A; 8 Definition(s)

Introduction

A means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

A (अ).—(ೱ) प् (p) (ೱ) Upadhmānīya represented by a sign like the temple of an elephants stated by Durgasiṃha who remarks "गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति (gajakumbhākṛtirvarṇa upadhmānīyasaṃjño bhavati)." Kāt.I. It is a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p (प् (p)) or ph (फ). It is looked upon as a letter (वर्ण (varṇa)), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant.

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1) Ā (आ).—The long form of the vowel अ (a) called दीर्घ (dīrgha),consisting of two mātrās, in contrast with (l) the short अ (a) which consists of one mātrā and the protracted आ३ (ā3) which consists of three mātrās;

2) Ā.—Substitute आ (ā) of two mātrās when prescribed by the word दीर्घ (dīrgha) or वृद्धि (vṛddhi) for the short vowel अ;

3) Ā.—Upasarga आ (ā) (आङ् (āṅ)) in the sense of limit e.g. आ कडारादेका संज्ञा (ā kaḍārādekā saṃjñā) (P.I.4.1.) आकुमारं यशः पाणिनेः (ākumāraṃ yaśaḥ pāṇineḥ) K. on II.1.13. आ उदकान्तात् (ā udakāntāt) (M. Bh. on I.1.14.)

4) Ā.—Indeclinable आ (ā) in the sense of remembrance e. g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे (ā evaṃ nu manyase); cf. ईषदर्थे क्रियायोगे मर्यादाभिविधौ च यः । एतमातं ङितं विद्याद्वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् (īṣadarthe kriyāyoge maryādābhividhau ca yaḥ | etamātaṃ ṅitaṃ vidyādvākyasmaraṇayoraṅit) M. Bh. on I.1.14;

5) Ā.—Augment आ (ā) (आक् (āk)) as seen in चराचर, वदावद (carācara, vadāvada) etc. cf. M. Bh. VI.1.12 Vārt. 6;

6) Ā.—Augment आ(आट् (āṭ)) prefixed to roots in the tenses लुङ्, लङ् (luṅ, laṅ) and लृङ् (lṛṅ)

7) Ā.—Substitute आ (ā) prescribed for the last letter of pronouns before the tad. affixes दृक्,दृश, दृक्ष (dṛk, dṛśa, dṛkṣa) and वत् (vat), as in तादृक्दृ, तादृश (tādṛkdṛ, tādṛśa) etc.;

8) Ā.—Feminine affix आ (ā) (टाप्, डाप् (ṭāp, ḍāp) or चाप् (cāp)) added to nouns ending in आ;

9) Ā.—Substitute आ (ā) (आ (ā) or आत् (āt), or डा (ḍā) or आल् (āl)) for case affixes in Vedic literature उभा यन्तारौ, नाभा पृथिव्याः (ubhā yantārau, nābhā pṛthivyāḥ) etc.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

1) A (अ).—The first letter (Vowel) of all Indian languages. According to the Nānārtharatnamālā this letter has the following meanings:—Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva, tortoise, courtyard, battle, harem, jewellery, sea, Pārvatī and bowstring.

2) Ā (आ).—This word means Brahmā and also anādaravākya (a word showing disrespect). In the indeclinable form it means limit, anger and pain.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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India history and geogprahy

Ā.—d8ha (IE 8-6), same as āḍhika or āḍhaka; a measure of capacity; a land measure also called āḍhavāpa. Note: ā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Ā.—d8hā (IE 8-6), Bengali form of āḍhaka and āḍhavāpa. Note: ā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Ā.—ṉai-ccālai (SITI), Tamil; ‘an elephant stable’; tax payable for the maintenance of the elephant stable. Note: ā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

a (अ).—The first letter of the alphabet, and the inherent short vowel. It corresponds with A in its shortest or most obscure sound, as in sugar, mortar, collar, jocular. It is prefixed ad libitum to adjectives, substantives, and participles introduced from the Sanskrit; and, although with less frequency and with no elegance, to words purely Marathi. Its senses or powers are-- I. Privation or negation: as apāra Boundless, akṣaya Imperishable. II. Deterioration: as akīrti Ill fame, akarma A bad action, anādara Disrespect. III. Diminution or deficiency: as abōlaṇā or abōlyā Taciturn, abuddhi Dull of understanding, aśijā Imperfectly boiled. IV. Enhancement or transcendency: as amānuṣa or apauruṣa Superhuman, alaukika Extraordinary. V. Return, reverting to the former state: as asujaṇēṃ To subside or swell down--a swelling, ahāraṇēṃ To become unstrung: i.e. to lose its hāra or wreath-form. a thus bears the double sense or power of the English Un, viz. Negation, as in Unwise, unhappy, and the sense, little observed indeed, but worthy of all observation, of Return back or nullification, as in Unwind, untie, unfold, undo, and all the shades of the Privative and Deteriorative senses of the English Dis and In; and, as In becomes, by the laws of euphony, II, Im, Ir, so a becomes ana, as in ananta, anakṣara, anadhyāya. Of the above senses of a the first abounds, and only the well approved cases of its occurrence are inserted; the second is much less abounding; and the third, fourth, and fifth are very rare, scarcely affording an instance additional to those given.

