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Chapter VII - Emotional and other States (bhāva)

Bhāvas (Psychological States) explained

0. Now I shall speak of the bhāvas (Psychological States, lit. feelings). An anquiry in this connexion is, “Why are the bhāvas so called? Is it because they bhāvayanti (pervade) and are hence called bhāvas?” It is said in reply that bhāvas are so called, because through Words, Gestures and Representation of the Sattva they bhāvayanti (infuse) the meaning of the play [into the spectators]. Bhāva is an ‘instrument,’ of causation; for words, such as bhāvita, vāsita and kṛta are synonymous. An expression like, ‘O, all these things are bhāvita (pervaded) by one another’s smell or moistened by one another’s juice,’ is current even amongst the common people. Hence the root bhāvaya means ‘to cause to pervade.’ On this point there are the following Ślokas:

1. When the meanings presented by Determinants and Consequents are made to pervade (gamayte) [the heart of the spectators] they are called bhāvas.

2. As in these, the inner idea of the playwright is made to pervade [the mind of the spectators] by means of Words, Gestures, colour of the face and Representation of the Sattva, they are called bhāvas.

3. As they cause the Sentiments relating to various kinds of Histrionic Representation to pervade [the heart of spectators], they are called bhāva (States) by those who produce a drama.

Vibhāvas (Determinants) explained

“Now, why is the word vibhāva used?.” [Answer]: “The word vibhāva is used for the sake of clear knowledge. It is synonymous with kāraṇa, nimitta and hetu. As Words, Gestures and Representation of the Sattva are vibhāvyte (determined) by this, it is called vibhāva (Determinant). Vibhāvita [also] means the same thing as vijñāta (clearly known). On this point there is a Śloka:

As many things are vibhāvyate (determined) by this through Words, Gestures and the Representation of the Sattva, it is named vibhāva (Determinant).

Anubhāvas (Consequents) explained

“Now, why is the word anubhāva used?” (Answer) “Because this anubhāvayati [the spectators] (i.e. make them feel afterwards) [the effect of] the Histrionic Representation by means of Words, Gestures and the Sattva, it is called anubhāva (Consequent). On this point there is a Śloka:

5. As in it the play (lit. meaning) is anubhāvyate (made to be felt) by means of Words and Gestures, it is called anubhāva, and it relates to words as well as to [gestures and movements of] major and minor limbs.

Now we have explained that the Psychological States are related to Determinants and Consequents. Thus are Psychological States created. Hence we shall discuss the definitions and examples of the Psychological States together with their Determinants and Consequents. Of these, the Determinants and the Consequents are well-known among the people. They being connected with the human nature, their definitions are not discussed. This is for avoiding prolixity. On this point there is the Śloka:

6. Determinants and Consequents are known by the wise to be things which are created by human nature and are in accordance with the ways of human nature and with the ways of the world.

Now the the Durable Psychological States are eight in number. The Complementary Psychological States are thirty-three and the Sāttvika States are eight in number. These are the three varieties of the Psychological States. Hence we are to understand that there are forty-nine Psychogical States capable of drawing out the Sentiment from the play, The Sentiments arise from them when they are imbued with the quality of universality (sāmānya, lit. commonness). On this point there is a Śloka:

7. The Psychological State proceeding from the thing which is congenial to the heart, is the source of the Sentiment and it pervades the body just as fire spreads over dry wood.

Durable and other Psychological States

It is said in this connexion: “If the forty-nine Psychological States being represented by Determinants and Consequents coming into contact with one another become Sentiments when they are imbued with the quality of universality, how is it that Durable Psychological States only are changed into Sentiments [and not others]?, [In reply to this] it is said: “Just as among persons having same characteristics and similar hands, feet and belly and celebrity, some due to their birth, manners, learning and skill in arts and crafts, attain kingship, while others endowed with an inferior intellect become their attendants, in a similar manner, Determinants, Consequents and Complementary Psychological States become dependent on the Durable Psychological States. Being the shelter [of others] the Durable Psychological States become masters. Similarly other Psychological States (lit. feelings) reduced to subordination take sheter (shelter?) with them (i.e. the Durable Psychological States) due to superior merit [of the latter]. Those becoming their retinue are the Complementary Psychological States. “Is there any parallel instance?” [Answer.] “Just as only a king surrounded by numerous attendants receives this epithet and not any other man be he ever so great, so the Durable Psychological States only followed by Determinants, Consequents and Complimentary Psychological States, receive the name of Sentiment. [On the point] there is a traditional Sloka:

8. Just as a king is superior to other men, and the preceptor is superior to his disciples, so the Durable Psychological States are superior to the other Psychological States.

Durable Psychological States

Characteristics of these which are known as the Sentiments have been mentioned before. Now we shall discuss the marks of the Psychological States common to them. First of all we shall take up [the case of] the Durable Psychological States.

Love (rati)

Love (rati) which has pleasure as its basis, is caused by Determinants like seasons, garlands, unguent, ornaments, dear ones, enjoyment of a superior residential house, and absence of opposition [from any one]. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as a smiling face, sweet words, motion of eyebrows, and glances and the like.

