Camara, aka: Cāmara; 16 Definition(s)

Introduction

Camara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chamara.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Camara (चमर) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “yak”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Āyurvedic literature. The animal Camara is part of the sub-group named Ānupamṛga, refering to animals “who live in marshy land”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Camara (चमर) or Chamara (छमर)—Sanskrit word for the animal “yak”. This animal is from the group called Kūlacara (‘shore-dwellers’). Kūlacara itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Ānupa (those that frequent marshy places).

The flesh of the Chamara is demulcent, cures an attack of cough, is sweet in taste and digestion and subdues the deranged Vāyu and Pittam.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Cāmara (Fly-whisk) - The obedience to the law and in particular to the highest principle of Dharma — Ahimsa. Also represents the following of the teacher and the tradition.

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Cāmara (चामर) refers to a “chowrie” (a whisk to keep off flies), which is an accessories used in a dramatic play, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Such accessories and weapons should be made by experts using proper measurements and given to persons in their respective conditions. It forms a component of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Cāmara (चामर) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (eg., cāmara) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Camara in Purana glossary... « previous · [C] · next »

1) Camara (चमर).—(CAMARĪ). An animal whose tail is its most important and valued organ. In the course of its movements in the forest if the tail gets entangled anywhere it is supposed to lie down there till the tail is freed by itself. About the origin of Camara, the following story is told in the Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa. Krodhavaśā, daughter of Dakṣaprajāpati and wife of Kaśyapa had ten daughters, viz. Mṛgī, Mṛgamadā, Hari, Bhadramadā, Mātaṅgī, Śārdūlī, Śvetī, Surasā, Surabhi and Kadrū. To Mṛgamadā the Sṛmaras and Camaras owe their origin. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Canto 14).

2) Cāmara (चामर).—A rod (handle) with a large tuft of hair, fibre or feathers at the end. A symbol used by kings and brahmins. Cāmara of the king should have a golden handle, and it should be made of the wings of the swan, the pea cock, the Balākā bird etc. But, the wings of different birds shall not be intermixed. Circular in shape, the Cāmara should have on its handle 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 sandhis (joints, knots). (Agnipurāṇa, Chapter 245).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Camara (चमर) refers to one of the two Indras (lords) of the Asurakumāra (fiendish youths) class of “residential celestial beings” (bhavanavāsin), itself a main division of devas (celestial beings) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.3. The Asurakumāras go down to the third ‘earth’ of the lower world and encourage the infernal beings there to fight amongst themselves to cause misery to them. As they enjoy and indulge in violence, they are called fiendish youths. Camara and Vairocana are the two lords in the Fiendish-youths residential celestial beings.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Camara (known as Puhar or Kāveripaṭṭinam in Tamil literature) is the name of a port city mentioned in the 1st century Periplus Maris Erythraei in connection with overseas trading in ancient India.—Ports thus dotted the Indian coast, and many of them were listed in Greek and Roman texts, such as the Periplus Maris Erythraei or “Voyage around the Erythrean Sea”, an anonymous Greek travelogue of the 1st century CE, ‘Erythrean’ referring to the Arabian Sea together with the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. It named ports such as Camara, among many others.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Trade: A Survey

Cāmara.—(IE 8-8), name of a coin; cf. cāmara-māda. (SII 3), a fly-whisk. See cauri, cavarālu. Note: cāmara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Cāmara.—also called cāmara-māḍa; probably ‘a māḍa bearing the figure of a fly-whisk’; see māḍa. Note: cāmara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Camara in Pali glossary... « previous · [C] · next »

camara : (m.) the yak ox (in the Himalayan regions). || cāmara (nt.) a chowrie; the tail of the yak used as a whisk.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Cāmara, (nt.) (from camara) a chowrie, the tail of bos grunniens used as a whisk Sn. 688; Vv 643; J. VI, 510; VvA. 271, 276. Cpd. cāmarī-gāhaka J. VI, 218 (aṅka) a hook holding the whisk. (Page 264)

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Camara, (Deriv. unknown, probably non-Aryan. Sk. camara) 1. the Yak ox (Bos grunniens) J. I, 149; III, 18, 375; V, 416; Miln. 365.—f. —ī J. I, 20; Sdhp. 621.—In cpds. camari° J. IV, 256.—2. a kind of antelope (-ī) J. VI, 537.

—vījanī (f.) a chowry (the bushy tail of the Yak made into a brush to drive away flies) Vin. II, 130. This is one of the royal ensigns (see kakudhabhaṇḍa & cp. vāla-vījanī). (Page 262)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

cāmara (चामर).—n (S) A chowrie; the tail of Bos Grunniens, used to whisk off flies &c. v vāra, ḍhāḷa.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

cāmara (चामर).—n A chowrie; see cavarī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Camara (चमर).—[cam-arac Uṇ.3.31] A kind of deer.

-raḥ, -ram A chowrie most usually made of the tail of Chamara.

-rī 1 A shoot, sprout (mañjarī).

