Ashmaka, Aśmaka, Asmaka, Asmāka, Āsmāka: 19 definitions

Introduction:

Ashmaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Aśmaka can be transliterated into English as Asmaka or Ashmaka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Ashmaka in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Aśmaka (अश्मक) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara mentions this region is located in South India, with the same view of Brahmandapurana. But the Kūrmapurāṇa and Bṛhatsaṃhitā places this country as the part of North India, near the Punjab. The Daśakumāracarita, Harṣacarita and Bhattasvamin (the commentator of the Arthaśāstra) view this Aśmaka as a part of the Mahāraṣtra country. However, the Aśmaka region was situated between the Godāvarī and Māhiṣmatī and the formed part of Vidarbha.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Aśmaka (अश्मक):—Son of Saudāsa (son of Sudāsa). His name means (“the child born of a stone”), for her mother’s abdomen was struck with a stone by Vasiṣṭha, after she bore him in her womb for seven years. He had a son called Bālika. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.9.39-40)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Aśmaka (अश्मक).—Son born to Vasiṣṭha by the wife of Kalmāṣapāda the King of Ayodhyā. (See Ikṣvāku vaṃśa) while the King Kalmāṣapāda was walking through the forest hunting he saw Śakti the son of Vasiṣṭha. As Śakti did not care to give room for the King, Kalmāṣapāda wounded Śakti, who cursed the King and changed him to a Rākṣasa (giant). The giant immediately killed Śakti. After many years Vasiṣṭha blessed the King and changed the form of the giant and gave him back his former shape. The King was delighted at having recovered his former shape. He took Vasiṣṭha to his palace. Madayantī the wife of the King with his permission went to Vasiṣṭha and got with child. Vasiṣṭha returned to the forest. Even after the lapse of a long period she did not give birth to the child. Madayantī who was miserable at this, took an 'aśman' (a small cylindrical piece of the granite used to crush things placed on a flat square piece of granite) and crushed her stomach with it and she delivered a son. As he was born by using 'Aśma' he was named Aśmaka. This King had built a city called Paudhanyā. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 176).

2) Aśmaka (अश्मक).—Aśmaka (m) is a place between the rivers Godāvarī and Māhiṣmatī. Aśmaka was a king of this land. He fought against the Kauravas on the Pāṇḍava side. (Karṇa Parva).

3) Aśmaka (अश्मक).—A sage. (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 47, Śloka 5).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Aśmaka (अश्मक).—A Kṣetraja son of Kalmāṣapāda (Mitrasaha) born of Madayantī, queen of Saudāsa, to Vasiṣṭha, with the king's assent. The period of pregnancy lasted for seven years when Vasiṣṭha bit the queen's stomach with a stone. Father of Mūlaka.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 9. 39-40; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 177; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 177; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 4. 72-3.

1b) The people of a southern kingdom.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 58; Matsya-purāṇa 272. 16.

2) Asmaka (अस्मक).—Of the dākṣiṇātya country.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 127.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Aśmaka (अश्मक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.42, VII.61.39) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Aśmaka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Aśmaka (अश्मक) is the son of Kalmāṣapāda and grandson of Ṛtuparṇa, according to the Vaṃśānucarita section of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, [...] Nabhāga gave birth to Sindhudvīpa from whom was born Ayutāyu (or Ayutāyus). Ṛtuparṇa was the son of Ayutāyu who attained the status of the Leader of Gaṇas by the grace of Lord Śiva. Kalmāṣapāda was his son. Kṣetraja Aśmaka was the son of Kalmāṣapāda.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Aśmaka (अश्मक) refers to an ancient kingdom or tribe of people, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen, deceitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. [...] If the sun and moon should be eclipsed when in the sign of Leo (Siṃha) hill men, prince like people possessed of a single military force, princes and forest men will suffer miseries. If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Virgo (Kanyā), crops, poets, writers and singers will suffer and the rice fields of Aśmaka and Tripura will be destroyed”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Asmaka (अस्मक): A Kaurava warrior who attacked Abhimanyu.

Source: Triveni: Journal

It was two Ikshvaku princes, Asmaka and Mulaka, who founded the two contiguous kingdoms, bearing their names, on the Godavari, corresponding to the Aurangabad and Nizamabad districts of the Hyderabad State today.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Aśmaka (अश्मक) is the name of an ancient kingdom, according to chapter 4.2 [vāsupūjya-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as Vasupūjya and Jayā spoke to Vāsupūjya:—“All the existing kings, among men and the Vidyādharas, who are of good family, capable, heroic, wealthy, famous, possessing the fourfold army, known for guarding their subjects, free from blemish, faithful to engagements, always devoted to dharma, in Madhyadeśa, Vatsadeśa, [...] and other countries which are the ornaments of the eastern quarter; [... in the Aśmakas, ...] these now, son, beg us constantly through messengers, who are sent bearing valuable gifts, to give their daughters to you. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Wisdom Library: India History

Aśmaka (अश्मक) is the name of a country included within Dakṣiṇapatha which was situated ahead of Māhiṣmatī according to Rājaśekhara (fl. 10th century) in his Kāvyamīmāṃsā (chapter 17). Dakṣiṇāpatha is a place-name ending is patha mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.

