Catushpada, Catuṣpadā, Catuspada, Catuppada, Catur-pada, Catutpada, Catushpadi: 25 definitions


Catushpada means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Catuṣpadā can be transliterated into English as Catuspada or Catushpada, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Chatushpada.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Catuṣpadā (चतुष्पदा) refers to a type of song, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31. Accordingly, “the song known as the catuṣpadā, should be performed by women, and it is of two kinds, viz. tryasra and caturasra. The catuṣpadā according as it relates to the speech of one, of two or of many, will be of three kinds, and will abound in the erotic sentiment (śṛṅgāra). It will again be of three kinds, viz. sthitā, pravṛttā and sthita-pravṛttā”.

There are twenty-eight varieties of catuṣpadā defined:

  1. bahvakṣarā,
  2. vipulā (pṛthulā),
  3. Māgadhī,
  4. ardhamāgadhī,
  5. samākṣarapadā,
  6. viṣamākṣarā,
  7. ādyāntāpaharaṇā,
  8. anīkinī,
  9. avasānāpaharaṇā,
  10. antāpaharaṇā,
  11. abhyantarāpaharaṇā,
  12. ardhanatkuṭā,
  13. ardhakhañjā,
  14. miśrā,
  15. śīrṣakā,
  16. ekāvasānā,
  17. niyatākṣarā,
  18. ardhapravṛtt,

According to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32, Catuṣpadā refers to a type of song (dhruvā) consisting of four vastus.—“Songs consisting of one, two, three and four vastus are respectively called the Dhruvā, Parigītikā, Madraka and Catuṣpadā. The dhruvā is so called, because in it words, varṇas, alaṃkāra, tempo (laya), jāti and pāṇis are regularly (dhruvaṃ) connected with one another”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Catushpada in Ayurveda glossary

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) is another name for Bheṇḍā, a medicinal plant identified with Hibiscus esculentus Linn., synonym of Abelmoschus esculentus (in English ‘Gumbo’ or ‘ladies’ fingers’) from the Malvaceae or “mallows” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.157-158 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Catuṣpada and Bheṇḍā, there are a total of eleven Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद):—A group consisting of following four words Bhishag(Physician), Dravya(Drugs / Medicine), Upasthata(Attendent) and Rogi(Patient)

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous next»] — Catushpada in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) refers to “quadrupeds”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The Sun presides over the people of the western half of the Narmadā, and over the people living on the banks of the Ikṣumatī. He also presides over hill-men, quick-silver, deserts, shepherds, seeds, pod-grains, bitter flavour, trees, gold, fire, poison and persons successful in battle; over medicines, physicians, quadrupeds (catuṣpada), farmers, kings, butchers, travellers, thieves, serpents, forests and renowned and cruel men”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Catushpada in Shaivism glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद) refers to the “four pādas”, according to the Mataṅgapārameśvara (with Rāmakaṇṭha’s commentary).—Accordingly, “The Guru should consecrate [as an Ācārya] a man who is skilled in what is taught in all four pādas [i.e., catuṣpāda-artha-kuśala], who has great energy, who is beyond reproach, who expounds the meaning of the teachings [encapsulated] in the six topics [of this scripture], who is devoted to the welfare of all beings, who has performed the observance for [the propitiation of his] mantra. [...]”.

Source: HAL: The function of the Vṛṣasārasaṃgraha in the Śivadharma corpus

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद) refers to the “four-legged (dharma)”, according to the Uttarottaramahāsaṃvāda (verse 6.1-2).—Accordingly, “Umā spoke:—Just as you taught me the cow as having the above characteristics, tell me quickly, O Jagatpati: what kind of a bull is Dharma? Īśvara spoke:—In this world, foolish people do not know that the four-legged (catuṣpāda) Dharma [catuṣpādo bhaveddharmaḥ] is this bright mount of mine. ”