There is a Śloka [on this point]:

9. Love arises from the attainment of desired objects. Because of its agreeableness, it is to be represented on the stage by sweet words accompanied by [suitable] gestures and movements of limbs.

Laughter (hāsya)

Now, Laughter (hāsya) is caused by Determinants such as mimicry of others’ actions, incoherent talk, obtrusiveness, foolishness and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by means of Smile and the like.

On this point there is a traditional Śloka:

10. Laughter arises from a mimicry of other people’s actions. It is to be represented on the stage by the learned with Smile, Laughter and Excessive Laughter.

Sorrow (śoka)

Sorrow (śoka) is caused by Determinants such as death of the beloved one, loss of wealth, experience of sorrow due to any one’s murder or captivity and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as shedding tears, lamentation, bewailing, change of colour, loss of voice, looseness of limbs, falling on the ground, crying, deep breathing, paralysis, insanity, death and the like. Weeping here (i.e. in a play) is of three kinds: [weeping) of joy, [weeping] of affliction and [weeping] due to jealousy. On these points there are traditional Āryās:

11. Weeping in which the cheeks are blooming in joy, the body is horripilating, there are words of remembrance, and tears are not concealed, is called weeping of joy.

12. Weeping in which there is a loud sound, copious shedding of tears, uneasiness of the body, want of steady movements and efforts, lamentation after falling on the ground, and rolling on the earth, is called weeping due to affliction.

13. Loud weeping of women in which the lips and the cheeks are throbbing and the head is shaking, the eyebrows and the glances are moving in anger, is called weeping due to jealousy.

14. Sorrow relates to women, persons of the inferior type, and it has its origin in affliction [of any kind]. With relation to it, persons of the superior and the middling types are distinguished by their patience and those of the inferior type by their weeping.

Anger (krodha)

Anger (krodha) is caused by Determinants such as insolence, abusive language, quarrel, altercation, opposing [persons or objects] and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as swollen nose, upturned eyes, bitten lips, throbbing cheeks and the like.

15. Anger is of five kinds, viz., anger caused by enemies, superior persons, lovers, servants, and feigned anger.

On this point there are traditional Āryās:

16. One should show anger against control by the enemy with knitting of eyebrows, fierce look, bitten lips, hands clasping each other, and with threatening arms, shoulder and chest.

17. One should show anger against control by superiors with slightly downcast eyes, wiping off slight perspiration and not expressing any violent movement.

18. One should show one’s anger to the beloved woman by a very slight movement [of the body], by shedding tears, and knitting eyebrows and with sidelong glances, and throbbing lips.

19. Anger to one’s servants should be represented on the stage by means of threat, rebuke, dilated eyes and by casting angry looks of various kind.

20. Anger which is shown with a view to the realization of an ulterior motive and which mostly betrays marks of effort, is called feigned anger, and it relates to (lit. moves between) two Sentiments.

Energy (utsāha)

Energy (utsāha) relates to persons of the superior type. It is caused by Determinants such as absence of sadness, power, patience, heroism and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as steadiness, munificence, boldness in an undertaking, and the like. On this point there is a Śloka:

21. Energy which has effort as its basis and which grows out of alertness and such other qualities, should be represented on the stage by acts of vigilance and the like.

Fear (bhaya)

Fear (bhaya) relates to women and persons of the inferior type. It is caused by Determinants such as acts offending one’s superiors and the king, roaming in a forest, seeing an elephant and a snake, staying in an empty house, rebuke [from one’s superiors], a dark rainy night, hearing the hooting of owls and the cry of animals that go out at night, and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as, trembling hands and feet, palpitation of the heart, paralysis, dryness of the mouth, licking the lips, perspiration, tremor, apprehension [of danger], seeking safety, running away, loud crying and the like. On this point there are Ślokas:

22. Fear arises from an embarassment due to offending one’s superiors and the king, seeing terrible objects and hearing awful things.

23. This is to be represented with tremor of the limbs, panic, drying up of the mouth, hurried movement, widely opened eyes and such other gestures and actions.

24. Fear in men arising from terrifying objects should be represented on the stage by actors (lit. dancers) with slackened limbs and suspended movement of the eyes.

There is also an Āryā on this point:

25. This (fear) should be represented on the stage with tremor of hands and feet, and palpitation of the heart, paralysis, licking the lips, drying up of the mouth, loosened limbs, and sinking (visaṇṇa) body.

Disgust (jugupsā)

Disgust (jugupsā) relates to women and persons of the inferior type. It is caused by Determinants such as hearing and seeing unpleasant things, and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as, contracting all the limbs, spitting, narrowing down of the mouth, heart-ache and the like. On this point there is a Śloka.

26. Disgust is to be represented on the stage by covering the nose, contracting all the limbs, [general] uneasiness and heart-ache.

Astonishment (vismaya)

Astonishment (vismaya) is created by Determinants such as illusion, magic, extraordinary feats of men, great excellence in painting, art-works in parchment and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as wide opening of the eyes, looking without winking of the eyes, [much] movement of the eyebrows, horripilation, moving the head to and fro, the cry of “well done,” “well done,” and the like. On this point there is a Śloka:

27. Astonishment arising from joy due to extraordinary acts should be represented by means such as joy, tears, fainting and the like.

