Camara, Cāmara: 23 definitions
Camara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Chamara.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Camara (चमर) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “yak”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Camara is part of the sub-group named Ānupamṛga, refering to animals “who live in marshy land”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Camara (चमर) or Chamara (छमर)—Sanskrit word for the animal “yak”. This animal is from the group called Kūlacara (‘shore-dwellers’). Kūlacara itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Ānupa (those that frequent marshy places).
The flesh of the Chamara is demulcent, cures an attack of cough, is sweet in taste and digestion and subdues the deranged Vāyu and Pittam.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction
Cāmara (Fly-whisk) - The obedience to the law and in particular to the highest principle of Dharma — Ahimsa. Also represents the following of the teacher and the tradition.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Cāmara (चामर) refers to a “chowrie” (a whisk to keep off flies), which is an accessories used in a dramatic play, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Such accessories and weapons should be made by experts using proper measurements and given to persons in their respective conditions. It forms a component of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Cāmara (चामर) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (eg., cāmara) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Camara (चमर).—(CAMARĪ). An animal whose tail is its most important and valued organ. In the course of its movements in the forest if the tail gets entangled anywhere it is supposed to lie down there till the tail is freed by itself. About the origin of Camara, the following story is told in the Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa. Krodhavaśā, daughter of Dakṣaprajāpati and wife of Kaśyapa had ten daughters, viz. Mṛgī, Mṛgamadā, Hari, Bhadramadā, Mātaṅgī, Śārdūlī, Śvetī, Surasā, Surabhi and Kadrū. To Mṛgamadā the Sṛmaras and Camaras owe their origin. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Canto 14).
2) Cāmara (चामर).—A rod (handle) with a large tuft of hair, fibre or feathers at the end. A symbol used by kings and brahmins. Cāmara of the king should have a golden handle, and it should be made of the wings of the swan, the pea cock, the Balākā bird etc. But, the wings of different birds shall not be intermixed. Circular in shape, the Cāmara should have on its handle 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 sandhis (joints, knots). (Agnipurāṇa, Chapter 245).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Cāmara (चामर) refers to “chowries” which forms part of the royal paraphernalia (mahārājopacāra), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.28. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Lord Śiva, possessed of the perfect vision, realising everything and seeing all, and the cause of protection, being requested by the Goddess, spoke to her:—‘[...] You can go in royal splendour mounting this bull richly caparisoned’. Satī thus commanded to mount the decorated bull, bedecked herself and started for her father’s abode. The royal paraphernalia (mahārājopacāra) like the umbrella, chowries (cāmara), silken clothes and ornaments were given to her by (Śiva) the great lord”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition
Cāmara (चामर) refers to a “whisk” and represents one of the articles offered during Maṅgalārati, according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—Before each article is offered, purify the right hand [with a drop of water from the pañca-pātra], and then purify the article [viz., cāmara]. Chant the mūla-mantra for the deity and then offer the article.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts
Camara (चमर) refers to the animal “Yak” (Bos grunniens).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Camara] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Camara (चमर) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Camarī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Camara] are yellow in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
