Chala: 22 definitions

Introduction:

Chala means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chhala.

Ambiguity: Although Chala has separate glossary definitions below, it also represents an alternative spelling of the word Cala. It further has the optional forms Chalā and Chāla.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Chala (छल, “deception”) refers to one of the thirteen types of vīthi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 20. Vīthi represents one of the daśarūpa or, “ten kinds of dramatic plays”, which are said to have originated from the various styles (vṛtti), discussed in chapter 22 of the same work.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Chala (छल).—One of the thirteen types of vīthi;—When after alluring one by replies, something opposite is done through those very replies being considered meaningless, it is an instance of Deception (chala).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nyāya

Chala (छल) refers to “quibbling”. It is one of the sixteen categories of discussion (padārtha) according to the doctrine of the Nyāya-sūtras by Akṣapāda. The sixteen padārthas represent a method of intellectual analysis and categorize everything that is knowable and nameable.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Chala (छल, “quibbling”) refers to the fourteenth of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”) in the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Chala is a kind of playing upon words, ideas and metaphors. One says a sentence in a certain meaning, but the opponent changes the meaning of the sentence to show it as fallacious. It is known as chala. Gautama says that chala is the opposition to a statement by the assumption of an alternative meaning.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Chala (छल):—[chalam] Fraudulent or delusive statements and unmeaning verbosity

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Chala (छल) refers to “deceitful”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.25 (“The seven celestial sages test Pārvatī”).—Accordingly, as Śiva said to the seven Sages: “[...] O brahmins, she is desirous of attaining me as her husband. She is being served by her maids. She has discarded all other desires. She is determined in her resolve. O excellent sages, you go there at my bidding. With love in mind, conduct the test of her resolve. O virtuous ones of good rites, at my bidding, you need not hesitate to employ even deceitful [i.e., chala-saṃyukta] and critical remarks”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Chala (चल): A Kaurava warrior.

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Chala.—(IE 8-8), meaning uncertain; probably, a pretext. (EI 30), probably, a plea, or persecution, prosecution. Note: chala is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

chala (छल).—m n (S) Disguise; an assumed form; a counterfeit appearance. 2 A sham, pretence, feint. 3 Teasing, harassing, annoying. 4 Fraud, trickery, circumvention.

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chaḷa (छळ).—m (chala S) Teasing, tormenting, harassing, persecuting. 2 Confounded with chala q. v. chaḷīṃ chaḷaṇēṃ To torment.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

chala (छल).—m n Disguise. A pretence. Fraud. Teasing.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Chala (छल).—[chal-ac]

1) Fraud, trick, deceit, deception; विद्महे शठ पलायनच्छलानि (vidmahe śaṭha palāyanacchalāni) R.19.31; छलमत्र न गृह्यते (chalamatra na gṛhyate) Mk. 9.18; Y.1.61; Manusmṛti 8.49,187; Amaruśataka 16; Śiśupālavadha 13.11.

2) Roguery, knavery.

3) A plea, pretext, guise, semblance (often used in this sense to denote an utprekṣā); असुरक्षाहि बहुच्छलाः श्रियः (asurakṣāhi bahucchalāḥ śriyaḥ) Kirātārjunīya 2.39; परिखावलयच्छलेन या न परेषां ग्रहणस्य गोचरा (parikhāvalayacchalena yā na pareṣāṃ grahaṇasya gocarā) N.2.95; प्रत्यर्प्य पूजामुपदाच्छलेन (pratyarpya pūjāmupadācchalena) R.7.3; 6.54;16.28; Bhaṭṭikāvya 1.1; Amaruśataka 15; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 9.1.

4) Intention.

5) Wickedness.

6) A family.

7) Design, device.

8) Fiction, circumvention.

9) Deceitful disputation, perverting the sense of words; विधर्मः परधर्मश्च आभास उपमा छलः । अधर्मशाखाः पञ्चेमा धर्मज्ञोऽधर्मवत् त्यजेत् (vidharmaḥ paradharmaśca ābhāsa upamā chalaḥ | adharmaśākhāḥ pañcemā dharmajño'dharmavat tyajet) Bhāgavata 7.15.12.

1) Difficult subject; ब्रह्म हि प्रचुरच्छलम् (brahma hi pracuracchalam) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.328.6.