Complementary Psychological States (vyabhicāriṇa)

Durable Psychological States are to be known as described here. We shall now explain the Complementary Psychological States. “Why are these called vyabhicāriṇaḥ?” [In answer] it is said that vi and abhi are prefixes, and the root cara means ‘to go,’ ‘to move. Hence the word vyabhicāriṇah means ‘those that move in relation to Sentiments towards different [kinds of objects.]’ ‘Move in’ implies carrying. It is questioned, “How do they carry?” In answer it is said, “It is a popular convention to say like this, just as the people say, “The sun carries this nakṣatra (star) or that day.” It does not, however, mean that these are carried on arms or shoulders. But this is a popular belief. Just as the sun carries this star, so is to be understood that the Complementary Psychological States [carry the Sentiments]. These Complementary Psychological States as mentioned in the Digest are thirty three in number. We shall describe them now.

Despondency (nirveda)

Despondency (nirveda) is caused by Determinants such as, being reduced to poverty, getting insulted, abusive language, anger, beating, loss of beloved persons, and the knowledge of the ultimate (lit. essential) truth and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Determinants such as weeping, sighing, deep breathing, deliberation and the like, on the part of women, and of persons of the inferior type.

On this point there is a Śloka:

28. Despondency grows out of being reduced to poverty, and loss of dear ones, and it is to be represented on the stage by deliberation and deep breathing.

On this point there are two traditional Āryāsg:

29. Despondency arises from loss of dear ones, poverty, disease, envy from seeing the prosperity of others.

30. A despondent man has the eyes bathed in tears, face and eyes miserable due to heavy breathing, and lie is like a yogi absorbed in meditation.

Weakness (glāni)

Weakness (glāni) proceeds from Determinants such as, vomitting, purgation, sickness, penance, austerities, fasting, mental worry, too much drinking, sexual indulgence, too much exercise, walking a long way, hunger, thirst, sleeplessness and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as a weak voice, lustreless eyes, pale face, slow gait, want of energy, thinness of the body, change of colour and the like.

On this point there are two Āryās:

31. Weakness grows out of vomitting, purgation and sickness, penance, and old age. It is to be represented on the stage by thinness of the body, slow gait and tremor [of the limbs].

32. Weakness is to be represented on the stage by a very weak voice, weakness of the eyesight, poor gait, constant slackness of the limbs.

Apprehension (śaṅkā)

Apprehension (śaṅkā) has doubt as its basis, and it relates to women and persons of the inferior type. It is caused by Determinants such as theft, giving offence to the king and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as constantly looking on, hesitating movement (avakuṇṭhana), dryness of the mouth, licking the lips, change of facial colour, tremor, dry lips, loss of voice and the like.

There is Śloka on these points:

33. Apprehension in the Terrible Sentiment is due to robbery, and the like, and in case of the Erotic Sentiment it is due to [a possible] deception on the part of the lover.

Some authorities prescribe (lit. desire) in this case a concealment of appearance which is to be characterized by [adoption of] clever tricks and gestures.

There are two Āryās in this connexion:

34. Apprehension is of two kinds: viz. that arising from one’s own self and that arising from another person. That arising from one’s own self is to be known from one’s look and efforts.

35. A man with Apprehension has a dark face, a thick and protruding tongue, slightly trembling limbs, and he constantly looks sideways,

Envy (asūyā)

Envy (asūyā) is caused by Determinants such as various offences, hatred, other people’s wealth, good luck, intelligence, sports, learning and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as finding fault with others, decrying their virtues, not paying any heed to these, remaining with downcast face, knitting eyebrows in disparagement, and abusing others in the assembly [of men].

On these points there are two Āryās:

36. Envy arises in a person who is displeased to see other people’s good fortune, wealth, intelligence, and exuberence of sportiveness.

37. It is to be represented by a distorted face, knitting eyebrows, face turned away in jealous anger, decrying other people’s virtues and showing hatred towards them.

Intoxication (mada)

Intoxication (mada) is caused by drinking of liquor and similar other things. It is of three kinds, and has five Determinants. There are the following Āryās on this point:

38. Intoxication is of three kinds, viz. light, medium and excessive. It has five causes which should be represented on the stage.

39. While intoxicated some sing, some laugh and some use harsh words while others sleep.

40. Among these, persons of the superior type sleep, those of the middling type laugh and sing, and those of the inferior type cry or use harsh words.

41. Light intoxication is characterised by a smiling face, pleasant feeling, joyful body, slightly faltering words, delicately unsteady gait, and relates to persons of the superior type.

42. Medium intoxication is characterised by drunken and rolling eyes, drooping arms or arms restlessly thrown about and irregularly unsteady gait, and relates to persons of the middling type.

43. Excessive intoxication is characterised by loss of memory, and incapacity to walk due to vomitting, hiccup and cough, and a thick protruding tongue and spitting, and relates to persons of the inferior type.

44. A character who [acts] drinking on entering the stage is to show that his intoxication is increasing, but the character who enters the stage as drunk should show that his intoxication is decreasing.

