Marana, Maraṇa, Māraṇa: 49 definitions


Marana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Marna.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

1) Maraṇa (मरण) is a Sanskrit technical term that refers to the “death” (due to the onset of diseases), as per rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy)

2) Māraṇa (मारण) refers to the process of “incineration” of metatals. It is used throughout Rasaśāstra literature, such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara.

Source: Google Books: The Alchemical Body

Māraṇa, the “killing” of mercury (or any metal) reduces it to a fine ash or oxide (bhasma), such that the human body is able to absorb it when it is taken in medical preparations. Metals other than mercury are genrally killed, in preparation for internal use, by heating them together with iron pyrites and mercuric sulfide. When mercury is killed, it loses its fluidity, density, luster, and brilliance. Tantric alchemy attributes fantastic powers of transmutation to said mercury, which it identifies as “killed ash” (mṛtabhasma) or “killed mercury” (mṛtasūtaka).

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Maraṇa (मरण) refers to “fatal (snake-bites)”, as taught in the Damśarūpa (“aspects of snake-bites”) section of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—The author discusses conditions under which snakes bite, types of fangs and bites, vital spots of bite which can be fatal, stages of envenomation and astrological considerations for snake-bite effect. In general, one or two bites cause wound with saliva. One bite is not poisonous. Two bites can be treated with mantra; poison caused by the bites can be cured by medicine. Four bites means, positively fatal [e.g., maraṇa-prada].

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Māraṇa (मारण):—A process by which the metals / minerals are Reduced into ashes

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kakṣapuṭa-tantra

Māraṇa (मारण) refers to “killing others”. It is a siddhi (‘supernatural power’) described in chapter one of the Kakṣapuṭatantra (a manual of Tantric practice from the tenth century).

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra

Māraṇa (मारण) or Mṛti refers to “killing others” and represents one of the various siddhis (perfections) mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.11-13. Accordingly, “by excellent Sādhakas (tantric practitioners) wishing the Siddhi (e.g., māraṇa), the mantrasādhana should be performed in advance, for the sake of the Siddhi. One would not attain any Siddhi without the means of mantra-vidhāna (the classification of mantra)”.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Māraṇa (मारण) or Māraṇāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Kāraṇāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Māraṇa Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Kāraṇa-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Maraṇa (मरण, “death”).—One of the thirty-three vyabhicāribhāva (transitory states), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7. These ‘transitory states’ accompany the ‘permanent state’ in co-operation. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.8-9)

2) Maraṇa (मरण, “death”) refers to the tenth of the ten stages of love (kāma) arising in a woman (strī) and men (puṃs) alike, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24.

3) Maraṇa (मरण, “death”) represents the eighth stage of the action of poison (viṣa) after drinking it, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 26. In a dramatic play, the representation of death from drinking poison is displayed by throwing out of hands and feet and other limbs. The power of the poison will lead to the quivering action of the different parts of the body.

Maraṇa according to the Nāṭyaśāstra: “death (maraṇa) whether it is due to a growth of disease or to snake-bite should be represented, according to the dramatic convention (nāṭyadharma) by a closure of the eyes”.

Source: Natya Shastra

1) Maraṇa (मरण, “death”) comes through disease as well as accidental injury. Of these two kinds of death, that from sickness is caused by determinants (vibhāva) such as a malady of the intestine and the liver, colic pain, disturbance of humours, tumours, boils, fever, cholera, and the like. And that due to accidental injury is caused by weapons, snake bite, taking poison, [attack of] ferocious animals, injury due to falling down from elephant, horse, chariot and other vehicles.

Death due to disease is to be represented on the stage by one mark viz. loose body and inactive sense-organs. But death due to accidental injury is to be represented on the stage in different ways: e.g., [death due to] wound by weapons is to be represented by consequents (anubhāva) such as suddenly falling down on the ground and the like. In case of snake-bite or taking poison [there is a gradual] development of its symptoms which are eight in number, viz. thinness (of the body), tremor, burning sensation, hiccup, foam at the mouth, breaking of the neck, paralysis and death.