2) The female Chamara; यस्यार्थयुक्तं गिरिराजशब्दं कुर्वन्ति बालव्यजने- श्चमर्यः (yasyārthayuktaṃ girirājaśabdaṃ kurvanti bālavyajane- ścamaryaḥ) Ku.1.13,48; Śi.4.6; Me.53; केशेषु चमरीं हन्ति सीम्नि पुष्करको हतः (keśeṣu camarīṃ hanti sīmni puṣkarako hataḥ) Udb.; cf. चमरं चामरे स्त्री तु मञ्जरीमृग- भेदयोः (camaraṃ cāmare strī tu mañjarīmṛga- bhedayoḥ) Medinī.

Derivable forms: camaraḥ (चमरः).

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Cāmara (चामर).—[camaryāḥ vikāraḥ tatpucchanirmitatvāt] also

-rā -rī sometimes.

1) A chowrie or bushy tail of the Chamara (Bos Grunniens) used as a fly-flap or fan, and reckoned as one of the insignia of royalty (and sometimes used as a sort of streamer on the heads of horses); व्याधूयन्ते निचुलतरुभिर्मञ्जरीचामराणि (vyādhūyante niculatarubhirmañjarīcāmarāṇi) V.4.4; अदेय- मासीत् त्रयमेव भूपतेः शशिप्रभं छत्रमुभे च चामरे (adeya- māsīt trayameva bhūpateḥ śaśiprabhaṃ chatramubhe ca cāmare) R.3.16; Ku.7.42; H.2.29; Me.35; चित्रन्यस्तमिवाचलं हयशिर- स्यायामवच्चामरम् (citranyastamivācalaṃ hayaśira- syāyāmavaccāmaram) V.1.4; Ś.1.8.

Derivable forms: cāmaraḥ (चामरः), cāmaram (चामरम्).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Camara (चमर).—m., a high number: Mvy 7787 = Tibetan rgod-yas (meaning ?).

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Cāmara (चामर).—n. of a country or division of the world: Mvy 3052. Cf. Aparacāmara. See Kirfel, Kosmographie, 90 (var. Ḍāmara).

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Cāmarā (चामरा).—(AMg. and Sanskrit Lex. id., f.; compare Pali and Sanskrit Lex. cāmarī; regularly nt. °ra in Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit), chowrie: vara-cāmarāye (instr.) Mv i.235.8 (verse).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Camara (चमर).—n.

(-raṃ) 1. A Chowri or long brush, most usually made of the tail-hairs of the Yak or Bos Grunniens, and employed to whisk off insects, flies, &c. 2. The name of a demon, f. (-rī) A compound pedicle. mf. (-raḥ-rī) A kind of deer, or rather the Bos Grunniens, erroneously classed by the Hidu writers amongst the deer. E. cam to eat or be eaten, arac aff.

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Cāmara (चामर).—nf. (-raṃ-rā or -rī) A Chowri, the bushy tail of the Bos grun niens, used to whisk off flies, also as an emblem or insignia of princely rank. E. camara the Yak or Bos grunniens, and aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 43 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Pancacamara
Pañcacāmara (पञ्चचामर).—n. (-raṃ) A form of metre, in which the line contains sixteen syllables...
Pamsucamara
Pāṃśucāmara (पांशुचामर).—m. (-raḥ) 1. A tent. 2. A bank overgrown with Durba grass. 3. A Praise...
Pushpacamara
Puṣpacāmara (पुष्पचामर).—m. (-raḥ) 1. A plant, (Artemisia.) 2. A fragrant plant, (Pandanus odor...
Camarapushpa
Cāmarapuṣpa (चामरपुष्प).—m. (-ṣpaḥ) 1. The betel-nut tree, (Areca faufel or catechu.) 2. A kind...
Varicamara
Vāricāmara (वारिचामर).—n. (-raṃ) A sort of weed, (Vallisneria.) E. vāri water, and cāmara Chowr...
Camarapuccha
Camarapuccha (चमरपुच्छ).—m. (-cchaḥ) A small animal with a bushy tail; a squirrel. n. (-cchaṃ) ...
Ambucamara
Ambucāmara (अम्बुचामर).—n. (-raṃ) An aquatic plant, (Vallisneria.) See śaibāla. E. ambu, and cā...
Manjaricamara
Mañjaricāmara (मञ्जरिचामर).—n. (-raṃ) A fan-like sprout.
Camarapushpaka
Cāmarapuṣpaka (चामरपुष्पक).—m. (-kaḥ) A kind of grass: see kāśa. E. kan added to the preceding.
Camaragraha
Cāmaragrāha (चामरग्राह).—m. a person who carries a chowrie. Derivable forms: cāmaragrāhaḥ (चामर...
Sita-camara
Sita-cāmara.—(EI 29), ‘white chowrie’; one of the royal insignia. Note: sita-cāmara is defined ...
Camaragrahini
Cāmaragrāhiṇī (चामरग्राहिणी).—a waiting girl who carries in her hand a chowrie and waves it ove...
Camara-kumara
Cāmara-kumāra.—cf. Cavari-kumāra (EI 10), probably, a prince in charge of the fly-whisk which w...
Camaragrahin
Cāmaragrāhin (चामरग्राहिन्).—m. a person who carries a chowrie. Cāmaragrāhin is a Sanskrit comp...
Vyajanacamara
Vyajanacāmara (व्यजनचामर).—a chowrie.Derivable forms: vyajanacāmaram (व्यजनचामरम्).Vyajanacāmar...

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