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ā (आ).—The second letter of the alphabet, corresponding with A in Father, chance. As a preposition or prefix to words from the Sanskrit, it signifies I. Diminution: as ōṣṇam Warmish; from ā & uṣṇam Warm. II. Extension: as ābhōga Repletion; from ā & bhōga Enjoyment. III. Limit inceptive:--from that place; from that time: as āsamudrāt From the sea; ājanmataḥ From birth. IV. Limit conclusive:--until, unto, as far as, whether inclusive or exclusive: as āphalōdaya Till success crown us (incl); āsamudra As far as the ocean (excl). V. Limit inclusive, containing, or comprehending: as ākramaṇa Pervasion, thorough occupation (from ā & krama To go, walk, step); āsakalāt brahma Brahma containeth or comprehendeth all things (from ā & sakala All). VI. It is redundant: as ābhāsa, āghrāṇa, āghāta, ālhāda, The same as bhāsa, ghrāṇa, ghāta, lhāda. VII. It extends, restricts, reverses, and otherwise varies the application and meaning of words: as āgraha Retention (as of a purpose or opinion) after taking; inflexible persistency (from ā & graha To take). ācāra Moving;--conducting one's self, agreeably to the precepts of the Vedas (from ā & cara To walk, to move). āgamana Approach, coming (from ā & gamana Going). āmōda Fragrance (from ā & mōda Pleasure). ākṛti Form, figure (from ā & kṛti Deed, act).

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ā (आ).—m (Imit. of the sound in pronouncing the letter आ) Opening the mouth widely; or the wide-opened mouth. v kara, pasara, vāsa. 2 This letter, being the initial letter of āśīrvāda (Benediction), stands at the head of epistles from Brahmans to Shudras, correspondingly with the letter da (the initial of daṇḍavata Obeisance) vice versâ. ā vāsaṇēṃ To yawn or gape. 2 To be ready to devour; to open the mouth upon. 3 To cry out, peccavi; to beg for mercy: also to acknowledge subjection. Pr. nāka dabalēṃ mhaṇajē ā vāsatō. ā vāsūna or pasarūnabasaṇēṃ To sit eagerly expecting.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

a (अ).—The 1st vowel; a prefix signifying negation.

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ā (आ).—The second vowel. m Opening the mouth widely.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

A (अ).—The first letter of the alphabet; अक्षंराणामकारोऽस्मि (akṣaṃrāṇāmakāro'smi) Bg.1.33.

-aḥ [avati, atati sātatyena tiṣṭhatīti vā; av-at vā, ḍa Tv.]

1) Name of Viṣṇu, the first of the three sounds constituting the sacred syllable ओम् (om); अकारो विष्णुरुद्दिष्ट उकारस्तु महेश्वरः । मकारस्तु स्मृतो ब्रह्मा प्रणवस्तु त्रयात्मकः (akāro viṣṇuruddiṣṭa ukārastu maheśvaraḥ | makārastu smṛto brahmā praṇavastu trayātmakaḥ) || For more explanations of the three syllables अ, उ, म् (a, u, m) see ओम् (om).

