Pracanda, Pracaṇḍā, Pracaṇḍa, Pracamda: 33 definitions


Pracanda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Prachanda.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

1) Pracaṇḍā (प्रचण्डा):—Name of one of the goddesses to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva (“The truth concerning Durgā’s ritual”). They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ह्रीं ओं प्रचण्डायै नमः
hrīṃ oṃ pracaṇḍāyai namaḥ

2) Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड, “fierce, furious”) is the central Bhairava of the Khecarīcakra, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣa-saṃhitā. He is also known as Caṇḍa. He is seated within the triangle in the pericarp of the lotus and has a dark and awe-inspiring appearance and the lustre of the fire of destruction. He has a large body, five faces with three eyes, and twenty arms. He is decorated with many ornaments and dresses himself in a tiger skin.

His Śakti is seated on his lap and has three eyes and four arms, holding a nooise (pāśa), a hook (aṅkuśa), a lute (vīṇā) and a spear (śūla). She is also richly adorned with ornaments. Out of her desire twelve Yoginīs are born who are said to move through the sky and to cause both creation and destruction. They are seated on a twelve-petalled lotus in the centre of the Khecarīcakra.

These Yoginīs are called

  1. Sabhramā,
  2. Vibhrahmā,
  3. Raudrā,
  4. Kumbhikā,
  5. Kauśikā,
  6. Śukā,
  7. Suśukā,
  8. Khagā,
  9. Bimbā,
  10. Mṛgā,
  11. Ārambhā
  12. and Mahotkaṭā.

They each have three faces with threey eyes and twelve arms; they wear many ornaments and by emitting amṛta they, in turn, give birth to the twenty-four Khecarīs of the sūryamaṇḍala.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Pracaṇḍā (प्रचण्डा, “wrathful”):—One of the thousand names (nr. 827) of Lalitā, according to the Lalitā-sahasranāma.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड) refers to “fierce”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “(Kāmarūpa) is the Neuter (absolute) within the qualities. It has emerged as the pervasion (of consciousness) and, in front of the middle seat, is located on the peak in front. (Pleasing and delicate) like a lotus petal, it is radiant (with energy) and grey in colour. It shakes with mighty and fierce currents (of energy) engaged in striking against (it) and rocking (it) all around [i.e., mahā-pracaṇḍa-daṇḍa-ugra-sphālana-ullola-lālasa] as it dries up (the entire) universe. The all-pervasive Lord of Kula resides within (this), the maṇḍala of six spokes. There is nothing devoid of that within the sphere of emanation and withdrawal”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Pracaṇḍā (प्रचण्डा) refers to one of the Navadurgā (“nine Durgās”), whose worship formed a part of the Navarātra Tantric ritual (an autumnal festival of the warrior goddess Caṇḍikā).—On Mahāṣṭamī is the worship of the Nine Durgās (e.g., Pracaṇḍā), the eight mothers, the sixty-four Yoginīs, purification of the gross elements, installation of mantras on the body; [...] Goddess is believed to morph into a more uncontrollable presence requiring constant placation.—Various 8th century sources refer to rituals such as the worship of Pracaṇḍā, for example: Devīpurāṇa, Kālikāpurāṇa, Kṛtyakalpataru, Durgābhaktitaraṅgiṇī, Durgāpūjātattva, Durgāpūjāviveka, Bhadrakālīmantravidhiprakaraṇa in Sanderson (2007); account of the Durgā Pūjā in Kelomal, West Bengal (Nicholas 2013).

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Pracanda in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Purāṇas

Pracaṇḍā (प्रचण्डा):—One of the nine Durgās (navadurgā) that are worshipped for the prosperity of children, according to the Agni-purāṇa. Her colour is gorocana (red sandal paste). She has sixteen hands each and holds within her right hands a skull, shield, mirror, bow, flag and pāśa (cord), and in her left hands a rod, iron pounder, Śūla, Vajra, sword, Aṅkuśa (a sticklike weapon), Śara (arrow), Cakra and a śalākā. These nine Durgās are seen as different forms of Pārvatī.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड).—A demon. Pracaṇḍa fought against Kārttikeya in the fight between Paramaśiva and the Tripuras. (Chapter 1, Gaṇeśa Purāṇa).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड) refers to a “fierce” (diety), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.9 (“Boasting of Tāraka”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] On seeing the incomprehensible six-headed deity [i.e., Kumāra] coming forward, fierce (pracaṇḍa) and unagitated, the Asura [Tāraka] spoke to the gods derisively—‘O this child indeed will slay the enemies!’ I will fight with him single-handed. I will kill the soldiers, the Gaṇas and the guardians of the quarters led by Viṣṇu. Saying thus, the powerful Asura rushed at Kumāra to fight with him. Tāraka seized his wonderful spear and spoke to the gods. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Pracaṇḍā (प्रचण्डा).—A goddess enshrined at Chāgalāṇḍa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 43.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड):—One of the eight gatekeepers who are said to embody the eight siddhis (‘yogic powers’).

