Catushpada, Catuṣpadā, Catuspada, Catuppada, Catur-pada, Catutpada: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Catushpada means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Catuṣpadā can be transliterated into English as Catuspada or Catushpada, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Chatushpada.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Catuṣpadā (चतुष्पदा) refers to a type of song, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31. Accordingly, “the song known as the catuṣpadā, should be performed by women, and it is of two kinds, viz. tryasra and caturasra. The catuṣpadā according as it relates to the speech of one, of two or of many, will be of three kinds, and will abound in the erotic sentiment (śṛṅgāra). It will again be of three kinds, viz. sthitā, pravṛttā and sthita-pravṛttā”.

There are twenty-eight varieties of catuṣpadā defined:

  1. bahvakṣarā,
  2. vipulā (pṛthulā),
  3. Māgadhī,
  4. ardhamāgadhī,
  5. samākṣarapadā,
  6. viṣamākṣarā,
  7. ādyāntāpaharaṇā,
  8. anīkinī,
  9. avasānāpaharaṇā,
  10. antāpaharaṇā,
  11. abhyantarāpaharaṇā,
  12. ardhanatkuṭā,
  13. ardhakhañjā,
  14. miśrā,
  15. śīrṣakā,
  16. ekāvasānā,
  17. niyatākṣarā,
  18. ardhapravṛtt,

According to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32, Catuṣpadā refers to a type of song (dhruvā) consisting of four vastus.—“Songs consisting of one, two, three and four vastus are respectively called the Dhruvā, Parigītikā, Madraka and Catuṣpadā. The dhruvā is so called, because in it words, varṇas, alaṃkāra, tempo (laya), jāti and pāṇis are regularly (dhruvaṃ) connected with one another”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous (C) next»] — Catushpada in Ayurveda glossary
Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) is another name for Bheṇḍā, a medicinal plant identified with Hibiscus esculentus Linn., synonym of Abelmoschus esculentus (in English ‘Gumbo’ or ‘ladies’ fingers’) from the Malvaceae or “mallows” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.157-158 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Catuṣpada and Bheṇḍā, there are a total of eleven Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous (C) next»] — Catushpada in Jainism glossary
Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

1) Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) refers to “four-footed”, and represents classification of things that can be stolen (steya, caurya), according to Umāsvāti’s Śrāvaka-prajñapti 265 and Haribhadra’s commentary on the Āvaśyaka-sūtra p. 822b. It is related to the Asteya-vrata (vow of not stealing).

2) Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) refers to “livestock” and represents one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment). Dvipada is listed in Śvetāmbara sources such as Devagupta’s Nava-pada-prakaraṇa with Laghu-vṛtti (58).

The oldest texts, for example, the Āvaśyaka-cūrṇī mention alongside dvipada and catuṣpada a category of apada objects including carts and trees. Carts figure at amuch later date in the dvipada class of the Śrāddha-dina-kṛtya, inappropriately in the context as they cannot be said to propagate themselves.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (C) next»] — Catushpada in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

catuppada : (m.) a quadruped.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Catuppada (Sk. caturpād, Gr. tetrάpous, Lat. quadrupes) a quadruped Vin. II, 110; S. I, 6; A. V, 21; Sn. 603, 964; It. 87; J. I, 152; III, 82;

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (C) next»] — Catushpada in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद) [or चतुष्पाद, catuṣpāda].—a (S) Quadruped, four-footed.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद).—a Quadruped, four-footed.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous (C) next»] — Catushpada in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद).—or

Catuṣpada is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and pada (पद).

--- OR ---

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद).—(catuṣpad-da) a. 1. quadruped.

2) consisting of four members or parts. (-m.)

1) a quadruped.

2) (in law) a judicial procedure (trial of suits) consisting of four processes; i. e. plea, defence, rejoinder, and judgment.

