by A. Yamuna Devi | 2012 | 77,297 words | ISBN-13: 9788193658048
This page relates ‘Diseases and Impurities’ of the study on the Amarakoshodghatana of Kshirasvamin (in English) which represents a commentary on the Amarakosha of Amarasimha. These ancient texts belong the Kosha or “lexicography” category of Sanskrit literature which deals with the analysis and meaning of technical words from a variety of subjects, such as cosmology, anatomy, medicine, hygiene. The Amarakosa itself is one of the earliest of such text, dating from the 6th century A.D., while the Amarakoshodghatana is the earliest known commentary on that work.
Prevalence of diseases (ruk) like kṣya–pulmonary consumption, pratiśyāya–catarrah, cough kṣut–sneeze, kāsa–cough, śopha–swelling, pādasphoṭa–kibe, kilāsa–blotch, kacchvam–scab, kaṇḍū–itch, visphoṭa–boil, vraṇa–sore or wound, nāḍīvraṇa–ulcer, koṭho–ring worm, kuṣṭha–leprosy, durnāmaka–hemorrhoids, ānāha–constipation, grahaṇīruk–diarrhoea, Ślīpada–elephantiasis, keśaghna–baldness.
Some remarks of Kṣīrasvāmin are analysed below:
[Constituents of the Body:]
(a) Dhātu (III. 3. 65; p. 285)–
Amarakośa gives various meanings to this homonymous word; it also denotes the basic tissues.
Kṣīrasvāmin explains this in this sense and remarks that the vāta, pitta, and kapha are the dhātus as their equilibrium is essential for healthy body. When they are not at equilibrium, the body falls sick and succumbs to diseases:
Incidentally Kṣīrasvāmin makes note of Vāgbhaṭa (Āṣṭāṅga Hṛdayam, I. 1. 13) about dhātus that are–Rasa (plasma), asṛk (blood), māṃsa (muscles), medas (fat), asthi (bone), majjā (bone marrow) and śukra (semen)–
āsthi-raktādīni rasāsṛṅmāṃsamedo'sthimajjā śukrāṇi dhātavaḥ |
(b) Mala (III. 3. 197; p. 318)–
This is explained by Kṣīrasvāmin quoting Manu (V. 135) who says–the twelve impurities in men as mentioned in the as fat (vasā), semen (śukra), (masṛi), (majjā), urine (mūtra), faeces (viṭ), (śleṣma), tears (aśru), sweat (sveda):
(c) Pāmana (II. 6. 59; p. 146)–
[Diseases with scab:]
pāmāsyāsti pāmanaḥ pāmara ityeke dvāvapīti śrībhojaḥ |
(d) Gulma (III. 3. 142; p. 304)–
This disease is not listed along with others by Amarakośa, but is found in the Nānārthavarga where one of its multiple meanings is given as disease. Kṣīrasvāmin specifies it as the spleen disease:
udaryo vyādhiḥ |
(e) Pradarā (III. 3. 164; p. 310)–
Pradarā, the homonymous word indicates among other meanings, disease of women which Kṣīrasvāmin explains as the excessive bleeding common among women–
nārīrugatirajaḥ srāvaḥ |
(f) Śūla (III. 3. 197; p. 318) –
śūla rujāyāṃ rugvātadoṣaḥ yadāhuḥ -śūlaṃ vartate'nilāt |
(g) Paṭalam (III. 3. 201; p. 319)–
[Disease of the Eye:]
Amarakośa mentions that the word pāṭalaṃ is denotative of eye disease. Kṣīrasvāmin explains it is an eye disease; it is darkness of the eye or partial blindness; a class of morbid affections of the coating (paṭala) of the eye.
Footnotes and references:
śūlaṃ rugāyudham |