Yogadrstisamuccaya of Haribhadra Suri (Study)

by Riddhi J. Shah | 2014 | 98,110 words

This page relates ‘Dhyana (meditation)’ of the study on the Yogadrstisamuccaya: a 6th-century work on Jain Yoga authored by Haribhadra Suri consisting of 228 Sanskrit verses. The book draws from numerous sources on traditional Yoga. Three important topics are stipulated throughout this study: 1) nature of liberation, 2) a liberated soul, and 3) omniscience.—This section belongs to the series “The Eight Yogadrishtis and the nature of a Liberated Soul”.

The beholder of prabhā dṛṣṭi, who can stay in the state of meditation [i.e., dhyāna] for a long time, obtains real happiness from it. Such happiness is not caused by worldly objects. The subject in question has obtained it by achieving victory over the means of sensual pleasure. Hence such happiness is not dependent upon any materialistic thing. Moreover, such happiness is characterized by the strength of discrimination which is born out of the power of knowledge. Therefore, such happiness is always predominated by calm, which is an outcome of the discrimination[1] .

As we have seen that the happiness born out from practicing meditation [i.e., dhyāna] is not dependent upon either any external situation or any worldly object. Therefore, such happiness is real happiness.

In order to differentiate the “so-called” happiness from the real happiness Haribhadrasūri refers to the most popular definition of happiness (sukha) and misery (duḥkha). The definition is[2] , “whatever lies in the power of other (i.e. non-self) is of the nature of pain, whatever lies in one’s own (i.e. the self) control is of the nature of pleasure.”

Haribhadrasūri further elaborates the definition by saying that the happiness, which one gets as result of meritorious deeds (puṇya) is also of the nature of pain. It is socalled happiness. The real happiness is that which is obtained by practicing meditation[3] .

The happiness, which is obtained by performing meritorious deeds, is conditional. It is dependent upon the rise (udya) of corresponding meritorious deeds[4] . Since such happiness is obtained by depending upon that which is non-self, it is of the nature of pain. Only that happiness is real which is gained by the soul itself through destroying karmans[5] . In case of the happiness born out of practicing meditation [i.e., dhyāna] is real happiness because for acquiring it a soul does not have to depend upon either any worldly object or rise of the meritorious deed. To sum up we may say that the dependency is pain and independency is happiness.

Haribhadrasūri states the pure understanding of the prabhā dṛṣṭi beholder causes persistence existence of the meditation [i.e., dhyāna][6]. The pure understanding is that which has arisen from the clear destruction-cum-subsidence type of right faith[7] . Haribhadrasūri compares it with the gold which is almost purified[8] . He says that even though the gold, which has got rid of its major admixture of impurities, causes welfare to others. Similarly, though the pure understanding is arisen out of destruction-cum-subsidence and not complete destruction (kṣaya), it causes consistency to the meditative state of a prabhā dṛṣṭi beholder.

Footnotes and references:


dhyānajaṃ sukhamasyāṃ ta,ु jitamanmathasādhanam |
vivekabalanirjātaṃ, śamasāraṃ sadaiva hi || 171 ||

..., kiṃ viśiṣṭamityāha-jitamanmathasādhanaṃvyudastaśabdādiviṣayam, etadeva viśeṣyate-vivekabalanirjātaṃ jñānasāmarthyotpannam, ata eva śamasāraṃ sadaiva hi, vivekasya śamaphalatvāditi || 171 ||
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sarvaṃ paravaśaṃ daḥु khaṃ, savarmātmavaśaṃ sukham |
etadakु taṃ samāsena, lakṣaṇaṃ sukhadaḥु khayoḥ || 172 ||


puṇyāpekṣamapi hayevaṃ, sukhaṃ paravaśaṃ sthitam |
tataśca daḥु khamevaitad, dhyānajaṃ tāttvikaṃ sukham || 173 ||


puṇyāpekṣamapi hayevamuktanītyā sukhaṃ paravaśaṃ sthitaṃ puṇasya paratvāt |... || 173 ||
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| tadityaṃdhyānajaṃ tāttvikaṃ sukhamaparāyattatvāt karmi vayogamātrajatvāditi || 173 ||


dhyānaṃ ca nimarle bodha,sadaiva hi mahātmanām |
........................,.......................... || 174 ||


dhyānaṃ ca nirmelabodhe–spaṣṭa kṣayopaśamasamutेthasati,... || 174 ||
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| etadeva prativastūpamayā''ha-kṣīṇaprāyamalaṃ hema-svarṇaṃ sadā kalyāṇameva hi tathāvasthopapatteḥ || 174 ||

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