2) Maraṇa (मरण).—One of the ten stages of love (kāma);—If even after adopting all the means available for the purpose the Union with the beloved does not take place, then burnt in the fire of love one’s Death (maraṇa) takes place. Thus in case of her not meeting (lit. getting) the beloved, one should represent, according to the Science of Erotics, for the Heroine all the stages of love except the last one

3) Maraṇa (मरण).—Representation of death (maraṇa) which may arise from different conditions will be of different nature. For example, sometimes it is indicated by throwing out all the hands and feet, and sometimes by a paralysis of movement of all the limbs.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Maraṇa (मरण).—(M) (death) Death is a goddess whose name is Mṛtyu. The Purāṇas state that there was no death in the world before the birth of this goddess. In Mahābhārata, Droṇa Parva, Chapter 53 there is the following story about the circumstances in which Brahmā created Mṛtyu.

Living beings multiplied endlessly on earth. As they had no death, the goddess Earth found their weight too much for her to bear. She went weeping to Brahmā and prayed for his help. At that time, Rudra and Nārada were present in Brahmā’s assembly. Brahmā said that he did not like destroying living beings. Because of the pressure of Rudra and Nārada, Brahmā created out of Viśvaprakāsa (Cosmic Light) a woman. She was born from the south and Brahmā gave her the name "Mṛtyu". He gave her permission to destroy human beings.

When she heard that she was to kill living beings, she shed tears and Brahmā gathered those tears. She went to Dhenukāśrama and other places and performed tapas. At last Brahmā called her back and assured her that it was not against Dharma to kill living beings. He changed the tears he had gathered from her face into the various diseases and returned them to her. He gave those diseases and the god Yama as her companions. Thus the goddess Mṛtyu started her dance of destruction. (See also under the word PUNARJANMA).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Māraṇa (मारण) refers to “exterminating enemies”, which is mentioned as obtainable through the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] in order to drive out enemies, the number of worship is the same as before [for details, see text]. For exterminating enemies (māraṇa), worship is for a hundred thousand times and for enchantment worship is half that number”.

2) Māraṇa (मारण, “killing”) refers to one of the five arrows of Kāma, also known as Puṣpabāṇa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.3.—“[...] taking his five flower-arrows (Puṣpabāṇa), Kāma decided on his future course remaining invisible in form. His five arrows are respectively: Harṣaṇa (delighting), Rocana (appealing), Mohana (deluding), Śoṣaṇa (withering), Māraṇa (killing). Even sages could be deluded and tormented by them”.

3) Maraṇa (मरण, “death”) refers to “death”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.35. Accordingly, as Viṣṇu said to Dakṣa:—“[...] poverty, death (maraṇa) and fear, these three take place when people worthy of worship are not worshipped and when undeserving people are honoured. Hence with all efforts, the bull-bannered deity shall be respected and revered. A great terror has befallen us because lord Śiva has been dishonoured here”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Maraṇa (मरण) refers to “death”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “(The fourfold grouping of the sixteen parts of the sacred seats) differentiate the whole of time according to whether it is gross or subtle. Gross, subtle, and ultimate, they resonate, established in the essential nature of time. They arise within the first digit of the moon (and continue to arise in the succeeding digits) up to the end of the left (current of vitality to) then again (enter) the right. (In this way) life and death [i.e., maraṇajīvitaṃ maraṇaṃ] (alternate) in accord with the division of the Moon and Sun (which symbolize the inhaled and exhaled breath, respectively)”.

Source: Google books: Genesis and Development of Tantra (Shaktism)

