Shramana, Śramaṇa: 13 definitions
Shramana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Śramaṇa can be transliterated into English as Sramana or Shramana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Śramaṇa (श्रमण).—A sage; nine sons of Ṛṣabha became this.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 3. 20; XI. 2. 20.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism
A shramana is a wandering monk in certain ascetic traditions of ancient India including Jainism, Buddhism, and Ājīvikism. Famous śramaṇas include Mahavira and Gautama Buddha.
Traditionally, a shramana is one who renounces the world and leads an ascetic life for the purpose of spiritual development and liberation. Typicaly, shramanas assert that human beings are responsible for their own deeds and reap the fruits of those deeds, for good or ill. Liberation, therefore, may be achieved by anybody irrespective of caste, creed, color or culture (in contrast to certain historical caste-based traditions) providing the necessary effort is made. The cycle of reincarnation, saṃsāra, to which every individual is subject, is viewed as the cause and substratum of misery. The goal of every person is to evolve a way to escape from the cycle of rebirth. Shramanic traditions dispense with the rites and rituals of formal religion as factors in emancipation, emphasizing instead the paramount importance of ascetic endeavor and personal conduct.
Shramana; (Sanskrit śramaṇa श्रमण, Pāli samaṇa)
General definition (in Jainism)Source: HereNow4U: Bhagwaan Mahaveer Evam Jain Darshan
A śramaṇa (श्रमण) or monk closes the passages of passion (attachment and aversion) and annihilates the karmas accumulated during millions of births. As a large tank, when its supply of water has been stopped, gradually dries up by consumption of the water and by evaporation, so the Karman of a monk, which he acquired in millions of birth, is annihilated by austerities, if there is no influx of bad Karman.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Śramaṇa.—(EI 8; CII 3; LL; BL), a Buddhist or Jain monk; an ascetic. Note: śramaṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Śramaṇa (श्रमण).—a. (-ṇā, -ṇī f.) [श्रम्-युच् (śram-yuc)]
1) Labouring, toiling.
2) Low, base, vile.
-ṇaḥ 1 An ascetic, a devotee, religious mendicant in general; श्रमणोऽश्रमणः (śramaṇo'śramaṇaḥ) (bhavati) Bṛ. Up.4.3.22; Mb.12.154.21; Bhāg.5. 3.2.
2) A Buddhist or Jain ascetic.
3) A beggar.
-ṇā, -ṇī 1 A female devotee or mendicant.
2) A lovely woman.
3) A woman of low caste.
4) A hard-working woman.
5) Bengal madder.
6) The spikenard.
-ṇam Toil, exertion.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Śramaṇa (श्रमण).—name of a nāga: Mahāvyutpatti 3329; compare Śrāmaṇe- raka (2). (On śramaṇa for śravaṇa see the latter.)
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Śrāmaṇa (श्रामण).—nt. (Sanskrit Gr. id.; to śramaṇa plus -a; = śrāmaṇya), monkhood: (naiṣa…mārgo nirvṛtaye… na) °ṇāya na brāhmaṇāya (q.v., 2) na nirvāṇāya saṃ- vartate Lalitavistara 245.13 (prose). Some mss. śramaṇāya, which here makes no sense. (In Divyāvadāna 338.13 śrāmaṇāḥ, misprint for śra°.)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) 1. Following a low or degraded business or profession. 2. Base, vile, bad. m.
(-ṇaḥ) 1. A religious character, an ascetic, a Yati, one devoted to meditation for the purpose of obtaining final emancipation from existence, probably the Sarmanes of the Greek writers. 2. A beggar, the religious mendicant. f. (-ṇā or ṇī) 1. Indian spikenard, (Valeriana Jatamansi.) 2. Bengal madder, (Rubia manjith.) 3. A handsome woman. 4. A woman of low caste or business. 5. A female mendicant. E. śram to be wearied, aff. yuc .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śramaṇa (श्रमण).—i. e. śram + ana, I. adj. 1. Following a low business. 2. Base. Ii. m. 1. An ascetic, a Bauddha friar, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 427. 2. A religious mendicant, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 13, 13. Iii. f. ṇā. 1. A female mendicant; also ṇī, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 38, 5. 2. A woman of low caste or business. 3. A handsome woman.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śramaṇa (श्रमण).—[masculine] ā & ī [feminine] ascetic, mendicant; [neuter] toil, exertion.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śramaṇa (श्रमण):—[from śram] mf(ā or ī)n. making effort or exertion, toiling, labouring, ([especially]) following a toilsome or menial business, [Horace H. Wilson]
2) [v.s. ...] base, vile, bad, [ib.]
3) [v.s. ...] naked, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) [v.s. ...] m. one who performs acts of mortification or austerity, an ascetic, monk, devotee, religious mendicant, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.