Camara (चमर) refers to one of the two Indras (lords) of the Asurakumāra (fiendish youths) class of “residential celestial beings” (bhavanavāsin), itself a main division of devas (celestial beings) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.3. The Asurakumāras go down to the third ‘earth’ of the lower world and encourage the infernal beings there to fight amongst themselves to cause misery to them. As they enjoy and indulge in violence, they are called fiendish youths. Camara and Vairocana are the two lords in the Fiendish-youths residential celestial beings.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Trade: A Survey
Camara (known as Puhar or Kāveripaṭṭinam in Tamil literature) is the name of a port city mentioned in the 1st century Periplus Maris Erythraei in connection with overseas trading in ancient India.—Ports thus dotted the Indian coast, and many of them were listed in Greek and Roman texts, such as the Periplus Maris Erythraei or “Voyage around the Erythrean Sea”, an anonymous Greek travelogue of the 1st century CE, ‘Erythrean’ referring to the Arabian Sea together with the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. It named ports such as Camara, among many others.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Cāmara.—(IE 8-8), name of a coin; cf. cāmara-māda. (SII 3), a fly-whisk. See cauri, cavarālu. Note: cāmara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Cāmara.—also called cāmara-māḍa; probably ‘a māḍa bearing the figure of a fly-whisk’; see māḍa. Note: cāmara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
camara : (m.) the yak ox (in the Himalayan regions). || cāmara (nt.) a chowrie; the tail of the yak used as a whisk.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Cāmara, (nt.) (from camara) a chowrie, the tail of bos grunniens used as a whisk Sn. 688; Vv 643; J. VI, 510; VvA. 271, 276. Cpd. cāmarī-gāhaka J. VI, 218 (aṅka) a hook holding the whisk. (Page 264)
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Camara, (Deriv. unknown, probably non-Aryan. Sk. camara) 1. the Yak ox (Bos grunniens) J. I, 149; III, 18, 375; V, 416; Miln. 365.—f. —ī J. I, 20; Sdhp. 621.—In cpds. camari° J. IV, 256.—2. a kind of antelope (-ī) J. VI, 537.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
cāmara (चामर).—n (S) A chowrie; the tail of Bos Grunniens, used to whisk off flies &c. v vāra, ḍhāḷa.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
cāmara (चामर).—n A chowrie; see cavarī.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Camara (चमर).—[cam-arac Uṇ.3.31] A kind of deer.
-raḥ, -ram A chowrie most usually made of the tail of Chamara.
-rī 1 A shoot, sprout (mañjarī).
2) The female Chamara; यस्यार्थयुक्तं गिरिराजशब्दं कुर्वन्ति बालव्यजने- श्चमर्यः (yasyārthayuktaṃ girirājaśabdaṃ kurvanti bālavyajane- ścamaryaḥ) Ku.1.13,48; Śi.4.6; Me.53; केशेषु चमरीं हन्ति सीम्नि पुष्करको हतः (keśeṣu camarīṃ hanti sīmni puṣkarako hataḥ) Udb.; cf. चमरं चामरे स्त्री तु मञ्जरीमृग- भेदयोः (camaraṃ cāmare strī tu mañjarīmṛga- bhedayoḥ) Medinī.
Derivable forms: camaraḥ (चमरः).
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Cāmara (चामर).—[camaryāḥ vikāraḥ tatpucchanirmitatvāt] also
-rā -rī sometimes.
1) A chowrie or bushy tail of the Chamara (Bos Grunniens) used as a fly-flap or fan, and reckoned as one of the insignia of royalty (and sometimes used as a sort of streamer on the heads of horses); व्याधूयन्ते निचुलतरुभिर्मञ्जरीचामराणि (vyādhūyante niculatarubhirmañjarīcāmarāṇi) V.4.4; अदेय- मासीत् त्रयमेव भूपतेः शशिप्रभं छत्रमुभे च चामरे (adeya- māsīt trayameva bhūpateḥ śaśiprabhaṃ chatramubhe ca cāmare) R.3.16; Ku.7.42; H.2.29; Me.35; चित्रन्यस्तमिवाचलं हयशिर- स्यायामवच्चामरम् (citranyastamivācalaṃ hayaśira- syāyāmavaccāmaram) V.1.4; Ś.1.8.
Derivable forms: cāmaraḥ (चामरः), cāmaram (चामरम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Camara (चमर).—m., a high number: Mvy 7787 = Tibetan rgod-yas (meaning ?).
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Cāmara (चामर).—n. of a country or division of the world: Mvy 3052. Cf. Aparacāmara. See Kirfel, Kosmographie, 90 (var. Ḍāmara).