2) Name of Śiva, Brahmā, Vāyu, or Vaiśvānara.-- [अः कृष्णः शंकरो ब्रह्मा शक्रः सोमोऽनिलोऽनलः । सूर्यः प्राणो यमः कालो वसन्तः प्रणवः सुखी (aḥ kṛṣṇaḥ śaṃkaro brahmā śakraḥ somo'nilo'nalaḥ | sūryaḥ prāṇo yamaḥ kālo vasantaḥ praṇavaḥ sukhī) || Enm. अः स्याद् ब्रह्मणि विष्ण्वीशकूर्माणङ्करणेषु च। गौरवेऽन्तःपुरे हेतौ भूषणेऽङ्घ्रावुमेज्ययोः (aḥ syād brahmaṇi viṣṇvīśakūrmāṇaṅkaraṇeṣu ca| gaurave'ntaḥpure hetau bhūṣaṇe'ṅghrāvumejyayoḥ) || Nm. अः शिखायां सिद्धमन्त्रे प्रग्राहेऽर्के रथार्वणि । चक्रे कुक्कुटमूर्ध्नीन्दुबिम्बे ब्रह्मेशविष्णुषु (aḥ śikhāyāṃ siddhamantre pragrāhe'rke rathārvaṇi | cakre kukkuṭamūrdhnīndubimbe brahmeśaviṣṇuṣu) || ibid. Thus अः (aḥ) means Kṛṣṇa, Śiva, Brahmā, Indra, Soma, Vāyu, Agni, the Sun, the life-breath, Yama, Kāla, Vasanta, Praṇava, a happy man, a tortoise, a courtyard, a battle, greatness, a female apartment in a palace, an object or a cause, an ornament, a foot, Umā, sacrifice, a flame, a particularly efficacious mantra, reins, the horse of chariot, a wheel, the head of a cock, the disc of the moon]; ind.

1) A Prefix corresponding to Latin in, Eng. in or un, Gr. a or an, and joined to nouns, adjectives, indeclinables (or rarely even to verbs) as a substitute for the negative particle नञ् (nañ), and changed to अन् (an) before vowels (except in the word a-ṛṇin). The senses of न (na) usually enumerated are six--(a) सादृश्य (sādṛśya) 'likeness' or 'resemblance', अब्राह्मणः (abrāhmaṇaḥ) one like a Brāhmaṇa (wearing the sacred thread &c.), but not a Brāhmaṇa; a Kṣatriya, or a Vaiśya; अनिक्षुः (anikṣuḥ) a reed appearing like इक्षु (ikṣu), but not a true इक्षु (ikṣu). (b) अभाव (abhāva) 'absence', 'negation', 'want', 'privation'; अज्ञानम् (ajñānam) absence of knowledge, ignorance; अक्रोधः, अनङ्गः, अकण्टकः, अघटः (akrodhaḥ, anaṅgaḥ, akaṇṭakaḥ, aghaṭaḥ) &c. (c) अन्यत्व (anyatva) 'difference' or 'distinction'; अपटः (apaṭaḥ) not a cloth, something different from, or other than, a cloth. (d) अल्पता (alpatā) 'smallness', 'diminution', used as a diminutive particle; अनुदरा (anudarā) having a slender waist (kṛśodarī or tanumadhyamā). (e) अप्राशस्त्य (aprāśastya) 'badness', 'unfitness', having a depreciative sense; अकालः (akālaḥ) wrong or improper time; अकार्यम् (akāryam) not fit to be done, improper, unworthy, bad act. (f) विरोध (virodha) 'opposition', 'contrariety'; अनीतिः (anītiḥ) the opposite of morality; immorality; असित (asita) not white, black; असुर (asura) not a god, a demon &c. These senses are put together in the following verse :-तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च नञर्थाः षट् प्रकीर्तिताः (tatsādṛśyamabhāvaśca tadanyatvaṃ tadalpatā | aprāśastyaṃ virodhaśca nañarthāḥ ṣaṭ prakīrtitāḥ) || See न (na) also. With verbal derivatives, such as gerunds, infinitives, participles, it has usually the sense of 'not'; अदग्ध्वा (adagdhvā) not having burnt; अपश्यन् (apaśyan) not seeing; so असकृत् (asakṛt) not once; अमृषा, अकस्मात् (amṛṣā, akasmāt) &c. Sometimes in बहुव्रीहि अ (bahuvrīhi a) does not affect the sense of the second member : अ-पश्चिम (a-paścima) that which has no last, i. e. best, topmost; e. g. विपश्चितामपश्चिमः (vipaścitāmapaścimaḥ) cf. also R.19.1. अनुत्तम (anuttama) having no superior, unsurpassed, most excellent: (for examples see these words).

2) An interjection of (a) Pity (ah !) अ अवद्यं (a avadyaṃ) P.I.1.14 Sk. (b) Reproach, censure (fie, shame); अपचसि त्वं जाल्म (apacasi tvaṃ jālma) P.VI.3.73 Vārt. See अकरणि, अजीवनि (akaraṇi, ajīvani) also. (c) Used in addressing; अ अनन्त (a ananta). (d) It is also used as a particle of prohibition.