45. But the intoxication should be stopped by exit when there is panic, grief and increase of terror due to some cause.

46. On account of these special conditions, intoxication disappears quickly just as grief passes away on hearing the happy news of [sudden] prosperity.

Weariness (śrama)

Weariness (śrama) is caused by Determinants such as walking a long way, exercising of limbs and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Conseqents (Consequents?) such as gentle rubbing of the body, [deep] breathing, contraction of the mouth, belching, massaging of the limbs, very slow gait, contraction of the eyes, making Śītkāra and the like.

There is an Āryā on this point:

47. Weariness in man is caused by walking [a long distance] and exercising [the limbs], and it is to be represented on the stage by [deep] breathing, tired gait and the like.

Indolence (ālasya)

Indolence (ālasya) is caused by Determinants such as nature, lassitude, sickness, satiety, pregnancy and the like. And it relates to women, and men of the inferior type. It it to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as aversion to any kind of work, lying down, sitting, drowsiness, sleep and the like. On this point there is an Āryā:

48. Indolence arising from lassitude as well as nature should be represented on the stage by discontinuance of all activity except taking food.

Depression (dainya)

Depression (dainya) is caused by Determinants such as poverty, mental agony and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as want of self-command, dullness of the body, absent-mindedness, giving up of cleansing [the body] and the like.

There is in Āryā on this point:

49. Depression of men proceeds from anxiety, eager expectation and misery. Different modes of representing it on the stage includes giving up of cleansing [the body] in any way.

Anxiety (cinta)

Anxiety (cinta) is caused by Determinants such as loss of wealth, theft of a favourite object, poverty and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by [deep] breathing, sighing, agony, meditation, thinking with a downcast face, thinness of the body and the like.

There are two Āryās on this point:

50. Anxiety of men arises in various ways from the loss of wealth, theft of a favourite object, and a heart full of expectation.

51. It is to be represented on the stage by sighing, deep breathing, agony, and absent-mindedness, giving up of cleansing [the body] and want of self-command.

Distraction (moha)

Distraction (moha) is caused by Determinants such as accidental injury, adversity, sickness, fear, agitation, remembering past enemity and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as want of movement, [excessive] movement of [a particular] limb, falling down, reeling, not seeing properly and the like.

There is a Śloka on this point:

52. Due to seeing a robber in an unexpected place or from panic of different kinds distraction occurs in a man when he finds no help [near by].

There is also an Āryā on this point:

53. Distraction occurs due to adversity, accidental injury, memory of past enmity. It is to be represented on the stage by suspension of the activity at all senses.

Recollection (smṛti)

Recollection (smṛti) is remembering every condition of happiness and misery. It is caused by Determinants such as health, troubled night, disturbed sleep, seeing parallels, having an example, thinking, constant practice and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as nodding of the head, looking down, raising up the eyebrows and the like.

On this point there is a Ślokā and an Āryā:

54. One is said to be recollecting something when one remembers past happiness and misery which were either conceived in mind or did actually occur and was forgotten,

55. Recollection arising from health, or relating to the Vedas and Darśanas is to be represented on the stage by raising or nodding of the head and raising the eyebrows.

Contentment (dhṛti)

Contentment (dhṛti) is caused by [Determinants such as] heroism, spiritual knowledge, learning, wealth, purity, good conduct, devotion to one’s superiors, getting excessive amount of money, enjoying sports, and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as enjoyment of objects gained, and not grumbling over objects unattained, the past, [objects] partially enjoyed and lost and the like.

On this point there are two Āryās:

56. Contentment arising from spiritual knowledge, purity, wealth and power, is always to be represented on the stage by an absence of fear, sorrow end sadness.

57. When one enjoys attained objects such as [sweet] sound, touch, taste, form and smell, and is not sorry over their non-attainment, one is said to have Contentment.

Shame (vrīdā)

Shame (vrīdā) has improper action as its basis. It is caused by Determinants such as repentance on account of transgressing words of superiors or disregarding them, nonfulfilment of vows and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as covered face, thinking with downcast face, drawing lines on the ground, touching clothes and rings, and biting the nails, and the like.

There are two Āryās on this point:

58. When a man, after he has done anything improper, is seen by those who are pure, he becomes repentant and is ashamed.

59. The ashamed man will cover his face, draw lines on the ground, bite the nails and touch clothes and rings.

Inconstancy (capalatā)

Inconstancy (capalatā) is caused by Determinants such as love, hatred, malice, impatience, jealousy, opposition and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as harsh words, rebuke, beating, killing, taking prisoner, goading and the like.

There are two Āryās on this point:

60. When a man does anything like killing or beating any one without any forethought, he is said to be inconstant because of his not being definite in his action.

Joy (harṣa)

Joy (harṣa) is caused by Determinants such as attainment of a desired object, union with a beloved person, mental satisfaction, favour of gods, preceptor, king, and husband (or master), receiving [good] food, clothing and money and enjoying them, and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by means of Consequents such as brightness of the face and the eyes, using sweet words, embracing, horripilation, tears, perspiration and the like.