Source: Catalogue of Pancaratra Agama Texts

1) Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड) is the name of a deity associated with the garbhagṛha (sanctuary), as discussed in the ninth chapter of the Īśvarasaṃhitā (printed edition), a Pāñcarātra work in 8200 verses and 24 chapters dealing with topics such as routines of temple worship, major and minor festivals, temple-building and initiation.—Description of the chapter [dvārāvaraṇa-devatālakṣaṇa-ādi-vidhi]: This chapter concerns the daily ritual obligations owed to the deities whose abodes are fixed in the temple doorways—namely, Vāgīśa in the right door-jamb [dakṣiṇa], Kṣetranātha in the left [vāma], and Lakṣmī in the lintel along with the personified discus of Viṣṇu (i.e., Cakra). Their respective descriptions are given (5-16). At the entrance of the sanctuary [garbhagṛha], Gaṇādhipa and Pracaṇḍa are to be found, with Garuḍa in the lintel (17-28); while in the maṇḍapa attached to the sanctuary Dhātā and Vidhātā will be found.

2) Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड) or Pracaṇḍamantra is the name of a Mantra discussed in chapter 29 (Caryāpāda) of the Padmasaṃhitā: the most widely followed of Saṃhitā covering the entire range of concerns of Pāñcarātra doctrine and practice (i.e., the four-fold formulation of subject matter—jñāna, yoga, kriyā and caryā) consisting of roughly 9000 verses.—Description of the chapter [śryādiparivāra-mantravarṇana]: [...]  The remainder of the chapter deals with mantras addressed to the doorway deities, Caṇḍa and Pracaṇḍa (174b-178), and to the deities found in the second prākāra-courtyard. [...] The final point made is concerning the procedure for offering bali at the balipīṭha-pedestal in daily routine worship (210b-219).

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Pracanda in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड) was a soldier in Sunītha and Sūryaprabha’s army whose strength is considered as equaling a fourfold-power warrior (caturguṇaratha), according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 47. Accordingly, as the Asura Maya explained the arrangement of warriors in Sunītha’s army: “... [Pracaṇḍa, and others], these princes are warriors of fourfold power”.

The story of Pracaṇḍa was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Pracaṇḍa, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Pracanda in Arts glossary
Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड) refers to the “terrible (rays)” (of the meridian sun), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the treatment of hawks]: “In summer, when the air is heated by the terrible rays (pracaṇḍa) of the meridian sun, the bare trees cannot afford shelter; stormy winds surcharged with dust blow on all sides; [...] then the season, like the forest fire, becomes intolerable to these birds [i.e., hawks], [...]. Therefore cooling processes should be now resorted to”.

Arts book cover
context information

This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Pracaṇḍā (प्रचण्डा) is the goddess presiding over one of the six petals of the eastern lotus of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala, according to the Vārāhyabhyudayatantra (largerly extracted from the 10th century Abhidhānottaratantra). These six petals are presided over by a kuleśvarī (presiding lady) named Māmakī. The central deity of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala is the twelve-armed Vajravarāhī.

Pracaṇḍā is associated with the sacred site (pīṭha) named Pullīramalaya. All the goddess of the eastern lotus petals are to be visualised as dancing naked and being half-male / half-female (ardhanarīśvarī) with their two sides being white and green. In their four arms they brandish a bowl and staff, with a ḍamaru and their familial attribute.

Source: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Pracaṇḍā (प्रचण्डा) is the name of a Ḍākinī (‘sacred girl’) presiding over Pullīramalaya: one of the four Pīṭhas (‘sacred spot’) present within the Cittacakra (‘circle of mid’), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra. The Cittacakra is one of three Cakras within the Tricakra system which embodies twenty-four sacred spots or districts resided over by twenty-four Ḍākinīs (viz., Pracaṇḍā) whose husbands abide in one’s body in the form of twenty-four ingredients (dhātu) of one’s body.

Pracaṇḍā has for her husband the hero (vīra) named Khaṇḍakapālin. She is the presiding deity of Pullīramalaya and the associated internal location is ‘head’ and the bodily ingredients (dhātu) are ‘fingernails’ and ‘teeth’.

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Pracaṇḍā (प्रचण्डा) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Khaṇḍakapālin forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vajracakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vajracakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Pracaṇḍā] and Vīras each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum and a knife; they are dark-bluish-black in color.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Pracaṇḍā (प्रचण्डा) is the name of a Ḍākinī (female consort) and one of the deities of the Cakrasaṃvara-maṇḍala or Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—The Cakrasaṃvara mandala has a total of sixty-two deities. [...] Three concentric circles going outward, the body, speech and mind wheels (kāya-vāka-citta), in the order: mind (blue), speech (red), and body (white), with eight Ḍākinīs each in non-dual union with their Ḍākas, "male consorts".

Associated elements of Pracaṇḍā and Khaṇḍakapāla:

Circle: kāyacakra (mind-wheel) (blue);
Ḍākinī (female consort): Pracaṇḍā;
Ḍāka (male consort): Khaṇḍakapāla;
Bīja: puṃ;
Body-part: head;
Pīṭha: Pullīramalaya;
Bodily constituent: nakha-danta (teeth/nails);
Bodhipakṣa (wings of enlightenment): chanda-ṛddhipāda (power of desire).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड):—The name of a minister of King Ajātaśatru, according to the Suvarṇavarṇāvadāna (a buddhist mahāyāna avadāna text.)

