṣaha: 7 definitions
Parishaha means something in Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Parīṣaha can be transliterated into English as Parisaha or Parishaha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Parīṣaha (परीषह) refers to the “twenty-two trials”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly:—“[...] after he had thus installed his son in the kingdom, Śatabala himself assumed the sovereignty of tranquillity at the feet of an Ācārya. [... ] His mind delighted in the supreme spirit, his speech was suppressed, his conduct was restrained; noble, he endured trials [viz., parīṣahas] hard to endure. [...]”.—(cf. Book 10 chapter 1)
The twenty-two parīṣahas are:
- kṣudhā (hunger);
- tṛṣa (thirst);
- śīta (cold);
- uṣṇa (heat);
- daṃśa (stinging insects);
- acelaka (nudity);
- arati (discontent);
- strī (women);
- caryā (wandering);
- naiṣedhikī (place for meditation: must sit alone in deserted place);
- śayyā (lodging);
- ākrośa (abuse);
- vadha (injury);
- yācanā (begging);
- alabhā (failure in begging);
- roga (illness);
- tṛṇasparśa (injury from thorns, etc.);
- mala (personal uncleanliness);
- satkāra (kind treatment; should not be influenced by it);
- prajñā (knowledge, obscure);
- ajnāna (ignorance);
- samyaktva (right-belief-doubt).
Note: This is according to Uttarādhyayana Chap. 2, where they are discussed in detail. See also Tattvārthādhigamasūtra 9.9, and Uvāsagadasāo Appendix III, p. 47.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Sanskrit dictionarySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Pariṣahā (परिषहा):—[=pari-ṣahā] [from pari-ṣah] f. forbearance, patience, [Horace H. Wilson] (cf. parī-ṣ).
2) Parīṣahā (परीषहा):—[=parī-ṣahā] [from parī] f. = pari-ṣ (under pari-ṣah), [Hemacandra’s Yoga-śāstra]Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Parisaha (परिसह) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Pariṣaha.
2) Parīsaha (परीसह) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Parīṣaha.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a patient enduring or bearing with (the miseries, suffering, pain, etc. that one is subject to).
2) [noun] an obstacle; an impediment; hindrance; obstruction.
3) [noun] (jain.) any of twenty one obstacles, such as pain, hunger, thirst, etc., that come in the way of one’s progression in attaining knowledge.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Parishahajaya.
Search found 4 books and stories containing Parishaha, Parīṣaha, Parisaha, Pariṣahā, Pari-shaha, Pari-ṣahā, Pari-saha, Parīṣahā, Parī-ṣahā, Parīsaha, Pariṣaha; (plurals include: Parishahas, Parīṣahas, Parisahas, Pariṣahās, shahas, ṣahās, sahas, Parīṣahās, Parīsahas, Pariṣahas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Tattva 6: Saṃvara (methods of impeding karma) < [Appendix 1.4: The nine tattvas]
Part 7: Ajita’s initiation < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Part 11: Life as a monk < [Chapter I - Previous incarnation as Vimalavāhana]
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Verse 9.8 - Definition of parīṣaha (afflictions) < [Chapter 9 - Stoppage and Shedding of Karmas]
Verse 9.12 - All afflictions are possible in the ascetic with gross passions < [Chapter 9 - Stoppage and Shedding of Karmas]
Verse 9.10 - Fourteen afflictions are possible in stages 10-12 < [Chapter 9 - Stoppage and Shedding of Karmas]
The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha (by E. B. Cowell)
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 3 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)