There are two Āryās on this point:

61. Joy is caused to a man when he has attained any object or obtained anything which was unobtainable or has met his beloved one or has his heart’s desire fulfilled.

62. It is to be represented on the stage by brightness of the eyes and the face, loving words, embrace, delicate movement of the limbs, and perspiration and the like.

Agitation (āvega)

Agitation (āvega) is caused by Determinants such as portents, wind or rains, [outbreak of] fire, running about of elephants, hearing very good or very bad news, stroke of calamity and the like. In this connexion portents include [a stroke of] lightning and [falling] of meteors or shooting stars, eclipse of the sun and the moon, and appearance of cornels. It is to be represented on the stage by looseness of all the limbs, distraction of the mind, loss of facial colour, surprise and the like. [Agitation] due to violent winds is to be represented by veiling [the face], rubbing the eyes, collecting [the ends] of clothes [worn], hurried going and the like. [Agitation] due to [heavy] rains is to be represented by lumping together of all the limbs, running, looking for some covered shelter, and the like. [That] due to [an outbreak of] fire is to be represented by eyes troubled with smoke, narrowing down all the limbs, or shaking them, running with wide steps, flight and the like. That due to running about of elephants is to be represented by hurried retreat, unsteady gait, fear, paralysis, tremor, looking back and the like. [That] from hearing something favourable is to be represented by getting up, embracing, giving away clothes and ornaments, weeping, horripilation and the like. That due to hearing anything unpleasant is to be represented by falling down on the ground, lamentation, rolling about [even] on a rough surface, running away, bewailing, weeping and the like. And that due to a stroke of calamity (vyasana) is to be represented by sudden retreat, taking up weapons and armour, mounting elephants and horses and chariots, determination and the like.

63. Agitation of these eight kinds has hurry as its basis. This is characterised by patience on the part of persons of the superior and the middling types; but agitations of the inferior type is marked by flight.

On this point there two Āryās:

64. Agitation occurs over an unpleasant report, disregard of instruction, throwing a missile, and panic.

65. Agitation due to an unpleasant report, has as its Consequents assuming a sad look, and that due to a sudden appearance of enemy is to be represented by clash of weapons.

Stupor (jaḍatā)

Stupor (jaḍatā) is caused by Determinants such as cessation of all activity, hearing of a much desired thing or a [very] harmful thing, sickness and the like, It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as not uttering any word, speaking indistinctly, remaining absolutely silent, looking with a steadfast gaze, dependence on others and the like.

There is an Āryā on this point:

66. A man is called stupid when due to senselessness he cannot distinguish between good and evil as well as happiness and misery, and remains silent, and dependent on others.

Arrogance (garva)

Arrogance (garva) is caused by Determinants such as king-ship, noble birth, personal beauty, youth, learning, power, attainment of wealth ond the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as contempt [for others], harassing [people], not giving reply [to one’s question], not greeting [others], looking to shoulders, flurry, contemptous laughter, harsh words, transgressing [commands of] the superiors, rebuking and the like.

There is an Āryā on this point:

67. Arrogance of persons of the inferior type due to acquisition of learning, youth, personal beauty, royal power and attainment of wealth is to be represented by movement of the eyes and the limbs.

Despair (visāda)

Despair (visāda) is caused by Determinants such a non-fulfilment of the work undertaken, natural calamity and the like. It is to be represented on the part of persons of the superior and the middling types by Consequents such as looking for allies, thinking about means, loss of energy, absentmindedness, deep breathing the like. And on the part of persons of the inferior type it is to be represented by running about aimlessly looking down, drying up of the mouth licking the corner of the mouth, sleep, deep breathing, meditation and the like.

There are two Āryās on this point:

68. Despair arises from nonfulfilment of the work begun, being taken at the time of committing theft, and giving offence to the king and like.

69. In case of persons of the superior and the middling types this is to be represented by mental distraction and thinking about various means, and in case of persons of the inferior type sleep, deep breathing, and [aimless] reflection are to represent it.

Impatience (autsukya)

Impatience (autsukya) is created by Determinants such as separation from beloved persons, remembering them, sight of a garden and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as sighs, thinking with downcast face, sleep, drowsiness, desire for lying down and the like.

There is an Āryā on this point:

70. Impatience arises from the loss of beloved persons or from remembering them. This is to be represented on the stage by thinking, want of sleep, drowsiness, dullness of the body and the like.

Sleeping (nidrā)

Sleeping (nidrā) is caused by Determinants such as weakness, fatigue, exhaustion, intoxication, indolence, [too much] thinking, too much eating, [soporific] nature and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as heaviness of the face, stretching the limbs, rolling of the eyes, yawning, rubbing of the body, deep breathing, relaxed body, closing the eyes, bewilderment, and the like.

There are two Āryās on this point:

71. Sleep comes to a man through weakness, fatigue, exertion, [too much] thinking, natural tendency [to sleep] and keeping awake throughout the night.

72. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as heaviness of the face, closing the eyes, or their rolling, stupor, yawning, massaging of the body and the like.