3) The augment prefixed to the root in the formation of the Imperfect, Aorist and Conditional Tenses. N. B.-- The application of this privative prefix is practically unlimited; to give every possible case would almost amount to a dictionary itself. No attempt will, therefore, be made to give every possible combination of this prefix with a following word; only such words as require a special explanation, or such as most frequently occur in literature and enter into compounds with other words, will be given; others will be found self-explaining when the English 'in', 'un', or 'not', is substituted for अ (a) or अन् (an) before the meaning of the second word, or the sense may be expressed by 'less', 'free from', 'devoid or destitute of' &c; अकथ्य (akathya) unspeakable; अदर्प (adarpa) without pride, or freedom from pride; अप्रगल्भ (apragalbha) not bold; अभग (abhaga) unfortunate; अवित्त (avitta) destitute of wealth &c. In many cases such compounds will be found explained under the second member. Most compounds beginning with अ (a) or अन् (an) are either Tatpuruṣa or Bahuvrīhi (to be determined by the sense) and should be so dissolved.

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A (अ).—1 P. [अमति, अमितुम्, अमित (amati, amitum, amita) Ved. pres. अमिति (amiti); अमीति (amīti)]

1) To go; to go to or towards.

2) To serve, honour.

3) To sound.

4) To eat.

5) To be pernicious or dangerous; वराहमिन्द्र एमुषम् (varāhamindra emuṣam) Rv.8.77.1.1 P. or Caus. (āmayati)

1) To come upon, attack, afflict with sickness or pain from disease.

2) To be ill or be afflicted or diseased. With सम् (sam) Ved. 1 A.

1) to convince oneself of, ascertain.

2) to ally or connect oneself with.

3) To fix or settle oneself.

Derivable forms: am (अम्).

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Ā (आ).—The second letter of the Alphabet.

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Ā (आ).—

1) Used as a particle or interjection showing (a) assent; 'yes', 'verily'. (b) Compassion (anukampā) 'Ah'. (c) Pain or regret (usually written ās or aḥ q. v.), 'alas'. (d) Recollection (smaraṇa). 'Ah', 'Oh'; आ एवं किलासीत् (ā evaṃ kilāsīt) U.6. (e) But (used as a disjunctive conjunction). (f) And (used as a cumulative conjunction). (g) Sometimes used as an expletive; आ एवं मन्यसे (ā evaṃ manyase). In all these senses आ (ā) is treated as a Pragṛhya vowel (does not form any Sandhi with a following vowel) P.I.1.14. (h) It shows 'anger' also.

2) (As a prefix to verbs and nouns.) (a) it expresses the senses of near, near to, towards, from all sides, all around (see the several verbs). (b) With verbs of motion, taking, carrying &c. it shows the reverse of the action; as गम् (gam) to go, आगम् (āgam) to come; दा () to give, आदा (ādā) to take; नी () to carry, आनी (ānī) to bring.

3) (As a separable preposition with abl.) it shows either (a) the limit inceptive (abhividhi), from, ever since, away from, out of, off, from among; आ मूलात् श्रोतुमिच्छामि (ā mūlāt śrotumicchāmi) Ś.1; बहुभ्य आ (bahubhya ā) from out of many; आ जन्मनः (ā janmanaḥ) Ś.5.25 ever since (her) birth; आ मनोः (ā manoḥ) U.6.18. (b) Or, it expresses the limit exclusive or conclusive (maryādā), till, until, upto, as far as, unto; आङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योः (āṅ maryādābhividhyoḥ) P.II.1.13; see अभि- विधि (abhi- vidhi); आ परितोषाद्विदुषाम् (ā paritoṣādviduṣām) Ś.1.2 till the learned are satisfied; आ कैलासात् (ā kailāsāt) Me.11 upto or as far as Kailāsa; ओदकान्तात् (odakāntāt) Ś.4; U.1.37; V.2.2. In this sense आ (ā) sometimes governs the acc.; शतमा जातीः (śatamā jātīḥ) upto a hundred births. (c) In both these senses आ (ā) frequently enters into compound, forming either Avyayībhāva comp. or compound adjectives; आबालं (ābālaṃ) (or ā bālebhyaḥ) हरिभक्तिः (haribhaktiḥ) commencing with or including children; आमुक्ति (āmukti) (or ā mukteḥ) संसारः (saṃsāraḥ) Sk. till final emancipation; आमेखलम् (āmekhalam) Ku. 1.5 as far as; आमरणम् (āmaraṇam) Pt.1 till death; आगोपालं ननृतुः (āgopālaṃ nanṛtuḥ) K.7 down to the cowherd; आगोपाला द्विजातयः (āgopālā dvijātayaḥ) including the cowherds. Sometimes the compound so formed stands as the first member of other compounds, सोऽ- हमाजन्मशुद्धानामाफलोदयकर्मणाम् । आसमुद्रक्षितीशानामानाकरथवर्त्मनाम् (so'- hamājanmaśuddhānāmāphalodayakarmaṇām | āsamudrakṣitīśānāmānākarathavartmanām) R.1.5; आगण्डविलम्बि (āgaṇḍavilambi) Ś.6.17; आकर्णलम्बि (ākarṇalambi) M.5.1. (d) Used with loc. it has the sense of 'in', 'at' (mostly Ved.); गावो न यवसेष्वा (gāvo na yavaseṣvā) Rv.1.91.13.

