Parapara, Parāparā, Pārāpara, Para-apara, Pārāpāra: 18 definitions

Introduction:

Parapara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Parapara in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Parāparā (परापरा).—The third stage of Kāmākṣī, the second being Suddhaparā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 39. 11.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram (shaivism)

Parāpara (परापर) refers to “one who is both supreme and inferior” and is used to describe Svacchanda, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult. Accordingly, “O goddess, Svacchanda is in the middle, within the abode of the triangle. Very powerful, he has five faces with three times five flaming eyes. [...] Īśāna is the upper face. Both supreme and inferior [i.e., parāpara], its nature is creation. (White) like snow, jasmine and the moon, it is stainless like pure crystal. It nourishes the entire universe with its moon rays as it rains in a great torrent a stream of nectar-like (bliss). Contemplating Īśāna (in this way) one attains (all eight) yogic powers. [...]”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Parāparā (परापरा) refers to “superior and inferior”, according to the Jñānaratnāvalī, (p. 267).—Accordingly, “Next, the bhautikī-dīkṣā is twofold, and it is said [in the scriptures]: ‘In the same way the bhautikī-dīkṣā [is achieved] through ritual and union [and] is also of a superior and inferior (parāparā) kind. Rather, for the [still] deluded [souls] he should preserve the prārabdha karma, which has the purpose of keeping [the initiate] with his [current] body, after joining it with [the karma] to be cultivated for the practice of propitiating Śaiva mantras for supernatural powers. The other [karmas] together with their consequences he should burn in the blazing initiation fire’. [...]”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Parāpara (परापर) refers to “immanent”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 4.1-2ab]—“Now, I will teach about initiation, [which] gives the fruits of experience and liberation. It may be done, for the expansion of the transcendent and immanent (parāpara) with thirty-six tattvas or with half that many [eighteen], half that [nine], or with five or three or one”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Parāpara (परापर) refers to “supreme and (most) inferior”, according to the Kularatnapañcakāvatāra verse 1.23cd-33ab.—Accordingly, “Sound, touch, form, flavour, smell, mind, intellect, ego, and Karma, which is considered to be the ninth—the goddess has assumed nine aspects and (she is) my pervasive power. She brings about (this) multifarious wonder in the three worlds by means of (her) Māyā. Due to (that) will, which is supreme and most inferior (parāpara-taraparāparatarecchayā), the entire universe is pervaded by these (nine). O dear one, pleasure and pain arise and fall away. [...]”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Parāpara (परापर) refers to “higher and lower (realms)”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] O Mother! Great Goddess! Supreme Goddess! People proclaim you Lakṣmī, Parā Prakṛti, who has chowries as lovely distinctive marks and who bears a sole [royal] parasol covering the entire world. They proclaim you as the conferer of fame, the primordial power, and the supervisor of both higher and lower realms (parāpara-dṛśa)”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

The name of a family. See Parapariya.

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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Parāpara (परापर) refers to “(knowing) the superior or inferior (abilities of all living beings)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “This is the armour of Bodhisattvas: [...] (13) this is the armour of knowing the superior or inferior (parāpara-jñāna) abilities of all living beings (sarvasatvendriya) by the insight and knowledge; (14) this is the armour of fulfilling ten powers by the attainment of the power of insight and knowledge; (15) this is the armour of attaining fearlessness because their resolutions never decrease; (16) this is the armour of fulfilling (paripūraka) the eighteen special qualities of the Tathāgata by fulfilling all good qualities and by abandoning all bad qualities; [...]

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Parapara in India is the name of a plant defined with Grewia asiatica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices.

2) Parapara in Togo is also identified with Lophira alata It has the synonym Lophira alata var. procera (A. Chev.) Burtt Davy (etc.).

3) Parapara in Tropical America is also identified with Sapindus saponaria It has the synonym Cupania saponarioides Sw. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica (1997)
· Publications of the Field Columbian Museum, Botanical Series (1898)
· Plukenet, Leonard (1642–1706),
· Novorum Actorum Academia Caesareae Leopoldinae-Carolinae Germanicae Naturae Curiosorum (1843)
· Flora Brasiliensis (1900)
· Flora Cochinchinensis (1790)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Parapara, for example diet and recipes, side effects, pregnancy safety, health benefits, chemical composition, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parapara (परपर) [or रां, rāṃ].—ad Imit. of the sound of cloth splitting and tearing, of reiterate ventris crepitus &c.

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parapāra (परपार).—m S The opposite or farther bank or side.

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parāpara (परापर) [or रां, rāṃ].—ad Imit. of the sound of cloth splitting and bursting and tearing with close reiteration; of rapidly successive ventris crepitus &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parapāra (परपार).—m The opposite or farther bank or side.

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parāpara (परापर).—

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parāpara (परापर).—a.

1) far and near, remote and proximate.

2) prior and posterior.

3) before and beyond, earlier and later.

4) higher and lower, best and worst.

-raḥ a Guru of an intermediate class.

-ram (in logic) a property intermediate between the greatest and smallest numbers, a species (as existing between the genus and individual); e. g. पृथ्वी (pṛthvī) which is पर (para) with respect to a घट (ghaṭa) is अपर (apara) with respect to द्रव्य (dravya); द्रव्यत्वादिक- जातिस्तु परापरतयोच्यते (dravyatvādika- jātistu parāparatayocyate) Bhāṣā. P.8.

Parāpara is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms para and apara (अपर).

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Pārāpāra (पारापार).—both banks, the nearer and further bank.

-raḥ the sea, ocean; शोकपारावारमुत्तर्तुमशक्नुवती (śokapārāvāramuttartumaśaknuvatī) Daśakumāracarita 4; Bv.4.11.

Derivable forms: pārāpāram (पारापारम्).

Pārāpāra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pāra and apāra (अपार). See also (synonyms): pārāvāra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parāpara (परापर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) Best and worst, prior and posterior, in front and behind, earlier and later, &c. n.

(-raṃ) (In Logic,) Community of property intermediate between the greatest and smallest numbers: a species, as being between genus and individual. m.

(-raḥ) A Guru of an intermediate class, a term applied in the Tantras to the goddess Durga. E. para, and apara another.

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Pārāpāra (पारापार) or Pārāvāra.—m.

(-raḥ) The ocean. n.

(-raṃ) The two banks of a river. E. pāra the further bank, and apāra near bank.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parāpara (परापर).—[neuter] the far and near, more and less, better and worse, earlier and later, cause and effect; [abstract] [feminine], tva [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parāpara (परापर):—[from para] mfn. remote and proximate, prior and posterior (as cause and effect), earlier and later, higher and lower, better and worse, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] m. = -guru below

3) [v.s. ...] n. (in logic) a community of properties in a small class under the larger or generic, a species or class between the genus and individual, [Horace H. Wilson]

4) [v.s. ...] Grewia Asiatica, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

5) Pārapāra (पारपार):—[=pāra-pāra] [from pāra] m. Name of Viṣṇu, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] n. Name of a kind of Tuṣṭi (sub voce), Sāṃkhyas [Scholiast or Commentator]

7) Pārāpāra (पारापार):—[from pāra] a n. the nearer and the further sh°, both banks (= and [varia lectio] for pārāvāra), [Matsya-purāṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] m. the sea, ocean, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) b pārāyaṇa See under 1. pāra, p. 619, col. 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parāpara (परापर):—[parā+para] (raḥ-rā-raṃ) a. Best and worst; first and last. n. Species.

2) Pārāpāra (पारापार):—[pārā+pāra] (raḥ) 1. m. The ocean; the two banks of a river.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parapara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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