Cala, Cāla, Calā: 20 definitions


Cala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chala.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Calā (चला).—Lakṣmīdevī. The following story is told in the Devī-bhāgavata as to how this name came to be applied to the devī. Once Revanta the very handsome son of Sūryadeva came to Vaikuṇṭha riding Uccaiḥśravas, Indra’s horse. Devī, who was at that time with Viṣṇu gazed for a few minutes in wonder at the horse. She did not, therefore, attend to Viṣṇu’s talk. Angered at this Viṣṇu told the devī: "Since your eyes find enjoyment on unnecessary things and move about among such objects, you shall be called from today onwards Ramā and Calā. Also you will be born as a mare on earth. Accordingly Mahālakṣmī was born as a mare on the banks of river Sarasvatī, and regained her old form only after delivering a son by Viṣṇu. That son was Ekavīra, founder of the Hehaya kingdom. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 6).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Cala (चल).—A son of Madīrā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 169.

2) Calā (चला).—A name of Lakṣmi.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 7. 28.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Cāla is one of the eighty-four Siddhas associated with eighty-four Yogic postures (āsanas), according to popular tradition in Jodhpur, Rājasthān. These posture-performing Siddhas are drawn from illustrative sources known as the Nava-nātha-caurāsī-siddha from Vȧrāṇasī and the Nava-nātha-caruāsī-siddha-bālāsundarī-yogamāyā from Puṇe. They bear some similarity between the eighty-four Siddhas painted on the walls of the sanctum of the temple in Mahāmandir.

The names of these Siddhas (eg., Cāla) to 19th-century inscription on a painting from Jodhpur, which is labelled as “Maharaja Mansing and eighty-four Yogis”. The association of Siddhas with yogis reveals the tradition of seeing Matsyendra and his disciple Gorakṣa as the founders of haṭhayoga.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Tithikarmaguṇa in Gārgīyajyotiṣa

Calā (चला) or Calatithi is the name of the third of fifteen tithis (cycle of time) according to the Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna while the Gārgīyajyotiṣa considers Balā or Balatithi as the third. The associated deity for Calā or Balā according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā is Hari. A tithi was defined as one thirtieth of a synodic month (c. 29.5 days), resulting in an average tithi being slightly less than a day.

Accordingly, “(15) The third tithi is said to be Balā. One may have an army on this tithi. One should perform the taming of tamable cows, horses, elephant and servants. (16) One should perform all kinds of rites and sow seeds. Or, one should engage in the act of strength. One should know Viṣṇu as the deity”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Cala (चल) refers to one of the 23 types of dohā metres (a part of mātrā type) described in the 1st chapter of the Vṛttamauktika by Candraśekhara (17th century): author of many metrical compositions and the son of Lakṣmīnātha Bhaṭṭa and Lopāmudrā.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Cala (चल, “movable”) refers to one of the major divisions of Hindu images, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The Hindu images are divided into three classes–chala (movable), achala (immovable), and chalāchala (movable-immovable). The moveable (cala) images are easily portable and are made of loha (metal). The images that come under this category are the kautukaberas, meant for arcana (dedication); the utsavaberas are meant for festive occasions in processions; the baliberas are meant for the purpose of offering sacrifice to the parivāras; and snāpanaberas are used for holy bathing. In short, the bhoga mūrti or utsava-vigraha that are carried in processions are the best examples for cala.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7

Cala (चल) is the name of a country classified as Hādi (a type of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Cala] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Cala Theri - Daughter of Surupasari and, therefore, younger sister of Sariputta. She had two sisters, Upacala and Sisupacala, and all three left the world and joined the Order on hearing of Sariputtas renunciation. In due course they attained arahantship (ThigA.162ff; DhA.ii.188). It is said (Thig.182-8; cp. S.i.132) that one day, when Cala was taking her siesta in the Andhavana, Mara visited her, asking her various questions and trying to tempt her. Her son was Cala.

2. Cala - Chief of the lay women supporters of Sumangala Buddha. Bu.v.28.

3. Cala - One of the two chief women disciples of Phussa Buddha. Bu.xix.20; J.i.41.

4. A Sinhalese chieftain, who once joined the Colas against Vijayabahu I., (Cv.lviii.16) but who, later (Cv.vs.55; see Cv.Trs.i.207, n.3), evidently returned to him and fought bravely on his side.