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Catushpada in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद) refers to “having four legs”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.35 (“The story of Padmā and Pippalāda”).—Accordingly, as Padmā (wife of sage Pippalāda) said to Dharma: “[...] This sky, these quarters and the winds may get destroyed but the curse of a chaste lady will never be destroyed. In the Satyayuga you shine with all the legs (catuṣpāda), O king of gods, on all occasions, day or night, like the moon on a full moon night. If you are destroyed, the annihilation of all creations will occur. But a sense of helpless despair is unnecessary. So I shall explain. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Catushpada in Mahayana glossary
Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) refers to “quadrupeds”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [as Agastya-Ṛṣi taught the offering manual] “[...] One should recite thus seven times. Upon reciting this all hostile Nāgas become inflamed. All pests, bipeds and quadrupeds (catuṣpada) become inflamed by the curse. They all retreat. There will be no harm for crops in that province again. All pests will perish. They will not destroy flowers, fruits, leaves and crops again”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Catushpada in Jainism glossary
Source: Jaina Yoga

1) Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) refers to “four-footed”, and represents classification of things that can be stolen (steya, caurya), according to Umāsvāti’s Śrāvaka-prajñapti 265 and Haribhadra’s commentary on the Āvaśyaka-sūtra p. 822b. It is related to the Asteya-vrata (vow of not stealing).

2) Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) refers to “livestock” and represents one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment). Dvipada is listed in Śvetāmbara sources such as Devagupta’s Nava-pada-prakaraṇa with Laghu-vṛtti (58).

The oldest texts, for example, the Āvaśyaka-cūrṇī mention alongside dvipada and catuṣpada a category of apada objects including carts and trees. Carts figure at amuch later date in the dvipada class of the Śrāddha-dina-kṛtya, inappropriately in the context as they cannot be said to propagate themselves.

Source: The Original Paṇhavāyaraṇa/Praśnavyākaraṇa Discovered

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) refers to “quadrupeds”, as taught in the Paṇhavāgaraṇa (Sanskrit: Praśnavyākaraṇa): the tenth Anga of the Jain canon which deals with the prophetic explanation of queries regarding divination.—The Praśnavyākaraṇa deals with the praśnavidyā in a rather complex way. It is divided into at least 33 short chapters [e.g., catuṣpada-adhikāra; part of the chapter called jīvacintā-prakaraṇa], some of which are further divided into sub-chapters. Some contents of the text, mainly those related with articulation and pronunciation can have significance far beyond the scope of the praśnavidyā.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Catushpada in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

catuppada : (m.) a quadruped.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Catuppada (Sk. caturpād, Gr. tetrάpous, Lat. quadrupes) a quadruped Vin. II, 110; S. I, 6; A. V, 21; Sn. 603, 964; It. 87; J. I, 152; III, 82;

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Catushpada in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) [or चतुष्पाद, catuṣpāda].—a (S) Quadruped, four-footed.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद).—a Quadruped, four-footed.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Catushpada in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद).—or

Catuṣpada is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and pada (पद).

--- OR ---

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद).—(catuṣpad-da) a. 1. quadruped.

2) consisting of four members or parts. (-m.)

1) a quadruped.

2) (in law) a judicial procedure (trial of suits) consisting of four processes; i. e. plea, defence, rejoinder, and judgment.

3) The science of archery consisting of ग्रहण, धारण, प्रयोग (grahaṇa, dhāraṇa, prayoga) and प्रतिकारः (pratikāraḥ); योऽस्त्रं चतुष्पात् पुनरेव चक्रे । द्रोणः प्रसन्नोऽभिवाद्यस्त्वयाऽसौ (yo'straṃ catuṣpāt punareva cakre | droṇaḥ prasanno'bhivādyastvayā'sau) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 5.3.12-13; प्रतिपेदे चतुष्पादं धनुर्वेदं नृपात्मजः (pratipede catuṣpādaṃ dhanurvedaṃ nṛpātmajaḥ) ibid 192.61.

Catuṣpāda is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and pāda (पाद). See also (synonyms): catuṣpād.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Cātuṣpada (चातुष्पद).—f. °padī (Sanskrit catuṣp°), = catuṣpadaka, q.v.; f. with gāthā, Vajracchedikā in Pargiter ap. Hoernle [Manuscript Remains of Buddhist literature found in Eastern Turkestan] 192.1 (for Vajracchedikā 42.5 catuṣpādikā, see °daka).