Māraṇa (मारण, “murder”) refers to one of the twelve kinds of black magic (abhicāra) which represents one of the various Siddhis (“supernatural powers”) according to the Siddhayogeśvarīmata: an ancient Sanskrit text devoted to cults of Goddesses as the Vidyāpīṭha or Vidyā Corpus.—Although Vedic rituals were a reliable way for the people of ancient India to fulfill their objectives, Tantric rites too claim to bring about the attainment of wishes. [...] In the Siddhayogeśvarīmata, the objectives of the rites are classified as siddhis [e.g., twelve kinds of black magic (abhicāras) such as murder (māraṇa)]. They belong to the category of supernatural phenomena and seem to be considerably different from the types of wish people expected to gain from the Vedic rituals that still remained within the sphere of everyday life.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Maraṇa (मरण) refers to “death”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If, at rising, the sun should be crossed by the fall of an aerolite, or thunderbolt, or by lightning, the reigning prince will die [i.e., maraṇa] and a foreign prince will succeed. If, for several days, there should appear a halo round the sun both at rising and setting or if the sun should, at such periods, be of blood color, the reigning sovereign will be dethroned and a foreign prince will succeed.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Maraṇa (मरण) refers to “death”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 8.88-90.—Accordingly: “The wise say that death (maraṇa) is the natural state of embodied creatures and life is a change in that state. If a being remains breathing even for a moment it is surely fortunate. The foolish man regards the loss of his dear one as a dart shot into his heart. Another man looks on the same as a dart that has been pulled out, for it is a door to beatitude. When we are taught that our own body and soul unite and then separate, tell me which wise person should be tormented by separation from the external objects of the senses?”.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)

Maraṇa (मरण) refers to “(the danger of) death”, according to the Amṛtasiddhi, a 12th-century text belonging to the Haṭhayoga textual tradition.—Accordingly, “At the navel is a white lotus. On top of that is the spotless orb of the sun. In the middle of that, at the triple pathway, is she who is the sole essence of saṃsāra [and] the creator of the three worlds, who arises on the path of dharma, who has three bodies [and] who is lauded as Chinnamastā, “she whose head is cut.” I worship her, she who has the form of knowledge, who removes the danger of death (maraṇa-bhaya-harā), the Yoginī, the seal of Yoga”.

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

1) Maraṇa (मरण) refers to “death”, according to the Vivekamārtaṇḍa 94ab-95.—Accordingly, while discussing the connection between mind and breath: “So long as the breath is held in the body, then the mind is supportless [in meditation ...]. So long as the breath is in the body, the soul is not released [from it]. The [breath’s] departure is death (maraṇa). Therefore, one should restrain the breath [in the body]”.

2) Maraṇa (मरण) refers to “death”, according to the Yogatārāvalī: a short Yoga text of twenty-nine verses presenting Haṭhayoga as the means to Rājayoga (i.e., Samādhi).—Accordingly, while describing the states of waking, sleep, life and death: “For those [Yogins] situated in [the state of] Rājayoga whose gaze is free from all sense objects, here there is no waking, no state of sleep, no life, no death (maraṇa) and no mind”.

3) Māraṇa (मारण) refers to “killing (adversaries)”, according to the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] By astonishing, [magical] feats such as [creating] enmity [among friends], driving off and killing (māraṇa) [adversaries] and by [tantric] mantras [of all kinds], [deluded] multiplicity multiplies. By all [yogic] practices, the various Bandhas and Mudrās, nothing but union with ignorance [is achieved]. Meditation on points in the body, the channels [of vitality] and the six Cakras is an error of mind. Therefore, having abandoned all that, [because it has been] constructed by the mind, resort to the no-mind [state]. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Maraṇa (मरण) refers to “death”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If a cord is cut, there is death (maraṇa) or deadly pain. [The officiant] who has knowledge of the ritual should perform the fire rite for quelling of calamities, if he becomes aware of such [omens]. Since a levelled house brings every comfort and prosperity [to the residents], one should divide the site properly with cords and examine extraneous substances beneath the site. [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Mantrashastra (the science of Mantras)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (mantra)

Māraṇa (मारण, “death”) refers to one of the eight divisions of the object or purpose of a Mantra, according to the Śrīpraśṇa-saṃhitā (verse 50.70-2).—Mantras refers to “that which is chanted by people to obtain their spiritual aspirations”.

context information

Mantrashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, mantraśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mantras—chants, incantations, spells, magical hymns, etc. Mantra Sastra literature includes many ancient books dealing with the methods reciting mantras, identifying and purifying its defects and the science behind uttering or chanting syllables.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Indian National Science Academy: Hinduism

The ‘Māraṇa’ (मारण) process which is aimed at killing of metal or mineral and destroying its metallic nature by subjecting it with ‘bhāvanā’ and ‘puṭapāka’ treatments for several times or till these arenot divided/converted into finest subdivisions and into suitable desired compound form.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

