Parishaha, Parīṣaha: 4 definitions



Parishaha means something in Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Parīṣaha can be transliterated into English as Parisaha or Parishaha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Parishaha in Jainism glossary
Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Parīṣaha (परीषह) refers to the “twenty-two trials”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly:—“[...] after he had thus installed his son in the kingdom, Śatabala himself assumed the sovereignty of tranquillity at the feet of an Ācārya. [... ] His mind delighted in the supreme spirit, his speech was suppressed, his conduct was restrained; noble, he endured trials [viz., parīṣahas] hard to endure. [...]”.—(cf. Book 10 chapter 1)

The twenty-two parīṣahas are:

  1. kṣudhā (hunger);
  2. tṛṣa (thirst);
  3. śīta (cold);
  4. uṣṇa (heat);
  5. daṃśa (stinging insects);
  6. acelaka (nudity);
  7. arati (discontent);
  8. strī (women);
  9. caryā (wandering);
  10. naiṣedhikī (place for meditation: must sit alone in deserted place);
  11. śayyā (lodging);
  12. ākrośa (abuse);
  13. vadha (injury);
  14. yācanā (begging);
  15. alabhā (failure in begging);
  16. roga (illness);
  17. tṛṇasparśa (injury from thorns, etc.);
  18. mala (personal uncleanliness);
  19. satkāra (kind treatment; should not be influenced by it);
  20. prajñā (knowledge, obscure);
  21. ajnāna (ignorance);
  22. samyaktva (right-belief-doubt).

Note: This is according to Uttarādhyayana Chap. 2, where they are discussed in detail. See also Tattvārthādhigamasūtra 9.9, and Uvāsagadasāo Appendix III, p. 47.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parishaha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pariṣahā (परिषहा):—[=pari-ṣahā] [from pari-ṣah] f. forbearance, patience, [Horace H. Wilson] (cf. parī-ṣ).

2) Parīṣahā (परीषहा):—[=parī-ṣahā] [from parī] f. = pari-ṣ (under pari-ṣah), [Hemacandra’s Yoga-śāstra]

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Pariṣahā (परिषहा):—f. geduldiges Ertragen aller Widerwärtigkeiten.

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Parīṣahā (परीषहा):—f. = pariṣahā.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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