3) The science of archery consisting of ग्रहण, धारण, प्रयोग (grahaṇa, dhāraṇa, prayoga) and प्रतिकारः (pratikāraḥ); योऽस्त्रं चतुष्पात् पुनरेव चक्रे । द्रोणः प्रसन्नोऽभिवाद्यस्त्वयाऽसौ (yo'straṃ catuṣpāt punareva cakre | droṇaḥ prasanno'bhivādyastvayā'sau) Mb.5.3.12-13; प्रतिपेदे चतुष्पादं धनुर्वेदं नृपात्मजः (pratipede catuṣpādaṃ dhanurvedaṃ nṛpātmajaḥ) ibid 192.61.

Catuṣpāda is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and pāda (पाद). See also (synonyms): catuṣpād.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Cātuṣpada (चातुष्पद).—f. °padī (Sanskrit catuṣp°), = catuṣpadaka, q.v.; f. with gāthā, Vajracchedikā in Pargiter ap. Hoernle [Manuscript Remains of Buddhist literature found in Eastern Turkestan] 192.1 (for Vajracchedikā 42.5 catuṣpādikā, see °daka).

--- OR ---

Cātuṣpāda (चातुष्पाद).—f. °dā, = prec. two; with gāthā, Vajracchedikā in Pargiter op. cit. 181.11, 14 (for Vajracchedikā 28.7, 11 catuṣpādikā).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद).—nf. (-daṃ-dī) Verse, a metre of stanzas especially consisting of four Padas or lines. m.

(-daḥ) An animal with four legs, a quadruped. E. catur four, and pada for pāda a foot also read catuṣpāda catvāri padāni caraṇā asya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद).—i. e. catur -pada, I. adj., f. . 1. Having four legs, Mahābhārata 3, 10661. 2. Consisting of four pādas, or verses, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] 19, 11. Ii. m. A quadruped, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 6, 4, 9. Iii. n. A stanza of four pādas (see I. 2), [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] 16, 18.

--- OR ---

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद).—i. e. catur -pāda, I. adj., f. 1. Having four legs, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 17, 30. 2. Having four parts, Mahābhārata 3, 1459. Ii. m. A quadruped, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 298.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद).—[feminine] ī [adjective] having four feet, consisting of four words of lines; [masculine] = [preceding] [masculine]

--- OR ---

Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद).—[feminine] ī = catuṣpad.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Catuṣpada (चतुष्पद):—[=catuṣ-pada] [from catuṣ > catasṛ] (in [compound]) 4 Pādas, [Mālavikāgnimitra i, 19/20]

2) [v.s. ...] n. sg. or [plural], 4 partitions or divisions, [Agni-purāṇa; xl, 16 and 18]

3) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. (cat), quadruped, [Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xxi]

4) [v.s. ...] consisting of 4 Pādas, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā iii, 2, 9, 1; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xi; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa i, 7; Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya; Mālavikāgnimitra ii]

5) [v.s. ...] consisting of 4 words, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya]

6) [v.s. ...] comprising 4 partitions or divisions, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā liii, 55]

7) [v.s. ...] (in [algebra]) tetranomial

8) [v.s. ...] m. a quadruped, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) [v.s. ...] (= pāśava?) a kind of coitus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) certain zodiacal signs (viz. meṣa, vṛṣa, siṃha, makara-pūr vārdha, dhanuḥ-parārdha), [Laghujātaka, by Varāha-mihira i, 11 ff.]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of a shrub, [Horace H. Wilson]

12) [v.s. ...] n. Name of a particular Karaṇa, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] ic, 5 and 8 [Sūryasiddhānta ii, 67]

13) Catuṣpadā (चतुष्पदा):—[=catuṣ-padā] [from catuṣ-pada > catuṣ > catasṛ] f. a metre of 30 + 4 + 4 syllabic instants.

14) Catuṣpāda (चतुष्पाद):—[=catuṣ-pāda] [from catuṣ > catasṛ] mf(ī)n. (cat) quadruped, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa iii, vi; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Suśruta]

15) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. consisting of 4 parts, [Mahābhārata iii, 1459; Vāyu-purāṇa; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha xv, 207]

16) [v.s. ...] m. a quadruped, [Mahābhārata iii, 11246; Yājñavalkya ii, 298; Rāmāyaṇa v]

17) [v.s. ...] ([scilicet] adhyāya) the chapter treating of the 4 parts of medical science, [Caraka i, 9 f.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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