Derivable forms: chalaḥ (छलः), chalam (छलम्).

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Chāla (छाल).—Bark; a bark-garment.

Derivable forms: chālaḥ (छालः), chālam (छालम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Chala (छल).—n.

(-laṃ) 1. Wickedness. 2. Fraud, circumvention, trick, stratagem. 3. Design, device. E. chala to cut, alac affix, and the radical finai rejected.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Chala (छल).— (cf. vb. skhal), 1. Fraud, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 57, 10. 2. Artful management, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 49. 3. Pretext, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 48. 4. Intention, Mārk. P. 25, 10.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Chala (छल).—[neuter] ([masculine]) fraud, deceit, pretence, delusion, appearance, fiction. °— & [instrumental] with fraud, deceitfully; chalatas under the disguise of (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Chala (छल):—[from chal] n. (√skhal) (exceptionally m., [Bhāgavata-purāṇa vii, 15, 12]; [gana] ardharcādi) fraud, deceit, sham, guise, pretence, delusion, semblance, fiction, feint, trick, fallacy (often ifc., e.g. upadā-chalena, ‘under pretence of gifts of honour’ id est. with feigned gifts, [Raghuvaṃśa vii, 27]; rajaś-chalena, ‘under the semblance of dust’, [xvi, 28]; See kanyakā-, dharma-, vāk-), [Manu-smṛti viii, 49 and] (a-cch, [negative]), [187; Mahābhārata] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Kathāsaritsāgara lxii, 164])

2) [v.s. ...] deceitful disputation, perverting the sense of words, [Nyāyasūtra i, 51 ff.; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

3) [v.s. ...] wickedness, [Horace H. Wilson]; for sthala, [Mahābhārata xiii. 7257]

4) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a son of Dala, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa iv, 4, 47];

5) Chalā (छला):—[from chala > chal] f. ifc. in names of several treatises or chapters belonging to, [Sāma-veda] (e.g. -ūha-, ūhya-, etc., qq.vv.)

6) Chāla (छाल):—m. ([gana] ardharcādi, not in [Kāśikā-vṛtti] and, [Gaṇaratna-mahodadhi]) Cyprinus Rohita, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Chala (छल):—(laṃ) 1. n. Wickedness, deception.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Chala (छल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Chala.

[Sanskrit to German]

Chala in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Chala (छल) [Also spelled chhal]:—(nm) guile, deception; trick, ruse; sham; -[kapaṭa] dodge and duplicity; ~[ghāta] assassination; ~[ghātī] an assassin; -[chaṃda] guile and wile; ~[chaṃdī] fraudulent, deceitful; -[chidra] guile and wile; -[bala se] by hook or crook, by fair means or foul; fraudulently.

2) Chāla (छाल) [Also spelled chhal]:—(nf) bark.

3) Chālā (छाला) [Also spelled chhala]:—(nm) a blister, burn; [chāle paḍanā/honā] to have blisters.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Chala (छल) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Chala.

2) Chala (छल) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Chala.

3) Chāla (छाल) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Chāga.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Chala (ಛಲ):—

1) [noun] the quality of being firmly resolved, determined; firmness of the mind; resoluteness.

2) [noun] the quality or state of being obstinate or being unreasonably adhering to one’s purpose, opinion; stubbornness.

3) [noun] a firm hold or control.

4) [noun] a resolute, determined man.

5) [noun] ಛಲದಂಕ [chaladamka] chaladanka (used as a title) one who achieves something, working for it resolutely despite odds; 2. a man who is unreasonably obstinate; ಛಲದಂಕ ಮಲ್ಲ [chaladamka malla] chaladanka malla = ಛಲದಂಕ [chaladamka].

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Chala (ಛಲ):—

1) [noun] a false reason or motive put forth to hide the real one; an excuse; a pretext.

2) [noun] an instance of cheating; deceit; fraud; trickery.

3) [noun] (in a court of law) the act of passing severe judgement, censuring or faultfinding in another’s statement or argument.

4) [noun] (pros.) a skilful statement, remark or complimentary that is nicely phrased with pleasing words, but, in fact, meant to be a condemning remark.

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Chaḷa (ಛಳ):—[noun] = ಛಲ [chala]2.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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