5) [v.s. ...] a Buddhist monk or mendicant (also applied to Buddha himself cf. [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 23 etc.]; also applied to a Jain ascetic now commonly called Yati), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
6) [v.s. ...] Name of a serpent-demon, [Buddhist literature]
7) [v.s. ...] (ā or ī), a female mendicant or nun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] a hard-working woman, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) Śramaṇā (श्रमणा):—[from śramaṇa > śram] f. a handsome woman, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) [v.s. ...] = śabarī-bhid, māṃsī, muṇḍīrī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) Śramaṇa (श्रमण):—[from śram] n. toil, labour, exertion, [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra]
12) Śrāmaṇa (श्रामण):—[from śram] n. ([from] śramaṇa) [gana] yuvādiSource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śramaṇa (श्रमण):—[(ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) m.] A religious character, an ascetic, a beggar. 1. f. Indian spikenard; a fine or a low woman. a. Following a low trade, base.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Śramaṇa (श्रमण):—(von 1. śram) mit kṛta u. s. w. componirt gaṇa śreṇyādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 1, 59.]
1) adj. der sich abmüht, kasteit; m. Bettelmönch, insbes. ein buddhistischer, Buddhist überh. (Gautama selbst erhält dieses Beiwort) [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1, 1, 24.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 75.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 227.] [Medinīkoṣa ṇ. 80] (nach [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] und [Medinīkoṣa] auch = nindyajīvin). [Halāyudha 2, 190.] [Colebrooke 2, 196. 203.] [WILSON, Sel. Works 1, 295. 303. 2, 312. fgg.] [BURNOUF, Intr. 78. 275. fg. 297.] [Lassen’s Indische Alterthumskunde 2, 238. 263. 449.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 14, 7, 1, 22.] [Taittirīyāraṇyaka] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 78.] śramaṇāśca vanaukasaḥ [Mahābhārata 1, 7778] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 13, 13 (11 Gorresio).] gaṇa yuvādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 5, 1, 130.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 5, 3, 20. 11, 2, 20. 12, 3, 19.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 27, 18. 38, 56. 51, 118. fgg. 53, 39. 65, 132. 75, 37. 39.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 87, 9] (v. l. für śravaṇa). [Rājataraṅgiṇī 1, 199. 5, 427.] [Sāhityadarpana 103, 12.] [Rgva tch’er rol pa ed. Calc. 2, 20. 308, 6. 14. 309, 20. 318, 18. 320, 6. 7. 20.] [WASSILJEW 63. 83. 212. 248.] Vie de [Hiouen-Thsang 62.] śramaṇā f. [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 141.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 532,] [Scholiast] [Halāyudha 2, 332.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 1, 55 (59 Gorresio).] [MAHĀVĪRAC. 80, 12. fgg.] kumāra [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 1, 70. 6, 2, 26.] śramaṇī [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 38, 5. ed. Bomb. 1, 1, 57.] —
2) f. ā eine Bettelnonne; s. u. 1); = śabarībhid (vgl. [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 1, 55]), sudarśanā und māṃsī [Medinīkoṣa] = muṇḍīrī [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 141.] [Medinīkoṣa] — Vgl. a, paścācchramaṇa, pramatta, mahā, śrāmaṇera und 4. śravaṇa .
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Śrāmaṇa (श्रामण):—n. nom. abstr. von śramaṇa v. l. (aber richtig) im gaṇa yuvādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 5, 1, 130.]
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1) Buddhist: brāhmaṇam leben in Feindschaft [Patañjali] [?a. a. O.2,398,a.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Śramaṇa (श्रमण) [Also spelled sraman]:—(nm) a Buddhist monk/mendicant.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Ends with: Ashramana, Kshamashramana, Kumarashramana, Mahashramana, Nagnashramana, Parishramana, Prajnashramana, Pramattashramana, Punahshramana, Purahshramana, Shakyashramana, Vaishramana, Vishramana.
Full-text (+59): Mahashramana, Samana, Kumarashramana, Kalandaka, Shraman-opasaka, Vishramana, Shramanashakyaputriya, Shramanoddesha, Shramanadatta, Brahmanashramananyaya, Shramani, Semnos, Shramanadi, Mundiri, Shramanaka, Shramanay, Shakyashramana, Shramana-shravika, Shramanacarya, Pradveshaka.
Search found 36 books and stories containing Shramana, Śramaṇa, Sramana, Śrāmaṇa, Śramaṇā; (plurals include: Shramanas, Śramaṇas, Sramanas, Śrāmaṇas, Śramaṇās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Tattvasangraha [with commentary] (by Ganganatha Jha)
Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti) (by K. C. Lalwani)
Part 1 - On short and long spans of life < [Chapter 6]
Part 1 - Ṛṣibhadraputra, the worshipper of Śramaṇas < [Chapter 12]
Part 3 - Dialogue with Skandaka < [Chapter 1]
Vinaya Pitaka (1): Bhikkhu-vibhanga (the analysis of Monks’ rules) (by I. B. Horner)
Translation of the term brāhmaṇa (brahmin) < [Translator’s Introduction]
Translation of the term samaṇa < [Translator’s Introduction]
Sutrakritanga (by Hermann Jacobi)
Lecture 7: Nalanda < [Book 2]
Lecture 6: Ardraka < [Book 2]
Lecture 4: Knowledge of Women, Chapter 2 < [Book 1]
A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms (by Fa-Hien)