Epilepsy (apasmāra)

Epilepsy (apasmāra) is caused by Determinants such as being possessed by a god, a Nāga, a Yakṣa, a Rākṣa, a Piśāca and the like, and a memory of such beings, eating food left after somebody’s partaking of it, staying in a deserted house, non-observation of proper interval of time [in taking food, in sleeping etc.], derangement of humours (dhātu)[1] and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as throbbing, trembling, running, falling down, perspiration, foaming in the mouth, hiccup, licking [the lips] with the tongue, and the like.

On this point there are two Āryās:

73. Epilepsy occurs in a person when he is possessed by Bhūtas and Piśācas, when he remembers these beings, [eats] Ucchiṣṭa[2], stays in a deserted house, disregards proper interval of time [for taking food etc.], and is impure [in body].

74. Falling down suddenly on the ground, trembling, foaming in the mouth, and rising up while senseless, are conditions during Epilepsy.

Dreaming (supta)

Dreaming (supta) is caused by Determinants such as interruption of sleep, enjoying objects of senses, infatuation [of any kind], spreading the bed on the ground, dragging the bed over the ground and the like. The dreaming which occurs in sleep is to be represented by Consequents such as deep breathing, dullness of the body, closing the eyes, stupefaction of all the senses, dreams and the like.

There are two Āryās on this point:

75. Dreaming occurs due to interruption of sleep, enjoying objects of senses and infatuation [of any kind]. It is to be represented on the stage by closing the eyes, deep breathing, dreaming dreams and talking while asleep.

76. Dreaming is to be represented on the stage by deep breathing, imperfectly closing eyes, stupefaction of all senses and absence of all activity.

Awakening (vibodha)

Awakening (vibodha) is the break of sleep, and it is caused by Determinants such as digestion of food, bad dreams, loud sound, sensitive touch and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as yawning, rubbing the eyes, leaving the bed, and the like.

There is an Āryā on this point:

77. Awakening is caused by digestion of food, [loud] sound, [sensitive] touch and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by yawning, rubbing the face and the eyes, and the like.

Indignation (amarṣa)

Indignation (amarṣa) is caused to persons abused or insulted by those having superior learning, wealth or power, It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as shaking the head, perspiration, thinking and reflecting with a downcast face, determination, looking for ways and means and allies, and the like.

There are two Ślokas on this points:

78. Indignation grows in energetic men who have been abused or insulted in an assembly by those having superior learning and wealth-

79. It is to be represented on the stage by energy, determination, reflection with a downcast face, shaking the head, perspiration and the like.

Dissimulation (avahitthā)

Dissimulation (avahitthā) is the concealment of appearance. It is caused by Determinants such as shame, fear, defeat, respect, deceit and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as speaking like another person, looking downwards, break in the speech, feigned patience and the like.

There is a Śloka on this point:

80. Dissimulation is due to impudence, deceit, fear and the like. It is to be represented by carelessness about an action, and not speaking much in reply or in addressing [others].

Cruelty (ugratā)

Cruelty (ugratā) is caused by Determinants such as arrest of robbers, offence to kings, offending words and the like, It

is to be represented on the stage by Consequents like killing, imprisoning, beating, rebuking and the like.

There is an Āryā on this point:

81. Cruelty occurs when a robber is arrested or the king is given affence. It is to be repressented on the stage by Consequents such as killing, imprisoning, beating, rubuking and the like.

Assurance (mati)

Assurance (mati) is caused by Determinants such as thinking about the meaning of many Śāstras and considering the pros and cons of things. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as instructing pupils, ascertainment of [any] meaning, removal of doubt and the like.

There is a Ślokā on this point:

82. Assurance comes to men when they are well-versed in the meaning of many Śāstras. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as instructing pupils and explaining the meaning [of Śāstras].

Disease (vyādhi)

Disease (vyādhi) owes it origin to [an attack of three humours such as] wind (vāta), biles (pitta) and phlegm (kapha).[3] Fever and similar other illnesses are special varieties of it. Fever is of two kinds, viz. that with a feeling of cold (śīta) and that with a feeling of heat (dāha). Fever with a feeling of cold should be represented by Consequents such as shivering, tremor of the entire body, bending [the body], shaking of the jaws, narrowing down the nasal passage, dryness of the mouth, horripilation, lamentation and the like. And that with a feeling of heat, is to be represented by throwing out clothes, the hands and the feet, desire [to roll on] the ground, [use of] unguent, desire for coolness, lamentation, crying and the like. The other types of sicknesses are to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as narrowing down the mouth, dullness of the body, [deep] breathing, making [peculiar] sounds, crying, tremor and the like.

There is a Śloka on this point:

83. Sickness in general should be represented on the stage by looseness of the limbs, throwing out the limbs and narrowing down the mouth due to illness.

Insanity (unmāda)

Insanity (unmāda) is caused by Determinants such as death of beloved persons, loss of wealth, stroke of adversity, derangement of [the three humours]: wind (vāta), biles (pitta), phelgm (śleṣmā), and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by laughing, weeping, crying, talking, lying down, sitting, running, dancing, singing and reciting [something] without any reason, smearing [the body] with ashes and dust, taking grass, Nirmālya[4]. soiled cloth, tags, potsherd and earthen tray as decoration [of the body], many other senseless acts, and imitation of others.

