Jainism and Patanjali Yoga (Comparative Study)

by Deepak bagadia | 2016 | 109,819 words

This page relates ‘Availability of Jain scriptures’ of the study dealing with the Spiritual Practices of Jainism and Patanjali Yoga in the context of ancient Indian Philosophy (in Sanskrit: Darshana), including extracts from the Yogasutra and the Tattvartha-Sutra. The system of Yoga offers techniques which are scientifically designed for the spiritual development of an individual. Jainism offers ethicical principles and meditation practices to assist with spiritual development.

Part 5.5 - Availability of Jain scriptures

Now, only ten Bhasya or niryuktiya is available. They are Avashyaka, Dasvaikalika, Uttaradhyayana, Acaranga, Sutrakrutamga, Dasashrutaskandha, Bruhatkalpa, Vyavahara, Suryapragnapti and Rishibhasita.

The first Srutakandha, “Nav brahmacaryadhyayana” or “Shramanachara” describes details of principles of Ahimsa (non-violence), Samata (equanimity), Anasakti (detached attitude) and Kasayaa-vijaya (victory over efflictions). The second Srutakandha, “Achar Chula” or “Shramana charya” includes Ahara suddhi (pure diet), Sthana (place), Gati (movements) and Bhasa (language).

The first Chula contains following seven chapters:

  1. Pindesana: Purity of food;
  2. Shaiyesana: Purity of place for sadhana/practice);
  3. Eryesana: Control of travel movements;
  4. Bhasajataisana: Control of purity of language;
  5. Vastraisana: Limitations of clothings and usages of the same;
  6. Patraisana: Limitations of Vessels and utensils;
  7. Avagrahaisana: Process of permission for location and place.

Surya PrajnaptiChandra Prajnapti”, a scripture on 6th and 7th Upanga has 20 chapters and 108 sutras and is based on Astrology. It is also called as “Jyotish-Raj-Prajnapti”. “Avashyak Sutra” prescribes list of those duties, one should try to perform. Our duties should be based on one single principle that “Each animal desires for happiness and nobody wants miseries.”

The complete Agama literature is divided into four Anuyogas as under:

1. Charanakarana or Charanuyoga: It mentions Acara, ethical practices; one has to follow for spiritual purpose.

2. Dharmakathanuyoga: In includes virtues like Ahimsa to be followed as one’s own duty.

3. Ganitanuyoga: (Karanayuyoga as per Digambers) Expressed through the medium of Maths.

4. Dravyanuyoga: It describes the knowledge of all nine Tattvas. It is “shrutjnana”, the most important Anuyoga.

Anuyoga is the process of expressing and explaining the meaning. It unites with and takes us to the higher meanings of knowledge.

Savve pana…… Suhasaya dukkhavadikula (Acharamga sutra 1/2/3)

In order to proceed on path of liberation, Vyavahar-Nay is the cause that supports and motivates where as Niscay-Nay is the actucal process.

One of the Jain Agamas, “Dashvaikalik Sutra” mentions guidelines to be followed by Shramanas or monks as per “Anga bahya srut”, collection of ten sermons and two chulikas[1].

These are as under:

i) Druma Puspika: Two types of true religions are prescribed, laukika (Gramdharma, Deshdharma and Rajdharma) and Lokottar dharma.

ii) Shramanya purvak

iii) Laghu achar-katha

iv) Satjivnikay: Self and spiritual control

v) Bhiksa visuddhi or Pindaisna (Gochari)

vi) Mahachar katha describes eighteen rules for dharmartha, study of religions

vii) Vakya suddhi

viii) Ahar pranidhi

ix) Vinay Samadhi

x) Sa-biksu–winner of senses

Footnotes and references:


Madhukar Muni, Dashvaikaliksutra, tr. Siddhantacharya Sadhvi Pushpavati, Shri Agam Samiti, Beawar (Rajasthan), 1993

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