Pana, aka: Pāṇa, Paṇa, Pāna; 10 Definition(s)


Pana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism


Pāna (पान) includes both alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

(Source): Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

1) Paṇa (पण).—A coin.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 227. 14.

2) Pana (पन).—A Devagandharva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 39.

3a) Pāna (पान).—The region of adharma and of Kali;1 drinking liquor by a king is to be avoided.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 17. 38.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 220. 8.

3b) The hamlet next in rank above kheta*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 110.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Pāna (पान) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Pāna (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a bull. His right hand is in Pravacana-Mudrā and a viṇā is in his left hand.

The illustrations (of, for example Pāna) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

(Source): Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Pāna (पान) refers to “food that is drunk” and represents one of the four classifications of food (āhāra) according to the 11th century Śrāvakācāra (verse 6.96-97) by Amitagati. Pāna refers to all that is drunk: water, milk, the juice of fruits such as grapes and tamarinds, and the water in which rice or barley orother cereals have been boiled, particularly rice-gruel (kāñjika or sauvīra). Prohibited under this head are alcohol and the liquid from meat.

(Source): Jaina Yoga
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

India history and geogprahy

Pana is one of the places visited by Chaitanya during his pilgrimage in Southern India between April 1510 and January 1512.—Pana.—Panakal Narasimha at Mangal-giri, 7 m. south of Bezvada. But it is too far to the north. [R. M. G.] When visitors offer a draught to Narasimha-swami, the image in the temple refuses to drink more than half of it. (Kistna Dist. Man. 179).

(Source): Chaitanya’s life and teachings (history)
India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

pana : ((Adversative and interogative particle) ind.) and; yet; but; out the contrary; and now; more over. || pāna (nt.) drinking; a drink; a syrup.

-- or --

pāṇa : (m.) life; breath; a living being.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Pāṇa, (fr. pa+an, cp. Vedic prāṇa breath of life; P. apāna, etc. ) living being, life, creature D. III, 48, 63, 133; S. I, 209, 224; V, 43, 227, 441 (mahā-samudde); A. I, 161; II, 73, 176, 192; Sn. 117, 247, 394, 704; Dh. 246; DA. I, 69, 161; KhA 26; ThA. 253; PvA. 9, 28, 35; VvA. 72; DhA. II, 19.—pl. also pāṇāni, e.g. Sn. 117; Dh. 270. ‹-› Bdhgh’s defn of pāṇa is “pāṇanatāya pāṇā; assāsapassās’āyatta-vuttitāyā ti attho” Vism. 310.

—âtipāta destruction of life, murder Vin. I, 83 (in “dasa sikkhāpadāni, ” see also sīla), 85, 193; D. III, 68, 70, 149, 182, 235; M. I, 361; III, 23; Sn. 242; It. 63; J. III, 181; Pug. 39 sq.; Nett 27; VbhA. 383 (var. degrees of murder); DhA. II, 19; III, 355; DA. I, 69; PvA. 27. —âtipātin one who takes the life of a living being, destroying life D. III, 82; M. III, 22; S. II, 167; It. 92; DhA. II, 19. —upeta possessed or endowed with life, alive (cp. BSk. prāṇopeta Divy 72, 462 etc. ) S. I, 173; Sn. 157; DA. I, 236. —ghāta slaying life, killing, murder DA. I, 69; —ghātin= âtipātin DhA. II, 19. —bhu a living being J. IV, 494. —bhūta=°bhu M. III, 5; A. II, 210; III, 92; IV, 249 sq.; J. IV, 498. —vadha=âtipāta DA. I, 69. —sama equal to or as dear as life J. II, 343; Dpvs XI. 26; DhA. I, 5. —hara taking away life, destructive M. I, 10=III, 97; S. IV, 206; A. II, 116, 143, 153; III, 163. (Page 451)

— or —

Paṇa, (in this meaning unknown in Sk; only in one faulty var. lect. as “house”; see BR s. v. paṇa. Usual meaning “wager”) a shop J. IV, 488 (v. l. pana). (Page 403)

— or —

Pana, (indecl.) (doublet of Sk. puna(ḥ) wiṭh diff. meaning (see puna), cp. Geiger, P. Gr. § 34) adversative & interrogative particle, sometimes (originally, cp. puna “again, further”) merely connecting & continuing the story.—(1) (adversative) but, on the contrary J. I, 222; II, 159; VvA. 79 (correl. with tāva). ca pana “but” J. I, 152; atha ca pana “and yet” D. I, 139; J. I, 279; na kho pana “certainly not” J. I, 151; vā pana “or else” Vin. I, 83; Dh. 42; Sn. 376, 829.—(2) (in questions) then, now J. II, 4 (kiṃ p.), 159 (kahaṃ p.); VvA. 21 (kena p.); PvA. 27 (katamaṃ p.).—(3) (conclusive or copulative) and, and now, further, moreover D. I, 139 (siyā kho p. be it now that ... ); Sn. 23, 393, 396, 670; J. I, 278; PvA. 3. (Page 411)

— or —

Pāna, (Vedic pāna, fr. , pibati=Lat. bibo, pp. pīta, Idg. *po(i), cp. Gr. pi/nw to drink, pόtos drink; Obulg. piti to drink, pivo drink; Lith. penas milk; Lat. potus drink, poculum drinking vessel (=Sk. pātra, P. patta)) drink, including water as well as any other liquid. Often combd with anna° (food), e.g. Sn. 485, 487; Pv. I, 52; and °bhojana (id.) e.g. Dh. 249; J. I, 204. Two sets of 8 drinks are given in detail at Nd1 372.—Vin. I, 245, 249 (yāgu°); S. V, 375 (majja°); Sn. 82, 398, 924; J. I, 202 (dibba°); Pug. 51; PvA. 7, 8, 50.—âgāra a drinking booth, a tavern Vin. II, 267; III, 151; J. I, 302 (=surā-geha C.); Vbh. 247; VbhA. 339. (Page 452)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Marathi-English dictionary

paṇa (पण).—m (S) A promise, assurance, engagement. 2 A bet or wager. v kara, ghāla. 3 The stake or sum played for (at dice or cards). paṇa bhōgaṇēṃ To have positive assurance and be ready to wager.

