Pakshiraja, Pakṣirāja, Pakshirajan, Pakshin-raja, Pakshi-rajan: 16 definitions

Introduction:

Pakshiraja means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Pakṣirāja can be transliterated into English as Paksiraja or Pakshiraja, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pakshiraja in Shaktism glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज) or Pakṣirājatantra refers to one of the twenty-eight Gāruḍatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Pakṣirāja belonging to the Garuḍa class.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज) or Pakṣirājamudrā is the name of a mudrā described in the Īśvarasaṃhitā 39-42.—Accordingly, “O brahmin! the two hands fully stretched out are to be brought together at first. The ring finger shall be joined with the tips of the two thumbs from their roots. It shall be turned downwards to face the wrist. The pair of little fingers are to be closed there and clearly raised like the tail. This is the mudrā of the king of birds (Garuḍa), the great soul. This one mudrā is considered to be a common mudrā for all mantras. It shall be used together with the respective mantras.”.

Mūdra (eg., Pakṣirāja-mudrā) is so called as it gives joy to the tattvas in the form of karman for those who offer spotless worship, drive out the defects which move about within and without and sealing up of what is done.

Source: archive.org: Catalogue of Pancaratra Agama Texts

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज) is the name of a Mudrā (“ritual hand-gestures”), discussed in the twenty-fourth chapter of the Īśvarasaṃhitā (printed edition), a Pāñcarātra work in 8200 verses and 24 chapters dealing with topics such as routines of temple worship, major and minor festivals, temple-building and initiation.—Description of the chapter [mudrā-lakṣaṇa-bhagavaddhyāna-ādi-prakāra]: Nārada tells how one prepares himself for the practice of mudrā-gestures—washing the hands with sandal-paste, doing certain exercises with the fingers, ritually touching the chest with the thumbs and forefingers of both hands, executing certain motions with the palms joined, etc. (3-11). Different mudrā-gestures are named and described (12-72): [e.g., pakṣirāja (41a)] [...]

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (p)

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज) refers to “king of birds” and is used to describe Garuḍa, according to the Viṣvaksena Samhitā (verse 26.61) which mentions the efficacy of the Garuḍa-mantra by paying obeisance to him.—It mentions that Garuḍa also renowned as Suparṇa, the king of birds (pakṣirāja) and the illustrious son of Vinatā, is adorned by the eight divine serpents residing in the seven nether-worlds; his body is smeared with the blood of serpents he has slain. Garuḍa is eulogised as the vehicle of Viṣṇu, who can make the three worlds tremble with his primal strength, and who conquered Brahmā and the other gods (and brought the nectar) to free his mother from bondage:

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Pakshiraja in Ayurveda glossary

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज) (lit. “one who is the king of birds”) is a synonym (another name) for Garuḍa, according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pakshiraja in Shaivism glossary
Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज) is another name for Garuḍa, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 13.1-9, while describing the appearance and worship of Viṣṇu, in the form of Nārāyaṇa]—“[...] Or, he should meditate [on Nārāyaṇa] atop Garuḍa (pakṣirājaathavā pakṣirājasthaṃ), Śrī at his side. [He should visualize Viṣṇu] very white and beautiful [with] three faces [that] resemble the moon, six arms, decorated like Varāha Hari, [his hands] endowed with [the shapes of] wish-granting and protection. Śrī is of the same color and holds the same weapons, suitably beautiful and charming before the eyes of Devadeva. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज) or Pakṣigaṇa is the name of a Garuḍa mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Pakṣirāja).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Institut Français de Pondichéry: The Shaivite legends of Kanchipuram

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज) (in Sanskrit) refers to the Tamil Pullaracu, and represents one of the proper nouns mentioned in the Kanchipuranam, which narrates the Shaivite Legends of Kanchipuram—an ancient and sacred district in Tamil Nadu (India). The Kanchipuranam (mentioning Pakṣirāja) reminds us that Kanchipuram represents an important seat of Hinduism where Vaishnavism and Shaivism have co-existed since ancient times.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pakshiraja in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज).—m., epithets of Garuḍa.

Derivable forms: pakṣirājaḥ (पक्षिराजः).

Pakṣirāja is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pakṣin and rāja (राज). See also (synonyms): pakṣisiṃha, pakṣisvāmin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज).—m.

(-jaḥ) King of the birds, usually applied to Gadura. E. pakṣin, and rāja for rājā a king.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज).—[masculine] the king of the birds ([Epithet] of Garuḍa or Jatayu).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज):—[=pakṣi-rāja] [from pakṣi > pakṣ] m. ‘king of b°’, Name of Garuḍa or of Jaṭāyu, [Rāmāyaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pakṣirāja (पक्षिराज):—[pakṣi-rāja] (jaḥ) 1. m. Garuḍa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pakshiraja in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pakshiraja in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pakṣirāja (ಪಕ್ಷಿರಾಜ):—[noun] Garuḍa (Brahminy kite), as the king of birds.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Tamil dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pakshiraja in Tamil glossary
Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Pakṣirāja (பக்ஷிராஜ) noun < pakṣi-rāja. Garuḍa; கருடன். [karudan.]

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Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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