Upanga, Upāṅga, Upa-anga: 13 definitions

Introduction

Upanga means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग) refers to “sub-moulds”, as opposed to regular mouldings (aṃśa) commonly used in the construction of an adhiṣṭhāna (pedestal or base of a structure) or an upapīṭha (sub-structure, beneath the adhiṣṭhāna).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Shodhganga: Development of temple architecture in Southern Karnataka

Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग, “sub-mouldings”).—The sub-mouldings of the plinth are called by the name upāṅgas. The upāṅgas are used to blend one moulding with the other. Upāṅgas are carved at the upper and lower sides of the major mouldings. Upāṅgas help to enhance the beauty and intricacy of the plinth. They bring in harmony and good blending of the two differently shaped mouldings. In some of the plinths, the upāṅgas and their decorationsa re very essential to indentify them as belonging to a particular sub-type of plinth. Upāṅgas are thin bands carved in the same stone as that of its upper or lower major moulding and they are never carved separately and inserted into the masonry.

Texts give different names for different types of upāṅgas based on their surface treatment. They are,

  1. kampa: A small thin band;
  2. vājana: Fillet or strip, flat and rectilinear, bigger than kampa;
  3. ūrdhvapadma: Lotus petals scalloped upward;
  4. adhopadma: Lotus petals scalloped downward;
  5. ratnapaṭṭikā: Band of diadems;
  6. puṣpapaṭṭikā: Band of flowers;
  7. antarita: Narrow recessed surface or groove;
  8. āliṅga: A small rectilinear band attached to a major moulding.
Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग) refers to “the six minor limbs” with which are perfromed the various āṅgika, or, “gestures” (physical representations), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8.

The following are regarded as the six minor limbs (upāṅga):

  1. eyes (tārā, ‘eyeballs’, puṭa, ‘eyelids’ and dṛṣṭi, ‘glances’),
  2. eyebrows (bhrū),
  3. nose (nāsa),
  4. lower lip (uṣṭha, ‘lips’),
  5. chin (cibuka)

2) Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग) or upāṅgarāga is defined as “dwelling near another rāga”, according to Umāpati in his 9th century Aumāpatam (exposition on music and dance).

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)

Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग) refers to the “subsidiary limbs” and represents one of the three types of Āṅgikābhinaya (gesture language of the limbs) as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Āṅgika-abhinaya is the gesture language of the limbs. Dance is an art that expresses itself through the medium of body, and therefore, āṅgikābhinaya is essential for any dance and especially for any classical dance of India. Upāṅgas or the subsidiary limbs consist of the eyes, the eye-brows, pupils, cheeks, nose, jaws, lips, teeth, tongue, chin, face, and the head.

Upāṅgas consist of twelve subsidiary limbs. They are:

  1. dṛṣṭi (eyes),
  2. bhrū (eyebrows),
  3. puṭa (eyelids),
  4. tāra (pupils),
  5. kapola (cheeks),
  6. nāsi (nose),
  7. hanu (jaws),
  8. adhara (lower lip),
  9. daśana (teeth),
  10. jihvā (tongue),
  11. cubuka (chin),
  12. vadana (face).

All these parts of the face are essential for a dancer while exhibiting bhava. But in an image one finds the positions of the eyes of the gods and goddesses in a static form. But there is a feel of grace in the eyes of the deity. The eyes speak of the situation and the purpose of the deity installed in the temple. So it is essential to study the movements of the eyes.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग) refers to the “further subdivisions” on top of the “nine ancillary adjuncts” (navāṅga) of devotion (bhakti), as explained in the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.23, as Śiva said to Satī:—“[...] according to scholars O Goddess, the nine ancillary adjuncts (navāṅga) are:—listening, eulogising, remembering, serving, surrendering, worshipping, saluting, friendliness and dedication. O Śiva, its further subdivisions (upāṅga) too have been explained. [...] The further subdivisions (upāṅga) in the adjuncts are numerous. Nurturing the Bilva tree etc. can be included therein. They shall be thought of by the devotee himself”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Academia.edu: Some Pearls from the Fourth Chapter of Abhinavabhāratī Table of Contents

Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग):—Upāṅgas are the minor limbs, which include the neck, elbows, knees, toes and heels. The upāṅgas of the face include eyes, eyebrows, nose, lower lip and chin.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upāṅga (उपांग).—n A minor branch, division, portion, appendent ceremony (of a religious observance or other work); any supplementary or auxiliary act or article. Ex. ikaḍē vīṇā ṭāḷa mṛdaṅga jhallarī kiṅki- ṇī u0 || dēvāṅganā ghēūni upabhōgavanāsa vēgēṃ cālilyā ||

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

upāṅga (उपांग).—n A minor branch, division.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग).—A mark of sandal on the forehead.

-gam 1 A subdivision, a sub-head. Mb.1.1.38

2) Any minor limb or member (of anything); वर्गाः (vargāḥ) ... साङ्गो- पाङ्गौरिहोदिताः (sāṅgo- pāṅgaurihoditāḥ) Ak.

3) A supplement of a supplement.

4) A supplementary work (of inferior value).

5) A secondary portion of science; a class of writings sup-] plementary to the Vedāngas; (these are four :-purāṇa- nyāyamīmāṃsādharmaśāstrāṇi).

6) Name of the class of sacred writings of the Jainas.

Derivable forms: upāṅgaḥ (उपाङ्गः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग).—m.

(-ṅgaḥ) 1. The sectarial mark made with Sandal, &c. on the forehead. 2. Any minor limb or member. 3. Secondary portion of science. E. upa and aṅga the body.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग).—n. A supplement, [Nala] 12, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग).—[neuter] minor limb or member, subdivision, supplement.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग):—1. upāṅga n. (for 2. See upāñj) a minor limb or member of the body, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

2) a subdivision

3) a supplementary or additional work, secondary portion of a science, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc. (such as the Purāṇas, the Nyāya, Mīmāṃsā, and the Dharma-śāstras)

4) Name of a class of sacred writings of the Jainas (eight are enumerated, the last of which includes four subdivisions)

5) a sectarial mark (made with sandal etc.) on the forehead, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) (in mus.) a particular drum-like instrument.

7) [from upāñj] 2. upāṅga (for 1. See above) m. the act of smearing, anointing, [Caraka]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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