Catushpada, aka: Catuṣpadā, Catuspada, Catuppada, Catur-pada; 9 Definition(s)
Catushpada means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Catuṣpadā can be transliterated into English as Catuspada or Catushpada, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Chatushpada.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Catuṣpadā (चतुष्पदा) refers to a type of song, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31. Accordingly, “the song known as the catuṣpadā, should be performed by women, and it is of two kinds, viz. tryasra and caturasra. The catuṣpadā according as it relates to the speech of one, of two or of many, will be of three kinds, and will abound in the erotic sentiment (śṛṅgāra). It will again be of three kinds, viz. sthitā, pravṛttā and sthita-pravṛttā”.
There are twenty-eight varieties of catuṣpadā defined:
- vipulā (pṛthulā),
According to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32, Catuṣpadā refers to a type of song (dhruvā) consisting of four vastus.—“Songs consisting of one, two, three and four vastus are respectively called the Dhruvā, Parigītikā, Madraka and Catuṣpadā. The dhruvā is so called, because in it words, varṇas, alaṃkāra, tempo (laya), jāti and pāṇis are regularly (dhruvaṃ) connected with one another”.Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
General definition (in Jainism)
1) Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) refers to “four-footed”, and represents classification of things that can be stolen (steya, caurya), according to Umāsvāti’s Śrāvaka-prajñapti 265 and Haribhadra’s commentary on the Āvaśyaka-sūtra p. 822b. It is related to the Asteya-vrata (vow of not stealing).
2) Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) refers to “livestock” and represents one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment). Dvipada is listed in Śvetāmbara sources such as Devagupta’s Nava-pada-prakaraṇa with Laghu-vṛtti (58).
The oldest texts, for example, the Āvaśyaka-cūrṇī mention alongside dvipada and catuṣpada a category of apada objects including carts and trees. Carts figure at amuch later date in the dvipada class of the Śrāddha-dina-kṛtya, inappropriately in the context as they cannot be said to propagate themselves.Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
catuppada : (m.) a quadruped.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Catuppada (Sk. caturpād, Gr. tetrάpous, Lat. quadrupes) a quadruped Vin. II, 110; S. I, 6; A. V, 21; Sn. 603, 964; It. 87; J. I, 152; III, 82;Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) [or चतुष्पाद, catuṣpāda].—a (S) Quadruped, four-footed.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद).—a Quadruped, four-footed.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Catuṣpada is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and pada (पद).
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Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद).—(catuṣpad-da) a. 1. quadruped.
2) consisting of four members or parts. (-m.)
1) a quadruped.
2) (in law) a judicial procedure (trial of suits) consisting of four processes; i. e. plea, defence, rejoinder, and judgment.
3) The science of archery consisting of ग्रहण, धारण, प्रयोग (grahaṇa, dhāraṇa, prayoga) and प्रतिकारः (pratikāraḥ); योऽस्त्रं चतुष्पात् पुनरेव चक्रे । द्रोणः प्रसन्नोऽभिवाद्यस्त्वयाऽसौ (yo'straṃ catuṣpāt punareva cakre | droṇaḥ prasanno'bhivādyastvayā'sau) Mb.5.3.12-13; प्रतिपेदे चतुष्पादं धनुर्वेदं नृपात्मजः (pratipede catuṣpādaṃ dhanurvedaṃ nṛpātmajaḥ) ibid 192.61.
Catuṣpāda is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and pāda (पाद). See also (synonyms): catuṣpād.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Cātuṣpada (चातुष्पद).—f. °padī (Sanskrit catuṣp°), = catuṣpadaka, q.v.; f. with gāthā, Vaj in Pargiter ap. Hoernle MR 192.1 (for Vaj 42.5 catuṣpādikā, see °daka).
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Cātuṣpāda (चातुष्पाद).—f. °dā, = prec. two; with gāthā, Vaj in Pargiter op. cit. 181.11, 14 (for Vaj 28.7, 11 catuṣpādikā).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद).—nf. (-daṃ-dī) Verse, a metre of stanzas especially consisting of four Padas or lines. m.
(-daḥ) An animal with four legs, a quadruped. E. catur four, and pada for pāda a foot also read catuṣpāda catvāri padāni caraṇā asya.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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