There are two Āryās on this point:

84. Insanity occurs owing to death of beloved persons, loss of wealth, accidental hurt, wind (vāta), biles (pitta), phlegm (kapha), derangement of the heart in various ways.

85. Insanity is to be represented by laughing, weeping, sitting, running and crying without any reason, and [other] senseless acts.

Death (maraṇa)

Death (maraṇa) comes through disease as well as accidental injury. Of these two kinds of death, that from sickness is caused by Determinants such as a malady of the intestine and the liver, colic pain, disturbance of humours, tumours, boils, fever, cholera, and the like. And that due to accidental injury is caused by weapons, snake bite, taking poison, [attack of] ferocious animals, injury due to falling down from elephant, horse, chariot and other vehicles. I shall now speak of the different methods of their representation on the stage. Death from disease is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as looseness of the body, motionlessness of the limbs, closed eyes, hiccup, deep breathing, looking for family members, speaking indistinct words and the like.[5]

There is a Śloka on this point:

86. Death due to disease is to be represented on the stage by one mark viz. loose body and inactive sense-organs. But death due to accidental injury is to be represented on the stage in different ways: e.g., [death due to] wound by weapons is to be represented by Consequents such as suddenly falling down on the ground and the like. In case of snake-bite or taking poison [there is a gradual] development of its symptoms which are eight in number, viz. thinness (of the body), tremor, burning sensation, hiccup, foam at the mouth, breaking of the neck, paralysis and death.

There are two traditional Ślokas on this point:

87-88. The first symptom of the development [of the effect of poison] is thinness of the body, the second tremor, the third a burning sensation, the fourth hiccup, the fifth foaming at the mouth, the sixth breaking of the neck, the seventh paralysis and and the eighth death.

There are besides two Āryās ou this point:

89. Death due to [an attack of] a ferocious animal, elephant, horse, or falling from chariots and mounts, and wound by weapons should be represented by absence of any further movement of the body.

90. Thus death occurs under various conditions. It should be represented by suitable words, gestures and movements.

Fright (trāsa)

Fright (trāsa) is caused by Determinants such as flash of lightning, a meteor, thunder, earthquake, clouds, crying or howling of big animals and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as, shaking of narrow limbs, tremor [of the body], paralysis, horripilation, speaking with a choked voice, talking irrelevantly, and the like.

There is a Śloka on this point:

91. Fright is caused by a very terrible sound and the like. It should be represented on the stage by looseness of limbs and half-shut eyes.

Deliberation (vitarka)

Deliberation (vitarka) is caused by Determinants such as doubt, cogitation, perplexity and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as various discussions, settling the definition, accepting the deliberation and the like.

There is a Śloka on this point:

92. Deliberation which arises from discussions and which has doubt as its basis, is to be represented on the stage by shaking of the head, the eyebrows and the eyelashes.

These are the thirty-three Transitory States; they are to be produced in a play by men and women of the superior, middling and inferior types in conformity with [proper] place, time and occasion.

93. These thirty-three are known as the Transitory States. I shall now explain in detail the Sāttvika States.[6]

Sāttvika States

Now it may be asked,

“Are these States called Sāttvika, because other States (Determinants, Consequents and Transitory States) are said to be devoid of Sattva?” [In answer] it is said that the Sattva in this connexion is [something] originating in mind. It is caused by the concentrated mind. The Sattva is accomplished by concentration of the mind. Its nature [which includes] horripilation, tears, loss of colour and the like, cannot be mimicked by an absent-minded man. The Sattva is desired in a play because of its imitating human nature. If the question is, ‘Is there any example in support of this view?’ then it may be said that in theatrical practice, situations of happiness as well as misery should so purely accord with the Sattva behind them that they may appear to be realistic (yathāsvarūpa). How can sorrow which has weeping as its basis, be represented on the stage by any one who is not sorry?, And how can happiness which has joy as its basis be represented on the stage by any one who is not happy? Hence the Sattva being desired [in acting] in connexion with certain States the latter are called Sāttvika. This Sattva is explained by the fact that tears and horripilation are respectively to be shown by persons who are not [actually] sorry or happy.

94. The eight Sāttvika States are as follows: Paralysis, Perspiration, Horripilation, Change of Voice, Trembling, Change of Colour, Weeping and Fainting.

Among these,

Perspiration (sveda)

95. Perspiration (sveda) occurs as the result of anger, fear, joy, shame, sorrow, toil, sickness, heat, exercise, fatigue, summer and massage:

Paralysis (stambha) and Trembling (prakampa)

96. Paralysis (stambha) occurs as being due to joy, fear, sickness, surprise, sadness, intoxication and anger, and Trembling due to cold, fear, joy, anger, touch [of thebeloved] and old age.

Weeping (asra)

97. Weeping (asra) occurs as being due to joy, indignation, smoke, collyrium, yawning, fear, sorrow, looking with a steadfast gaze, cold and sickness.

Change of Colour and Horripilation (vaivarṇya)

98. Change of Colour (vaivarṇya) occurs as being due to cold, anger, fear, toil, sickness, fatigue and heat, and Horripilation (romāñca) due to touch, fear, cold joy, anger and sickness.