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Cāmarā (चामरा).—(AMg. and Sanskrit Lex. id., f.; compare Pali and Sanskrit Lex. cāmarī; regularly nt. °ra in Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit), chowrie: vara-cāmarāye (instr.) Mv i.235.8 (verse).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raṃ) 1. A Chowri or long brush, most usually made of the tail-hairs of the Yak or Bos Grunniens, and employed to whisk off insects, flies, &c. 2. The name of a demon, f. (-rī) A compound pedicle. mf. (-raḥ-rī) A kind of deer, or rather the Bos Grunniens, erroneously classed by the Hidu writers amongst the deer. E. cam to eat or be eaten, arac aff.
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Cāmara (चामर).—nf. (-raṃ-rā or -rī) A Chowri, the bushy tail of the Bos grun niens, used to whisk off flies, also as an emblem or insignia of princely rank. E. camara the Yak or Bos grunniens, and aṇ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Camara (चमर):—m. a kind of ox called the Yak (Bos grunniens), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
2) mn. the bushy tail of the Yak (employed as chowrie or long brush for whisking off insects, flies, etc. ; one of the insignia of royalty; cf. cām), [Mahābhārata ii, xii; Bhartṛhari; Kathāsaritsāgara lix, 42]
3) a particular high number, [Buddhist literature]
4) m. Name of a Daitya, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) Cāmara (चामर):—mfn. coming from the Yak (cam), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa viii, 10, 13]
6) belonging to a chowrie, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) m. = cam (q.v.), a chowrie, [Bhoja]
8) n. idem (a kind of plume on the heads of horses etc., [Śakuntalā; Vikramorvaśī; Kādambarī]), [Mahābhārata] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Kumāra-sambhava vii, 42])
9) n. a metre of 4 x 15 syllables
10) = daṇḍa (a stick), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) Cāmarā (चामरा):—[from cāmara] f. idem, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [v.s. ...] (ā, ī) f. a chowrie, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc. [Scholiast or Commentator]]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Camara-kumara, Camara-mada, Camarabala, Camaracanca, Camaradhari, Camaragraha, Camaragrahin, Camaragrahini, Camarakriti, Camarapidaka, Camarapuccha, Camarapushpa, Camarapushpaka, Camaravijani.
Ends with: Ambucamara, Aparacamara, Chatracamara, Kancamara, Manjaricamara, Nikcamara, Pamsucamara, Pancacamara, Pancamara, Pushpacamara, Sacamara, Sita-camara, Sitacaranacamara, Varicamara, Vyajanacamara, Yugmacamara.
Full-text (+46): Camarapuccha, Camaragrahini, Camaragraha, Camarika, Ambutala, Camarin, Varicamara, Ambucamara, Cakramudra, Pancacamara, Pushpacamara, Pamsucamara, Camarapushpa, Camaradhari, Camara-mada, Camaracanca, Upaladhipriya, Cavaralu, Vibukosha, Nikcamara.
Search found 34 books and stories containing Camara, Cāmara, Cāmarā; (plurals include: Camaras, Cāmaras, Cāmarās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.5.8 < [Chapter 5 - Prema: Love of God]
Verse 2.3.51 < [Chapter 3 - Bhajana: Worship]
Verse 2.1.75 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya: Renunciation]
The backdrop of the Srikanthacarita and the Mankhakosa (by Dhrubajit Sarma)
Part 5c - Alaṃkāra (3): Rūpaka or metaphor < [Chapter III - Literary Assessment Of The Śrīkaṇṭhacarita]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 9: Story of the seven ascetic-brothers < [Chapter VIII - The abandonment of Sītā]
Part 5: Indra Camara’s attack on Śakra < [Chapter IV - Mahāvīra’s second period of more than six years]
Part 7: Śatrughna’s capture of Mathurā < [Chapter VIII - The abandonment of Sītā]
Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti) (by K. C. Lalwani)
Part 2 - Account of Mahāśilākaṇṭaka battle < [Chapter 9]
Part 2 - Sāmānika gods of Asurendra Camara, etc. < [Chapter 1]
Part 3 - Trāyas-triṃśaka gods of Asurendra Camara < [Chapter 1]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)