Source: academia.edu: The Date of Aryabhata

1) Ashmaka Janapada.—Bhaskara I indicates that Aryabhata belonged to Ashmaka Janapada. Buddhist texts indicate that Aśmaka Janapada was located on the banks of Godavari River. Anguttara Nikaya mentions Aśmaka as Mahajanapada. Buddhist texts also mention another Janapada known as Assaka. Assaka is Ashvaka or Ashvakayana which is located close to Indus and Kurram Rivers. Varahamihira’s Brihat -Samhita mentions Ashvaka not Ashmaka. Greek historians refer to Ashvakayanas as “Assakonoi”. Some historians mistakenly consider Assaka and Ashmaka as the same but Assaka was located in Afghanistan close to Indus River whereas Ashmaka was situated between Godavari and Krishna Rivers.

2) Ashmaka, son of Kalmashapada.—Ramayana, Mahabharata and Puranas indicate that Ashmaka, the son of Ikshvaku King Kalmashapada was the founder of A śmaka Kingdom. He also founded the city of Paudanya. Thus, Ashmaka Kingdom came into existence in pre-Ramayana era.

Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism

Aśmaka (अश्मक) or Aśvaka the Sanskrit name for Assaka: one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas of the Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—In the Aṅguttara Nikāya Assaka it is mentioned as one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas of Jambudīpa. Assaka represents the Sanskrit Aśmaka (or Aśvaka) which has been mentioned by Asaṅga in his Sūtrālaṅkāra as a country in the basis of the Indus. Asaṅga’s Aśmaka seems, therefore, to be identical with the Kingdom of Assakenus of the Greek writers which lay to the east of the Saraswatī at a distance of about 25 miles from the sea on the Swat Valley. The Aśmakas are also mentioned by Pāṇini. They are placed in the north-west by the authors of the Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa and the Brihat-saṃhita. Bhaṭṭaswāmi, the commentator of Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra identifies Aśmaka, the contiguous territory of Avanti, with Mahārāṣṭra.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Aśmaka (अश्मक).—[aśmeva sthiraḥ, ivārthe kan]

1) Name of a sage.

2) Name of a country in the south; तथाश्मकाः पुलिन्दाश्च कलिङ्गाश्च विशेषतः (tathāśmakāḥ pulindāśca kaliṅgāśca viśeṣataḥ) Rām. (probably an old name of Travancore); according to Bṛ. S.14.22 it is in the north-west (diśi paścimottarasyāṃ......... aśmakakulūtalahaḍastrī- rājyanṛsiṃhavanakhasthāḥ)

3) The inhabitants of the country (pl.).

4) A part of the साल्व (sālva) country or its inhabitants; or its king.

Derivable forms: aśmakaḥ (अश्मकः).

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Asmāka (अस्माक).—a. Ved. for अस्माक (asmāka) (our, ours)

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Āsmāka (आस्माक).—a. (- f.), [āsmākīna] a. [अस्मद्-अण्खञ् अस्माकादेशः (asmad-aṇkhañ asmākādeśaḥ) |] Our, ours; आस्माकदन्तिसान्निध्यात् (āsmākadantisānnidhyāt) Śi.2.63,8.5.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Aśmaka (अश्मक).—[masculine] ī [feminine] a man’s and a woman’s name; [masculine] [plural] a tribe of warriors.

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Asmāka (अस्माक).—[adjective] our, ours.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Aśmaka (अश्मक):—[from aśna] m. ([gana] ṛśyādi q.v.) Name of a son of Vasiṣṭha and Madayantī, [Mahābhārata; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] Name of a warrior tribe, [Pāṇini 4-1, 173; Rāmāyaṇa] etc. (cf. avanty-aśmakās)

3) Asmāka (अस्माक):—[from asma] mfn. ([from] asma + añc? cf. apāka etc.) our, ours, [Ṛg-veda] (cf. āsmāka.)

4) Āsmāka (आस्माक):—mf(ī)n. ([from] asmākam, [Pāṇini 4-3, 1 and 2]), our, ours, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Asmāka (अस्माक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Amheccaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ashmaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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