5. Cala Thera: Son of Cala and nephew of Sariputta. He was ordained by Khadiravaniya Revata (Thag.vs.42; ThigA.i.110). He is mentioned as living at the Kutagarasala, which place he left when the Licchavis caused disturbance by their visits to the Buddha (A.v.133). In this context he is spoken of as a very eminent Elder and was, therefore, evidently an arahant.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Cala (चल) is the name of a Vākchomā (‘verbal secrect sign’) which has its meaning defined as ‘vāyu’ according to chapter 8 of the 9th-century Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja, a scripture belonging to the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara (or Saṃvara) scriptural cycle. These Vākchomās (viz., cala) are meant for verbal communication and can be regarded as popular signs, since they can be found in the three biggest works of the Cakrasaṃvara literature.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Cala (चल) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Cala] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

cala : (adj.) moving; quivering; unsteady. || cāla (m.) a shock; a sudden agitation.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Cāla, (From calati) shaking, a shock, only in bhūmi° earthquake. (Page 265)

— or —

Cala, (adj.) (see calati) moving, quivering; unsteady, fickle, transient S. IV, 68 (dhammā calā c’eva vyayā ca aniccā, etc.); J. II, 299; III, 381; V, 345; Miln. 93, 418; Sdhp. 430, 494. —acala steadfast, immovable S. I, 232; J. I, 71 (ṭṭhāna); Vv 514 (°ṭṭhāna=Ep. of Nibbāna); acalaṃ sukhaṃ (=Nibbāna) Th. 2, 350; cp. niccala motionless DhA. III, 38.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

cala (चल).—a (S) Movable or in motion; not fixed or stationary. 2 fig. Transitory, fugitive, passing away.

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caḷa (चळ).—m (calana S) Slipperiness or slippiness. v paḍa. Ex. jāgēlā tara caḷa paḍatōca parantu dravyālā paḍatō. 2 Deviation or departure (from one's word, or from some law, rule, or prescribed course). Ex. pari vacanāsi caḷa navhē mājhyā ||. Also mantradēvatā sādhya karaṇyāviṣayīṃ jē niyama sāṅgitalē āhēta tyānta yatkiñcit caḷa jhālā tara anartha hōtō. 3 Idiocy or fatuity. v lāga. In this sense some compounds are in use; kāma-dravya-dhana-madya-śāstra-strī-caḷa. Mem. In the above three senses the ca is both tsh and ts. 4 m f An obstinate whining or pining after (as of children). v ghē. 5 f The state of inability to cease from crying to which children by obstinate crying reduce themselves. 6 m Wild or eager desire after; vehement craving or itching; mad impatience. v ghē, bhara, yē, lāga.

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cāla (चाल).—f (cālaṇēṃ) Moving, going, walking, journeying. Custom or fashion; practices or habits; way, manner, method. 3 Gait, air, step, pace, manner of walking. 4 A pace of the horse. These are kukaracāla, kōṅkaracāla, khudakīcāla, cavaḍacāla, caukacāla, ṭākaṇacāla, turūka or turkīcāla, duḍakīcāla, dhāṃvarīcāla, bājīcāla, bharadhāṃvacāla, hudaruka or huda- rukacāla. 5 Currency or circulation (of a coin). 6 Managing or making shift with. Ex. sōvaḷēṃ dusarēṃ kāṃhīṃ nāhīṃ mhaṇūna dhābaḷīvara cāla karatō. 7 Power, prevalence, influence, authority. Ex. darabārānta tyācī cāla hōtī tēthaparyanta tyācēṃ vāṅkaḍēṃ kōṇhācyānēṃhī jhālēṃ nāhīṃ. 8 Kind, sort, variety (of metre &c.): also a tune (in music). 9 Assailing or falling upon. v kara. 10 The juttings out and retirings of the end of a wall, left to admit of the junction of another wall: also the indented edge (of a thatch &c.) left to admit of addition. 11 The chip driven in betwixt the male and the female screws of a sugarmill. cāla karaṇēṃ To fall upon, move upon, attack. 2 or cālīvara ghēṇēṃ To manage or shift with; to get on with, or make to do. cālīsa lāgaṇēṃ To begin to proceed; to enter upon its course--some business or action. cālīsa lāvaṇēṃ To set a going.

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cāla (चाल).—a Current--money. In comp. with a designating noun, as guṇēcāla, cāndavaḍacāla, samaśērī- cāla, nāśikacāla.

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cāḷa (चाळ).—a (cāḷā) Wanton, coquettish, riggish, flirty--a female.

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cāḷa (चाळ).—f A long and narrow building; as for stabling, shops &c.: also a row, line, or series (of shops or uniform houses). 2 m A jingling ornament on the ankles of dancers. 3 A hiss or whistle made by the mouth, in imitation of the sound of the ornament. 4 The threads of a web left unwoven where divisions of it are to be made. 5 A kind of ringworm. 6 f Trick, freak of fancy, whimsey. Ex. pōrācī rōja navī navī cāḷa. 7 m A quantity of the seeds of sāgaragōṭī as tossed up by the hand. In a play of children. 8 m C A pit made in a khārēpāṭa or salt marsh, to receive the fish brought by the flowing tide.