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Pracaṇḍa] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: The Jaina Iconography

Pracaṇḍā (प्रचण्डा) (or Caṇḍā, Gāndhārī) is the name of the Yakṣiṇī accompanying Vāsupūjya: the twelfth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The emblem constantly associated with Vāsupūjya, as wegather from Jaina books, is the buffalo. The other characteristics of his image viz. the Śāsanadeva and the Śāsanadevī are known by the names of Kumāra and Caṇḍā (Digambara: Gāndhārī). The tree which gave him shade while acquiring the Kevala knowledge is Pāṭalika according to the Abhidhānacintāmaṇi and Kadamba according to the Uttarapurāṇa. A King named Darpiṣṭa-Vāsudeva is to wave the Chowri or the fly-fan by his side.

Caṇḍā or Pracaṇḍā, as she is also called by the Śvetāmbaras, has a horse for her riding animal, and carries the symbols of Varada, spear, flower and club. The Digambara form of the same deity is represented as riding on a crocodile and having the hands equipped with a club, two lotuses and Varada-mudrā. Like the previous one, this Yakṣiṇī, too, lakes her part as a Vidyādevī. As such, the name borne by her is Gāndhārī. There is some essential connection between the Yakṣiṇī Gāndhāri’s animal of a crocodile and the Vidyadevī Gāndhārī’s animal of a tortoise, Caṇḍā or Pracaṇḍā seems to be, as the name indicates, a Jaina prototype of the Brahmanic Caṇḍā or Durgā.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pracaṇḍa (प्रचंड).—a (S) Extreme, excessive, superlative, transcendent. It bears great amplitude of application in the sense of Vehemence, outrageousness, stupendousness;--used of affections, qualification, and qualities, and, attrib. of the persons, substances, businesses the subject of them. Ex. pracaṇḍakrōdha-parākrama-vāyu-agni-vidyā-jñāna-audārya-sā- marthya &c.; also hā pracaṇḍa paṇḍita, tēṃ pracaṇḍa araṇya, tō pracaṇḍa samudra, kōśācēṃ kāma kēvaḍhēṃ pracaṇḍa.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pracaṇḍa (प्रचंड).—a Extreme, excessive.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड).—a.

1) Vehement, excessively violent, impetuous.

2) Strong, powerful, fierce.

3) Very hot, stifling (as heat).

4) Furious, wrathful.

5) Bold, confident.

6) Terrible, terrific.

7) Intolerable, unbearable.

-ṇḍaḥ A species of oleander.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pracaṇḍā (प्रचण्डा).—(compare Sanskrit id., eine Form oder Śakti der Durgā, [Boehtlingk and Roth]), name of a yoginī: Sādhanamālā 427.3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड).—mfn.

(-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍā-ṇḍaṃ) 1. Excessively hot or burning. 2. Intolerable, insupportable. 3. Bold, confident, presuming. 4. Wrathful, passionate. 5. Violent, strong. 6. Furious. 7. Terrible. m.

(-ṇḍaḥ) A sort of Nerium with white flowers. f.

(-ṇḍā) One of Durga'S emanations or attendants. E. pra very, caṇḍa hot, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड).—[pra-caṇḍa], I. adj., f. ḍā. 1. Excessively violent, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 12. 2. Passionate, wrathful, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 36, 83. 3. Terrible, Mahābhārata 3, 15701. Ii. m. The name of a Dānava or demon.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड).—[adjective] very violent or wrathful, [abstract] [feminine]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड):—[=pra-caṇḍa] mf(ā)n. excessively violent, impetuous, furious, fierce, passionate, terrible, direful, formidable, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] great, large, hot, burning, sharp (See [compound] below)

3) [v.s. ...] m. a species of oleander with white flowers, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a Dānava, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

5) [v.s. ...] of a goblin, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vatsa-prī and Su-nandā, [ib.]

7) Pracaṇḍā (प्रचण्डा):—[=pra-caṇḍā] [from pra-caṇḍa] f. a species of Dūrvā with white flowers, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] a form or Śakti of Durgā, [Catalogue(s)]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड):—[pra-caṇḍa] (ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍā-ṇḍaṃ) a. Strong, vio- lent; very hot; intolerable; bold; passionate. m. A white nerium. f. One of Durgā's attendants.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pracaṇḍa (प्रचण्ड) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Payaṃḍa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pracanda in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pracaṃḍa (ಪ್ರಚಂಡ):—

1) [noun] very hot; scorching.

2) [noun] causing fright; terrifying; alarming; frightful.

3) [noun] strong; powerful.

--- OR ---

Pracaṃḍa (ಪ್ರಚಂಡ):—

1) [noun] that which causes fright; a frightful thing or condition.

2) [noun] a highly skillful, intelligent man.

3) [noun] a man having marked courage; a brave man.

4) [noun] a man of extraordinary quality or power.

5) [noun] (myth.) name of a hell.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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