--- OR ---

Cātuṣpāda (चातुष्पाद).—f. °dā, = prec. two; with gāthā, Vajracchedikā in Pargiter op. cit. 181.11, 14 (for Vajracchedikā 28.7, 11 catuṣpādikā).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद).—nf. (-daṃ-dī) Verse, a metre of stanzas especially consisting of four Padas or lines. m.

(-daḥ) An animal with four legs, a quadruped. E. catur four, and pada for pāda a foot also read catuṣpāda catvāri padāni caraṇā asya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद).—i. e. catur -pada, I. adj., f. . 1. Having four legs, Mahābhārata 3, 10661. 2. Consisting of four pādas, or verses, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] 19, 11. Ii. m. A quadruped, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 6, 4, 9. Iii. n. A stanza of four pādas (see I. 2), [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] 16, 18.

--- OR ---

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद).—i. e. catur -pāda, I. adj., f. 1. Having four legs, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 17, 30. 2. Having four parts, Mahābhārata 3, 1459. Ii. m. A quadruped, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 298.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद).—[feminine] ī [adjective] having four feet, consisting of four words of lines; [masculine] = [preceding] [masculine]

--- OR ---

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद).—[feminine] ī = catuṣpad.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद):—[=catuṣ-pada] [from catuṣ > catasṛ] (in [compound]) 4 Pādas, [Mālavikāgnimitra i, 19/20]

2) [v.s. ...] n. sg. or [plural], 4 partitions or divisions, [Agni-purāṇa; xl, 16 and 18]

3) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. (cat), quadruped, [Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xxi]

4) [v.s. ...] consisting of 4 Pādas, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā iii, 2, 9, 1; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xi; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa i, 7; Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya; Mālavikāgnimitra ii]

5) [v.s. ...] consisting of 4 words, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya]

6) [v.s. ...] comprising 4 partitions or divisions, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā liii, 55]

7) [v.s. ...] (in [algebra]) tetranomial

8) [v.s. ...] m. a quadruped, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) [v.s. ...] (= pāśava?) a kind of coitus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) certain zodiacal signs (viz. meṣa, vṛṣa, siṃha, makara-pūr vārdha, dhanuḥ-parārdha), [Laghujātaka, by Varāha-mihira i, 11 ff.]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of a shrub, [Horace H. Wilson]

12) [v.s. ...] n. Name of a particular Karaṇa, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] ic, 5 and 8 [Sūryasiddhānta ii, 67]

13) Catuṣpadā (चतुष्पदा):—[=catuṣ-padā] [from catuṣ-pada > catuṣ > catasṛ] f. a metre of 30 + 4 + 4 syllabic instants.

14) Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद):—[=catuṣ-pāda] [from catuṣ > catasṛ] mf(ī)n. (cat) quadruped, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa iii, vi; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Suśruta]

15) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. consisting of 4 parts, [Mahābhārata iii, 1459; Vāyu-purāṇa; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha xv, 207]

16) [v.s. ...] m. a quadruped, [Mahābhārata iii, 11246; Yājñavalkya ii, 298; Rāmāyaṇa v]

17) [v.s. ...] ([scilicet] adhyāya) the chapter treating of the 4 parts of medical science, [Caraka i, 9 f.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद):—[catu-ṣpada] (daṃ-dī) 1. n. 3. f. A verse or its four parts. m. A quadruped.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Cauppāya, Cāuppāya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Catushpada in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Catushpada in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Catuṣpada (ಚತುಷ್ಪದ):—[noun] any animal with four feet (as a cow).

--- OR ---

Catuṣpāda (ಚತುಷ್ಪಾದ):—[noun] = ಚತುಷ್ಪದ [catushpada].

--- OR ---

Catuṣpādi (ಚತುಷ್ಪಾದಿ):—[noun] = ಚತುಷ್ಪದ [catushpada].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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