Chala: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Chala means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chhala.

Ambiguity: Although Chala has separate glossary definitions below, it also represents an alternative spelling of the Sanskrit word Cala. It further has the optional forms Chalā and Chāla.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Chala (छल, “deception”) refers to one of the thirteen types of vīthi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 20. Vīthi represents one of the daśarūpa or, “ten kinds of dramatic plays”, which are said to have originated from the various styles (vṛtti), discussed in chapter 22 of the same work.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Chala (छल).—One of the thirteen types of vīthi;—When after alluring one by replies, something opposite is done through those very replies being considered meaningless, it is an instance of Deception (chala).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nyāya

Chala (छल) refers to “quibbling”. It is one of the sixteen categories of discussion (padārtha) according to the doctrine of the Nyāya-sūtras by Akṣapāda. The sixteen padārthas represent a method of intellectual analysis and categorize everything that is knowable and nameable.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Chala (छल, “quibbling”) refers to the fourteenth of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”) in the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Chala is a kind of playing upon words, ideas and metaphors. One says a sentence in a certain meaning, but the opponent changes the meaning of the sentence to show it as fallacious. It is known as chala. Gautama says that chala is the opposition to a statement by the assumption of an alternative meaning.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Chala (चल): A Kaurava warrior.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Chala.—(IE 8-8), meaning uncertain; probably, a pretext. (EI 30), probably, a plea, or persecution, prosecution. Note: chala is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

chala (छल).—m n (S) Disguise; an assumed form; a counterfeit appearance. 2 A sham, pretence, feint. 3 Teasing, harassing, annoying. 4 Fraud, trickery, circumvention.

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chaḷa (छळ).—m (chala S) Teasing, tormenting, harassing, persecuting. 2 Confounded with chala q. v. chaḷīṃ chaḷaṇēṃ To torment.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

chala (छल).—m n Disguise. A pretence. Fraud. Teasing.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Chala (छल).—[chal-ac]

1) Fraud, trick, deceit, deception; विद्महे शठ पलायनच्छलानि (vidmahe śaṭha palāyanacchalāni) R.19.31; छलमत्र न गृह्यते (chalamatra na gṛhyate) Mk. 9.18; Y.1.61; Ms.8.49,187; Amaru.16; Śi.13.11.

2) Roguery, knavery.

3) A plea, pretext, guise, semblance (often used in this sense to denote an utprekṣā); असुरक्षाहि बहुच्छलाः श्रियः (asurakṣāhi bahucchalāḥ śriyaḥ) Ki.2.39; परिखावलयच्छलेन या न परेषां ग्रहणस्य गोचरा (parikhāvalayacchalena yā na pareṣāṃ grahaṇasya gocarā) N.2.95; प्रत्यर्प्य पूजामुपदाच्छलेन (pratyarpya pūjāmupadācchalena) R.7.3; 6.54;16.28; Bk.1.1; Amaru.15; Māl.9.1.

4) Intention.

5) Wickedness.

6) A family.

7) Design, device.

8) Fiction, circumvention.

9) Deceitful disputation, perverting the sense of words; विधर्मः परधर्मश्च आभास उपमा छलः । अधर्मशाखाः पञ्चेमा धर्मज्ञोऽधर्मवत् त्यजेत् (vidharmaḥ paradharmaśca ābhāsa upamā chalaḥ | adharmaśākhāḥ pañcemā dharmajño'dharmavat tyajet) Bhāg.7.15.12.

1) Difficult subject; ब्रह्म हि प्रचुरच्छलम् (brahma hi pracuracchalam) Mb.12.328.6.

Derivable forms: chalaḥ (छलः), chalam (छलम्).

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Chāla (छाल).—Bark; a bark-garment.

Derivable forms: chālaḥ (छालः), chālam (छालम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Chala (छल).—n.

(-laṃ) 1. Wickedness. 2. Fraud, circumvention, trick, stratagem. 3. Design, device. E. chala to cut, alac affix, and the radical finai rejected.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Chala (छल).— (cf. vb. skhal), 1. Fraud, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 57, 10. 2. Artful management, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 49. 3. Pretext, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 48. 4. Intention, Mārk. P. 25, 10.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Chala (छल).—[neuter] ([masculine]) fraud, deceit, pretence, delusion, appearance, fiction. °— & [instrumental] with fraud, deceitfully; chalatas under the disguise of (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Chala (छल):—[from chal] n. (√skhal) (exceptionally m., [Bhāgavata-purāṇa vii, 15, 12]; [gana] ardharcādi) fraud, deceit, sham, guise, pretence, delusion, semblance, fiction, feint, trick, fallacy (often ifc., e.g. upadā-chalena, ‘under pretence of gifts of honour’ id est. with feigned gifts, [Raghuvaṃśa vii, 27]; rajaś-chalena, ‘under the semblance of dust’, [xvi, 28]; See kanyakā-, dharma-, vāk-), [Manu-smṛti viii, 49 and] (a-cch, [negative]), [187; Mahābhārata] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Kathāsaritsāgara lxii, 164])

2) [v.s. ...] deceitful disputation, perverting the sense of words, [Nyāyasūtra i, 51 ff.; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

3) [v.s. ...] wickedness, [Horace H. Wilson]; for sthala, [Mahābhārata xiii. 7257]

4) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a son of Dala, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa iv, 4, 47];

5) Chalā (छला):—[from chala > chal] f. ifc. in names of several treatises or chapters belonging to, [Sāma-veda] (e.g. -ūha-, ūhya-, etc., qq.vv.)

6) Chāla (छाल):—m. ([gana] ardharcādi, not in [Kāśikā-vṛtti] and, [Gaṇaratna-mahodadhi]) Cyprinus Rohita, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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