Marana (“death”). - Contemplation of °: maranānussati. - As divine messenger: deva-dūta.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'death', in ordinary usage, means the disappearance of the vital faculty confined to a single life-time, and therewith of the psycho-physical life-process conventionally called 'man, animal, personality, ego', etc. Strictly speaking, however, death is the continually repeated dissolution and vanishing of each momentary physical-mental combination, and thus it takes place every moment. About this momentaneity of existence, it is said in Vis.M. VIII:

"In the absolute sense, beings have only a very short moment to live, life lasting as long as a single moment of consciousness lasts. Just as a cart-wheel, whether rolling or whether at a standstill, at all times only rests on a single point of its periphery, even so the life of a living being lasts only for the duration of a single moment of consciousness. As soon as that moment ceases, the being also ceases. For it is said:

  • 'The being of the past moment of consciousness has lived, but does not live now, nor will it live in future.
  • The being of the future moment has not yet lived, nor does it live now, but it will live in the future.
  • The being of the present moment has not lived, it does live just now, but it will not live in the future.'"

In another sense, the coming to an end of the psycho-physical life-process of the Arahat, or perfectly Holy One, at the moment of his passing away may be called the final and ultimate death, as up to that moment the psycho-physical life-process was still going on from life to life.

Death, in the ordinary sense, combined with old age, forms the 12th link in the formula of dependent origination (paticca-samuppāda).

For death as a subject of meditation, s. maranānussati; as a function of consciousness, s. viññāna-kicca.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Māraṇa (मारण) refers to one of the eight charnel grounds (śmaśāna) of the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Māraṇa is associated with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Pāga; with the female world-guardian (lokapālinī) named Indrī; with a female serpent (nāginī) and with a female cloud (meghinī).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Maraṇa (मरण) refers to “death”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “[...] Recent suffering (navaduḥkha) is ‘happiness’ (sukha) [in contrast] to the old suffering (pūrvaduḥkha) which is ‘suffering’. Thus, when one sits down one feels happiness, but when this position persists, it gives rise to suffering. At the beginning, walking, standing and lying down are happiness, but in the end they too are suffering. Whether one is bending or one is stretching, whether one is bowing the head or raising it, whether one looks straight ahead or to the side, whether one is breathing out or breathing in, suffering always follows the body. From conception and birth to death [i.e., maraṇa], there is not a single moment of happiness”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Maraṇa (मरण) refers to “death”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja, having praised the Lord with these verses, addressed himself to the Lord: ‘[...] The Lord, having become the king of doctors (vaidyarāja), establishes the way into the state without disease (vyādhi) or death (maraṇa) for [living beings] who are involved with this world covered with desire, defilement, and obstruction (āvaraṇa) from beginningless until endless time (anavarāgra). The Lord, having had power and vitality, is skilled in the knowledge if what is proper and what is improper, and has obtained the three knowledges (trividya). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Maraṇa (मरण, “death”) or Maraṇabhaya refers to the “fear of death” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 71). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., maraṇa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Buddhist Information: A Simple Guide to Life

Death is the only absolutely certain thing in life, yet how many of us plan for it and prepare ourselves adequately in advance to face it calmly? All human beings must die. The body disintegrates, breaks apart, and turns to ashes and dust.

The only thing we own that remains with us beyond death is our kamma, our intentional deeds. Our deeds continue, bringing into being a new form of life until all craving is extinguished. We are born and evolve according to the quality of our kamma. Good deeds will produce a good rebirth, bad deeds a bad rebirth.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Jaina Yoga

Maraṇa (मरण) or Maraṇabhaya refers to “fear of death” and represents one of the seven types of fear (bhaya), according to Cāmuṇḍarāya in his Caritrasāra. Accordingly, these seven bhayas are referred to by Cāmuṇḍarāya in connexion with niḥśaṅka, or “freedom from fear”, which represents an aspect of samyaktva (right belief) classified under the liṅga heading.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

1) Maraṇa (मरण, “death”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.20.—“The function of matter (pudgala) is also to contribute to pleasure (sukha), suffering (duḥkha), life (jīvita) and death (maraṇa) of living brings”. What is death (maraṇa)? Due to the destruction of the life determining (āyusya) karma, the stoppage of the respiration of a living being and the leaving of the body subsequently is in the same realm is called death.

