Bhiksha, Bhikṣā: 18 definitions

Introduction:

Bhiksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Bhikṣā can be transliterated into English as Bhiksa or Bhiksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Bhikṣā (भिक्षा) refers to “alms”, according to the 9th-century Sarvajñānottaratantra chapter 18.—Accordingly, “Next, I shall teach the best observance among observances, which is known as the Śiva-vrata and which is revered by Asuras and Gods alike. [...] He should dwell constantly in a temple of Śiva, eating alms (bhikṣā-bhakṣa), controlling his senses, devoted to recitation and meditation, maintaining silence, venerating Śiva, the fire and his guru. When a year has passed, he will become equal to Śiva. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Bhikṣā (भिक्षा) refers to “one who begs”, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Neither mother, father, brother or relatives help one as the teacher does. Having understood this, whether he suffers when there is (cause for) suffering or is happy when there is (cause for) happiness, he should not, even unwittingly, assume a position contrary to (the one his) teacher has. Sitting next to him (the disciple) should massage him and the like. He should offer him the bowl with which he begs (bhikṣā-pātra) and flowers constantly”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Bhikṣā (भिक्षा) refers to “alms”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.34 (“The Story of Anaraṇya”).—Accordingly, as Vasiṣṭha said to Himavat (Himācala): “[...] On hearing the words of the people who spoke the truth, the sage became much agitated in the mind and was eager to possess her. O mountain, the sage took bath and worshipped his favourite deity Śiva duly. The lustful sage went to the council-chamber of Anaraṇya for the sake of alms (bhikṣā-artha). Immediately after seeing the sage, the king was struck with awe and bowed to him. He offered him homage and devoutly worshipped him. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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India history and geography

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Bhiksha (receiving alms) refers to a type of “privilege” applied to certain divisions of the Nambutiris. Bhiksha refers to the right of becoming a Sanyasi. The Nambutiri people form the socio-spiritual aristocracy of Malabar, and, as the traditional landlords of Parasu Rama’s land, they are everywhere held in great reverence.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Bhikṣā.—(IE 8-4), a grant or endowment; cf. ekādaśa- Rudra-bhikṣā (EI 32), an endowment in the gods’ name. Note: bhikṣā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

bhikṣā (भिक्षा).—f (S) Alms or charity; money or food given to beggars. v ghāla, dē. Pr. bhikṣā ghāla gē sāvitrī kōṇhī ghālatō kāya? Pr. bhikṣēśvara kiṃvā laṅkēśvara or, popularly, bhikēsarī kīṃ laṅkēsarī (I'll be) either the king of beggars or the lord of Lanka. 2 Applied to a boon or thing earnestly besought. Ex. tū kōṇhāvara rāgēṃ bharūṃ nakō ēvaḍhī malā bhikṣā dē.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

bhikṣā (भिक्षा).—f Alms or charity.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Bhikṣā (भिक्षा).—[bhikṣ-a]

1) Asking, begging, soliciting वृत्ते शरावसंपाते भिक्षां नित्यं यतिश्चरेत् (vṛtte śarāvasaṃpāte bhikṣāṃ nityaṃ yatiścaret) Manusmṛti 6.56.

2) Anything given as alms, alms; भवति भिक्षां देहि (bhavati bhikṣāṃ dehi).

3) Wages, hire.

4) Service.

5) A means of subsistence अपेतक्लमसंतापाः सुभिक्षाः सुप्रतिश्रयाः (apetaklamasaṃtāpāḥ subhikṣāḥ supratiśrayāḥ) Rām.2.92.6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhikṣā (भिक्षा).—f.

(-kṣā) 1. Service. 2. Hire, wages. 3. Begging, asking. 4. The thing obtained by begging, alms. 5. A mouthful or handful of food, given as alms. E. bhikṣ to beg or obtain by begging, aṅ and ṭāp affs.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhikṣā (भिक्षा).—[bhikṣ + ā], f. 1. Begging, [Pañcatantra] 116, 17. 2. Alms., [Pañcatantra] 116, 19. 3. Begged food, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 50. 4. Hire. 5. Service.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhikṣā (भिक्षा).—[feminine] begging or begged food, alms; [accusative] [with] yā, car, or aṭ go begging for food.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Bhikṣā (भिक्षा):—[from bhikṣ] f. the act of begging or asking (with √kṛ, to beg; with √aṭ, car, bhram and , to go about begging), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] any boon obtained by begging (alms, food etc.), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc. (also ifc. e.g. putra-bhikṣāṃ dehi, ‘grant the boon of a son’ [Rāmāyaṇa])

3) [v.s. ...] hire, wages, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] service, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Bhikṣa (भिक्ष):—(ṅa) bhikṣata 1. d. To beg, to get; to fail to get; to be weary.

2) Bhikṣā (भिक्षा):—(kṣā) 1. f. Begging; service; hire; a mouthful given in alms.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Bhikṣā (भिक्षा) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Bhikkhā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Bhiksha in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Bhiksha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Bhikṣā (भिक्षा):—(nf) alms, charity; begging; ~[caryā] occupation of begging; ~[jīvī] subsisting on alms/charity; -[pātra] one who deserves being granted alms; a begging bowl; -[bhājana] see -[pātra] ; -[vṛttī] a beggar’s occupation, beggary.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Bhikṣa (ಭಿಕ್ಷ):—[noun] = ಭಿಕ್ಷೆ [bhikshe].

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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