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cāḷa (चाळ).—m P (cāḷaṇēṃ To sift &c.) Searching, seeking, looking for, quest. 2 Turning and shifting; turning and tossing about; whether turning over and relaying orderly, or tumbling over as in rummaging. Hence fig. turning schemes and tentative measures; adopting various devices, expedients, and shifts. v kara.

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cāḷā (चाळा).—m Tricks, pranks, frolics, mischievous practices. 2 A liking or taking to; a fondness for. v lāga. Ex. tyālā gāṇēṃ aikāvayācā cāḷā lāgalā āhē. 3 A trick, a way, a silly habit: also a habit or way of good or indifferent character. Ex. vācēsī śivanāmācā cāḷā ||. 4 A form of mortising, or of intersertion or interlocking of bodies or of parts: viz. that of the dove-tail; of the fingers intertwined with the ends downwards; of the parts of hinges; of the unwoven threads of cloth where divisions are to be made; an articulation or a joint; as hātācā-maṇagaṭācā-mānēcā-khavāṭyācā-guḍaghyācā- cāḷā. 5 The name of a class of goblins or fiends. 6 In the loom. The cord connecting the pāvaḍā and the pāvasarā. 7 A spot in a web or texture left unwoven, or become open by the slipping aside of the threads. 8 That member of the loom otherwise called ōvī or vahī, where see it described.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

cala (चल).—a Movable or in motion; not fixed or stationary. Transitory.

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caḷa (चळ).—m Slipperiness or slippiness. Devi- ation or departure. Idiocy or fatuity. Wild or eager desire after.

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cāla (चाल).—f Moving. Custom.Gait. Currency Kind. Influence. Assailing. a Current. cāla karaṇēṃ Fall upon, attack; get on with. cālavīra ghēṇēṃ Manage. cālīsa lāgaṇēṃ Begin to proceed; enter upon its course. cālīsa lāvaṇēṃ Set a-going.

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cāḷa (चाळ).—a Coquettish; flirty.

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cāḷa (चाळ).—f A long and narrow building. Trick;freak. m A jingling ornament. Quest.

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cāḷā (चाळा).—m A trick; a fondness for; a silly habit. A portion of the loom.

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cāḷā (चाळा).—f -cāḷā m A mean, low trick, habit.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cala (चल).—a. [cal-ac]

1) (a) Moving trembling, shaking, tremulous, rolling (as eyes &c.); चलापाङ्गां दृष्टिं स्पृशसि (calāpāṅgāṃ dṛṣṭiṃ spṛśasi) Ś.1.24; चलकाकपक्षकैरमात्यपुत्रैः (calakākapakṣakairamātyaputraiḥ) R.3.28 waving; Bh.1.16. (b) Movable (opp. sthira), moving; चले लक्ष्ये (cale lakṣye) Ś.2.5; परिचयं चललक्ष्यनिपातने (paricayaṃ calalakṣyanipātane) R.9.49.

2) Unsteady, fickle, inconstant, loose, unfixed; दयितास्वनवस्थितं नृणां न खलु प्रेम चलं सुहृज्जने (dayitāsvanavasthitaṃ nṛṇāṃ na khalu prema calaṃ suhṛjjane) Ku.4.28; प्रायश्चलं गौरवमाश्रितेषु (prāyaścalaṃ gauravamāśriteṣu) 3.1.

3) Frail, transitory, perishable; चला लक्ष्मीश्चलाः प्राणाश्चलं जीवितयौवनम् (calā lakṣmīścalāḥ prāṇāścalaṃ jīvitayauvanam) Bh.3.128.

4) Confused.

-laḥ 1 Trembling, shaking, agitation.

2) Wind.

3) Quicksilver.

4) The supreme being.

-lā 1 Lakṣmī, the goddess of wealth.

2) Lightning.

3) A kind of perfume.

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Cāla (चाल).—[cal-ṇa]

1) The thatch or roof of a house.

2) The blue jay.

3) Being movable.

Derivable forms: cālaḥ (चालः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Cāla (चाल).—(-cāla), see pṛthivī-cāla.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cala (चल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) Trembling tremulous, unfixed or unsteady. m.

(-laḥ) Trembling, shaking. f.

(-lā) 1. The goddess of fortune, Lakshmi. 2. Lightning. 3. Incense. E. cal to go, affix ac fem. affix ṭāp.

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Cāla (चाल).—m.

(-laḥ) 1. The thatach or roof of a house. 2. The blue jay. 3. Shaking, moving. E. cal to go, affix ṇa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cala (चल).—[adjective] moving, shaking, trembling, stirring, tremulous, inconstant, fickle, variable, perishable; [masculine] agitation, motion, trembling (also [feminine], tva [neuter]); wind.

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Cāla (चाल).—[masculine] shaking (only —°).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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