Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes another function of the matter (pudgala) which is verse 5.20 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 20 of the chapter The Non-living Substances and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 5.20 - Another function of the matter (pudgala)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 5.20:

सुखदुःखजीवितमरणोपग्रहाश्च ॥ ५.२० ॥

sukhaduḥkhajīvitamaraṇopagrahāśca || 5.20 ||

The function of the matter (pudgala) is also to contribute to pleasure (sukha), suffering (duḥkha), living (jīvita), and death (maraṇa) of living beings (jīva). (20)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [सुखदुःखजीवितमरणोपग्रहाश्च] इन्द्रियजन्य सुख-दुःख, जीवन-मरण ये भी पुद्गल के उपकार हैं।

Anvayartha: [sukhaduhkhajivitamaranopagrahashca] indriyajanya sukha-duhkha, jivana-marana ye bhi pudgala ke upakara haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

Owing to the presence of the internal causes of karmas which produce pleasant-feelings (sātā) and unpleasant-feelings (asātā), and in consequence of association with external causes such as the objects, the dispositions of agreeableness or affliction are pleasure (sukha) and suffering (duḥkha), respectively. The continuance of respiration in a being owing to the presence of the age-determining (āyuḥ) karma is called living (jīvita). The cutting off or destruction of respiration is death (maraṇa). The matter (pudgala) renders help to the soul in these respects. How? These arise in the presence of material causes. It is contended that the word ‘upagraha’ in the sūtra is unnecessary as this section deals with ‘upakāra’. But it is not unnecessary. It is intended to indicate the help rendered by the matter (pudgala) to material objects. For instance, bronze is purified by certain ashes, water is purified by clearing nuts called ‘kataka’ and steel is tempered with the help of water. The word ‘ca’–also–is intended to include other kinds of help. Thus, other kinds of help are also rendered by the matter (pudgala). Just as the body (śarīra), etc., are constituted by the matter (pudgala), in the same way, sense-organs such as the eyes also are the help rendered by the matter (pudgala).

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