2) Maraṇa (मरण, “death”) according to verse 7.22, “The householder courts ‘voluntary pious-death’ at the end of his life”.—What is meant by death ‘maraṇa’? The loss of senses and the vitalities at the end of one’s duration of life acquired by one’s own dispositions is called death.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Maraṇa (मरण) refers to “death”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “[...] Even with renunciation of worldly pleasures, meditation accompanied by austerities, propagation of true faith, and auspicious death (sukha-maraṇa) are rare. If these are achieved, then the attainment of enlightenment has borne fruit. By contemplating on the difficulty in attaining true faith, one does not become negligent after attaining this rare jewel”.

2) Maraṇa (मरण) refers to “death”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “You must understand that the body is overcome by disease, youth is overcome by old age, vitality is oppressed by decay and life is oppressed by death (maraṇa-ārta)”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

maraṇa : (nt.) death. || māraṇa (nt.), killing.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Māraṇa, (nt.) (fr. Caus. māreti) killing, slaughter, death D. II, 128; Sdhp. 295, 569. (Page 530)

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Maraṇa, (nt.) (fr. mṛ) death, as ending this (visible) existence, physical death, in a narrower meaning than kālakiriyā; dying, in cpds. death.—The customary stock definition of maraṇa runs; yaṃ tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhā tamhā satta-nikāyā cuti cavanatā bhedo antaradhānaṃ, maccu maraṇaṃ kālakiriyā, khandhānaṃ bhedo, kaḷebarassa nikkhepo M. I, 49; Nd1 123, 124 (adds “jīvit’indriyass’upacchedo”). Cp. similar definitions of birth and old age under jāti and jarā.—S. I, 121; D. III, 52, 111 sq. , 135 sq. , 146 sq. , 235, 258 sq.; Sn. 32, 318, 426 sq. , 575 sq. , 742, 806; Nd2 254 (=maccu); Pug. 60; Vbh. 99 sq.; VbhA. 100 (definition and exegesis in det. , cp. Vism. 502), 101 (var. kinds of, cp. Vism. 229), 156 (lahuka), 157; DhA. III, 434; PvA. 5, 18, 54, 64, 76, 96; Sdhp. 292, 293.—kāla° timely death (opp. akāla°); khaṇika° sudden death Vism. 229.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

maraṇa (मरण).—n (S) Death. 2 fig. Loss, decrease, detriment, diminution. Ex. sōnyācē nāṇyāsa kōṭhēṃ- tarīṃ ma0 nāhīṃ. 3 Any danger or peril: also jeopardy, hazard, or perilousness. Ex. tyā mārgānēṃ jāūṃ nakō tēthēṃ mōṭhēṃ ma0 āhē; samudrāvara basūna jāṇēṃ mōṭhēṃ ma0 āhē. 4 An act or a state in general exceedingly disgusting or disagreeable. Ex. lōkā- javaḷa karja māgaṇēṃ hēṃ malā mōṭhēṃ ma0 āhē. ājacēṃ ma0 udyāvara lōṭaṇēṃ To put off a present evil. āpalyā maraṇānēṃ maraṇēṃ To die a natural death. 2 To bring evil (as punishment or other result of misdoing or folly) upon one's self. udyācēṃ ma0 āja āṇaṇēṃ To anticipate an evil. khitapaṇīcēṃ ma0 A lingering death. Ex. jyā aṅgāvarī kēlēṃ śayana || tēthūna aṅga halavūṃ nēṇē || khitapaṇīcēṃ ālēṃ ma0 || nindaka- jana bōlati ||. ma0 jāṇaṇēṃ or samajaṇēṃ or, in. con., kaḷaṇēṃ or kaḷūṃ yēṇēṃ To apprehend danger. ma0 nāhīṃ There is no fear or doubt, no ground of apprehension or uncertainty (about it). Ex. ēthēṃ śēta kēlyāsa dāhā maṇāsa ma0 nāhīṃ; hā ghōḍā vikalā tara pāñcaśēṃ rupayāṃsa ma0 nāhīṃ. ma0 prāya Like death itself. A phrase expressive of the superlative disagreeableness (of any object or act). maraṇāñcīṃ vājantrīṃ vājaṇēṃ (kōṇhācyā gharīṃ) Used where one is ready to brave every death or danger. maraṇācyā dārīṃ basaṇēṃ To be at death's door. Also maraṇācyā panthāsa lāgaṇēṃ or ṭēkaṇēṃ. maraṇādārīṃ kīṃ tōraṇādārīṃ (jāvēṃ &c.) Whether at the death of or at the wedding of (one must attend &c.) maraṇā- māthāṃ or māthēsa yēṇēṃ or pāvaṇēṃ To become as if dying; to be utterly knocked up or wearied out. maraṇā- lā rātra aḍavī karaṇēṃ To put off death or any pressing danger or evil for a short season. maraṇīṃ maraṇēṃ g. of o. To suffer death in the stead of; to give or to expose one's life for. 2 fig. To be devotedly at the beck of.