4) With adjectives (or sometimes with nouns) आ (ā) has a diminutive force; आपञ्जर (āpañjara) a. Little red, reddish; आपिञ्जरा बद्धरजःकणत्वान्मञ्ज- र्युदारा शुशुभेऽर्जुनस्य (āpiñjarā baddharajaḥkaṇatvānmañja- ryudārā śuśubhe'rjunasya) R.16.51; आपाण्डुर (āpāṇḍura) a little white, whitish; आलक्ष्य (ālakṣya) Ś.7.18. slightly visible; आकम्पः (ākampaḥ) gentle shaking; so आनील, आरक्त (ānīla, ārakta).

5) (As a separable adverb) आ (ā) chiefly occurs in the Vedas and means near, near to, or towards, there to, further; and also, even; in many cases it emphasizes the word which precedes it, and when placed after prepositions it strengthens their sense. आ प्रगृह्ये स्मृतौ वाक्ये परितापे पितामहे । घटे भावे च आऽस्तु स्यादव्ययं कोपपीडयोः । आङीषदर्थेऽभिव्याप्तौ सीमार्थे धातु- योगजे (ā pragṛhye smṛtau vākye paritāpe pitāmahe | ghaṭe bhāve ca ā'stu syādavyayaṃ kopapīḍayoḥ | āṅīṣadarthe'bhivyāptau sīmārthe dhātu- yogaje) || Nm.

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Ā (आ).—

1) Name of Śiva.

2) Grand father.

Derivable forms: āḥ (आः).

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Ā (आ).—= आम् (ām) q. v.

Derivable forms: ām (आम्).

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Ā (आ).—

1) = आस् (ās) q. v.

2) Name of Lakṣmī (ā). or Brahman.

3) Speech.

4) Boundary. cf. आः स्वयंभूरिभो वाजी खेदः शंकरवासवौ । पारिजातः समः प्राज्ञो निवासश्चणकः सुतः (āḥ svayaṃbhūribho vājī khedaḥ śaṃkaravāsavau | pārijātaḥ samaḥ prājño nivāsaścaṇakaḥ sutaḥ) || Enm.

Derivable forms: āḥ (आः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

A (अ).—ind. 1. No, not. 2. A private, prohibitive, and diminutive particle. 3. An interjection of pity. It also implies degrees of difference, and similarity. As a negative prefix to words beginning with a vowel, a is changed to an, as a and anta form ananta.

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A (अ).—m. (aḥ) A name of Vishnu.

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Ā (आ).—The second letter of the alphabet, corresponding to A long, as in far, and written in the Roman character A.

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Ā (आ).—ind. 1. A particle of reminiscence, (ah! oh!) 2. A conjunction disjunctive, (but) 3. A particle of compassion, (ah! alas!) 4. A conjunction copulative, (and.) This particle remains unaltered in orthography even before vowels.

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Ā (आ).—or āṅ A particle, and prefix to words, implying; 1. Diminution, (a little.) 2. Limit inceptive, (from, from thence, or that time.) 3. Limit conclusive, (until, unto, as far as.) 4. Prefixed to verbs it extends or reverses their meaning, as ruha to rise, āruha to ascend, to mount, and gama to go, āgama to come. 5. In composition with nouns it forms indeclinables, either crude, as ājānu to the knee, or with the terminations of the objective or ablative case, as āsamudraṃ or āsamudrāt as far as to the ocean. 6. A particle of menace or of pain, (ah! alas!) this is more correctly written ās E. āp to pervade, to obtain, and ḍāṅ affix, pa is dropped.

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Ā (आ).—m. (āḥ) A name of Mahadeva.

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Ā (आ).—ind. A particle of assent, yes, verily. E. ama to go, kvip affix, a becomes ā

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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