Change of Voice (svara-sāda) and Fainting (pralaya)

99. Change of Voice (svara-sāda) occurs as being due to fear, joy, anger, fever, sickness and intoxication, and Fainting (pralaya) due to too much toil, swoon, intoxication, sleep, injury, astonishment and the like.

Representation of the Sāttvika States

100. These are to be known by the wise as the eight Sāttvika States. I shall speak afterwards about actions which will represent these States.

101. Paralysis should be represented on the stage by being inactive, motionless, dispirited like an inert object, senseless, and stiff-bodied.

102. Perspiration should be represented on the stage by taking up a fan, wiping off sweat and looking for breeze.

103. Horripilation should be represented on the stage by repeated thrills, hairs standing on the end, and by touching the body.

104. Change of Voice should be represented by broken and choking voice, and Trembling by quivering, throbbing and shivering.

105. Change of Colour should be represented by alteration of colour of the face by putting pressure on the artery, and this is dependent on the limbs.

106. Weeping should be represented on the stage by rubbing the eyes and shedding tears, and Loss of Consciousness by inaction, motionlessness, imperceptible breathing and [finally] by falling on the ground.

Application of States to different Sentiments (rasa)

107. These are the forty-nine States of the three kinds mentioned by me. Now you ought to hear of the different Sentiments to which they are applicable.

108-109. All the [forty-nine] States except indolence, cruelty and disgust are applicable to the Erotic Sentiment (lit. raise the Erotic Sentiment by their own name).

110. Weakness, apprehension, envy, weariness, inconstancy, dreaming, sleeping and dissimulation are the States applicable to the Comic Sentiment.

111. Discouragement, anxiety, depression, weariness, weeping, stupor and death are the States applicable to the Pathetic Sentiment.

112. Arrogance, envy, energy, agitation, intoxication, anger, inconstancy and cruelty are the States applicable to the Furious Sentiment.

113-114, Presence of mind, energy, agitation, joy, assurance, cruelty, indignation, intoxication, horripilation, change of voice, anger, envy, contentment, arrogance and deliberation are the States applicable to the Heroic Sentiment.

115. Perspitation, trembling, horripilation, choking voice, fear, death, change of colour are the States applicable to the Terrible Sentiment.

116. Epilepsy, insanity, despair, intoxication, death, sickness and fear, are the States applicable to the Odious Sentiment.

117. Paralysis, perspiration, loss of consciousness, horripilation, astonishment, agitation, stupor, joy and fainting are the States applicable to the Marvellous Sentiment.

118. These Sāttvika States which depend on the various kinds of Histrionic Representation are included into all the Sentiments by experts in the production of plays.

119-1120. No play in its production can have one Sentiment only. If in an assemblage of the many States, Sentiments, Styles (vṛtti) and Local Usages (pravṛtti) [in the production of a play] any one item has varied representation, it should be considered the Dominant Sentiment and the rest the Transitory ones.

121. That which stands on the principal theme [of the play] and is combined with Determinants, Consequents and Transitory States is the Dominant Sentiment.

122.[7]This Dominant Sentiment should be represented with an exuberence of the Sattva, but the Transitory States by mere physical gestures (lit. form), for they are to support the Dominant Sentiment [and as such should not excel it].

123. [Independent representation of] a variety [of Sentiments] does not displease and such a variety is rare in practical life (lit. amongst people). But a mixture of different Sentiments will, however, bring pleasure [to the spectators] when such is carefully represented.

124. In [the production of] plays the Dominant, the Sāttvika and the Transitory States which are supporters of the Sentiments and which are accomplished through many objects and ideas, should be assigned to male[8] characters.[9]

125. The Sentiments and the States in plays are thus to be created. One who knows this well will attain the best Success [in the production of a play].

Here ends Chapter VII of Bharata’s Nāṭyaśāstra, which treats of the Representation of the States.

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Footnotes and references:

1.

They are three in number viz. wind (vāyu), bile (pitta) and phlegm (kapha).

2.

That which is left over in the plate after a person has finished his meal.

3.

See the Kāśyapasaṃhitā, XXVII. 6.

4.

Remains of a flower-offering to a deity, which is supposed to purify a person who takes it with reverence.

5.

Earlier writers on the Hindu drama wrongly believed that NŚ. excluded scenes of death from the stage. See Keith, Skt. Drama, pp. 222; also M. Ghosh, “A so-called convention of the Hindu Drama,” IHQ. IX. 1933, pp. 981ff. Windisch thought that Śūdraka in his Act. VIII violated a rule in showing the murder of Vasantasenā by Śakāra (Der griechische Einfluss in indische Drama, Berlin, 1882. p. 43).

6.

See above note 1 on VI 22.

7.

A disregard of this principle is liable to cause undue prominence to minor characters in a play and thereby to frustrate the principal object of the playwright.

8.

puṃsānukīrṇāḥ (puṣpāvakīrṇāḥ B.G.).

9.

An analysis of the plays of the best kind, known to us seems to explain this rule. For in almost all of them superior roles are assigned to men who can better be made the vehicle of different and complex psychological states.

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