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maraṇā (मरणा).—a R (maraṇa) Reduced to the verge of the grave; exceedingly emaciated.

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māraṇa (मारण).—n S Killing. 2 Incantations to destroy.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

maraṇa (मरण).—n Death. Fig. Loss; any danger. ājacē maraṇa udyāṃvara lōṭaṇēṃ Put off a present

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māraṇa (मारण).—n Killing. Incantations to destroy.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Maraṇa (मरण).—[mṛ-bhāve lyuṭ]

1) Dying, death; मरणं प्रकृतिः शरीरिणाम् (maraṇaṃ prakṛtiḥ śarīriṇām) R.8.87; or संभावितस्य चाकीर्तिर्मरणादतिरिच्यते (saṃbhāvitasya cākīrtirmaraṇādatiricyate) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.34.

2) A kind of poison.

3) Passing away, cessation (as of rain).

4) (In astrol.) The 8th mansion.

5) A refuge, asylum.

Derivable forms: maraṇam (मरणम्).

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Māraṇa (मारण).—[mṛ-ṇic lyuṭ]

1) Killing, slaying, slaughter, destruction; पशुमारणकर्मदारुणः (paśumāraṇakarmadāruṇaḥ) Ś.6.1.

2) A magical ceremony performed for the purpose of destroying an enemy.

3) Calcination.

4) A kind of poison.

Derivable forms: māraṇam (मारणम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Maraṇa (मरण).—as m. (?), and f. °ṇā, death (otherwise nt.): in Lalitavistara 175.11 (verse) Lefm. maraṇo with ms. A only, but all others °ṇam (or a few °ṇa), and so citation of the verse Śikṣāsamuccaya 206.9; in Mahāvastu i.165.8 (verse) maraṇāya (3 mss. unmetri- cally °ṇāye) pāraṃ, to the farther shore of death; can hardly be taken as dat., or as anything other than gen., which seems to imply stem °ṇā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maraṇa (मरण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) Death, dying. E. mṛ to die, aff. lyuṭ .

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Māraṇa (मारण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. Killing, slaughter. 2. A magical ceremony for the purpose of destroying an enemy. 3. A kind of poison. E. mṛ to die, causal form, to kill, aff. lyuṭ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maraṇa (मरण).—i. e. mṛ + ana, n. 1. Dying, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 48, 1. 2. Death, [Pañcatantra] 128, 7.

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Māraṇa (मारण).—i. e. mṛ, [Causal.] + ana, n. 1. Killing. 2. Being killed, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 38.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maraṇa (मरण).—[neuter] = mara; ṇaṃ kṛ to die.

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Māraṇa (मारण).—[neuter] killing, slaughter, murder ([with] prāp suffer death); [Name] of a cert. magical ceremony & a mythical weapon.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Maraṇa (मरण):—[from mara] n. the act of dying, death, (ifc. dying by; ṇaṃ √1. kṛ [Ātmanepada] kurute, to die), [???; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] passing away, cessation (as of lightning or rain), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] (in [astrology]) the 8th mansion, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā [Scholiast or Commentator]]

4) [v.s. ...] a kind of poison, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([probably] [wrong reading] for māraṇa)

5) [v.s. ...] a refuge, asylum, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa] ([probably] [wrong reading] for śaraṇa).

6) Māraṇa (मारण):—[from māra] n. killing, slaying, slaughter, death, destruction, [Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā; Manu-smṛti; Harivaṃśa] etc. (ṇam pra√āp, to suffer death)

7) [v.s. ...] a magical ceremony having for its object the destruction of an enemy (also -karman n. and -kṛtya n.), [Rāmatāpanīya-upaniṣad; Pañcarātra]

8) [v.s. ...] ([scilicet] astra), ‘slayer’, Name of a [particular] mystical weapon, [Rāmāyaṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] calcination, [Catalogue(s)]

10) [v.s. ...] a kind of poison (cf. maraṇa)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Maraṇa (मरण):—(ṇaṃ) 1. n. Death, dying.

2) Māraṇa (मारण):—(ṇaṃ) 1. m. Killing, slaughter.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Maraṇa (मरण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Maraṇa, Māraṇa, Māraṇayā, Māraṇā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Marana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Maraṇa (मरण) [Also spelled maran]:—(nm) death, demise, expiration; mortality; -[dara] rate of mortality; ~[dharmā/śīla] mortal; -[bhaya/bhīti] thanatophobia; -[śaiyā] death bed.

2) Maranā (मरना) [Also spelled marna]:—(v) to die, to pass away; to wither away; to become ineffective; to vanish, to disappear; to discontinue; to be absorbed (as [pānī]-); to be out (as in a game); to fall for (somebody); (nm) death; post-death rites; [marakara jīnā] to have a lease of life; [mara-khapa kara] somehow, after going through lots of ordeals, with great difficulty; [mara-khapa jānā] to be dead and gone: -[jīnā] life and death; the wheel of birth and death; festive and tragic occasions; [marane taka kī phursata na honā] to be terribly rushed, not to have a moment’s respite; -[pacanā] to work very assiduously. to pass through terrible ordeals; [mara-mara kara] by tremendous toil; [mara-miṭakara] with immense difficulty; [mara miṭanā] to be ruined, to be under a spell of disaster; to be infatuated; [mare ko māranā] to hit a man when he is down; [mare śera se jītī billī bhalī] a living dog is better than a dead lion.

3) Māraṇa (मारण) [Also spelled maran]:—(nm) slaughter, killing; a tantrik process of killing an adversary through the influence of relevant mantras; —[maṃtra] a mantra for killing an adversary.

4) Māranā (मारना) [Also spelled marna]:—(v) to kill; to beat, to belabour; to hit, to strike; to punish; to subdue (as [gussā]-); to misappropriate, not to repay (as [paisā]-); to chop off (as [gardana]-); to win (as [maidāna]-); to turn ineffective (as [jahara]-); to reduce to ashes (as [dhātu-); māra ḍālanā] to kill, to slay, to murder;-,[golī] to shoot; to leave; -, [mana] to exercise self-restraint, to subdue one’s desires; [māra-māra kara adhamarā kara denā] to flog a person within an inch of his life; [māra-māra kara kacūmara nikālanā/malīdā banānā] to beat black and blue, to beat into pulp; [māra-māra kara vaidya/bakīma banānā, māra-māra kara gadhe ko ghoḍā banānā] to beat an ass into a horse; [mārā-mārā phiranā] to wander aimlessly, to knock about from door to door; [mārāmārī] mutual killing/fight, bloody encounter.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Maraṇa (मरण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Maraṇa.

2) Māraṇa (मारण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Māraṇa.

3) Māraṇā (मारणा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Māraṇā.

Māraṇā has the following synonyms: Māraṇayā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Maraṇa (ಮರಣ):—

1) [noun] the departure of the soul from the body; cessation of life; death.

2) [noun] a rapidly acting poisonous drug made from the dried roots of aconite plants (as Aconitum ferox or A. napellus); aconitum.

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Māraṇa (ಮಾರಣ):—

1) [noun] the act or a instance of killing.

2) [noun] a destroying of being destroyed; destruction.

3) [noun] black magic employed for destroying one’s enemy.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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