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paṇa (पण).—conj (parantu or para S) But, yet, nevertheless. 2 Also, too, likewise. 2 Used redundantly, or expletively, or as a particle of emphatic affirmation, with much of the import and power of kīṃ or of q. v. Ex. jātōṃ paṇa, yētōṃ paṇa, dētōṃ paṇa, ghētōṃ paṇa; or as mī paṇa ālōṃ, mī paṇa gēlōṃ. Used also with the power of the particle Even. Ex. śapathā paṇa vāhilyā paṇa kharēṃ nāhīṃ bōlalā; śi- vī paṇa dilhī paṇa myāṃ sōsalī.

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paṇa (पण).—An affix attached to adjectives and to nouns to form abstract nouns; corresponding with ness, hood, ship. Ex. cāṅgalēmpaṇa, vāīṭapaṇa Goodness, badness. It is attached with propriety only to Maraṭhi words; but, in vulgar or heedless speech, it is attached also to adjectives and nouns from the Sanskrit. All the nouns formed by it are neuter. Of adjectives terminating in ā it inflects, in the formation of the noun, the final ā into ए. There are some exceptions; as śāhaṇā, mhātārā &c., of which are formed śāhaṇapaṇa, mhātārapaṇa &c., the ā being dropped altogether: also there are vāṅkuḍapaṇa, dhākuṭapaṇa, cāṅgulapaṇa &c., but these are from the primitive forms vāṅkuḍā, dhākuṭā, cāṅgulā &c. 2 Used from its sense hood or ship as s n, and in the power of the word vaya (age); as mulagī or mulagā paṇānta ālī The maid (or lad) is come of age: also paṇānta āhē is in any year of the age from the twelfth year to the conclusion of the prime or to the verge of senility. This usage with regard to paṇa originally resembled ours with regard to "teens," restricted probably to the period included betwixt 12 and 20; but now paṇa embraces the whole term of maturity or adultness. paṇānta yēṇēṃ To enter into the "teens" implies however, (in the case of a female) not to be passing from childhood into maidenhood, but to be entering into full womanhood.

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paṇā (पणा).—An affix which see explained under the affix paṇa. As the nouns formed with that are all neuter, so all formed with this are masculine.

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panā (पना).—m The name of a tree. It bears flowers and a small gram-like fruit. Two kinds, the greater and the less, are common.

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pāna (पान).—n (parṇa S) A leaf. 2 By eminence. The leaf of Piper betel; and, by synecdoche, the roll of this leaf with betelnut, spices, and lime, to be chewed. 3 A leaf of a book. 4 A sheet of paper. 5 A leaf or plate of metal foil. 6 A leaf-form ornament, to be bound on the forehead of children, or around the neck of man or woman, or neck or forehead of a horse. 7 A single dhotar, one of a pair. 8 A petal of the flower kētakī. 9 A single card of a pack. 10 The blade of a weapon or tool. 11 (Because the phaṇa or hood resembles a leaf.) A covert term for a snake (not for nāga solely, but for a snake generally). v lāga, cāva acc. of o.; there being generally reference to biting. 12 (For māhuṭīcēṃ pāna) The cross-piece receiving the ends of the rafters. 13 A common term for the portions of the parapet or battlement of a fort intervening between the embrasures. (Because of the form of a leaf of the pimpala.) 14 A kind of grass. Used medicinally for its emollient and diluent properties. Called in Sanskrit ērakā. 15 The skinhead of the tabor called sambaḷa.

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pāna (पान).—n (S) Drinking. Esp. in comp. as amṛta- pāna, madhupāna, rasapāna, kṣīrapāna. 2 (Abridged from madyapāna or surāpāna, or by eminence.) Drinking spirituous or vinous liquors.

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pānā (पाना).—a R W (pāṇī Water.) Turned yellowish and musty by rain falling upon it after being stacked, or after it had ripened in the field--corn. Hence pānētāndūḷa m pl Rice so spoiled.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paṇa (पण).—m A promise, assurance, engage- ment. A bet or wager. The stake or sum played for (at dice or cards). paṇa bhōmaṇēṃ To have positive assurance and be ready to wager.

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paṇa (पण).—conj. or But, yet, nevertheless. Also, too, likewise. Used redun- dantly, or expletively, or as a parti- cle of emphatic affirmation, with much of the import and power of kīṃ or of . Ex. jātōṃ paṇa, yētōṃ paṇa Used also with the power of the particle Even. Ex. śapathā paṇa vāhilyā paṇa kharēṃ nāhīṃ bōlalā.

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paṇa (पण).—An affix attached to adjectives and to nouns to form abstract nouns; corresponding with ness, hood, ship. Ex. cāṅgalēmpaṇa, vāṃīṭapaṇa Goodness, badness. mulagā or mulagī paṇānta ālī The maid (or lad) is come of age. paṇānta āhē is in any year of the age from the twelfth year to the conclusion of the prime or to the verge of senility. paṇānta yēṇēṃ Tobe entering into full womanhood.

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paṇā (पणा).—An affix which see explained under the affix paṇa. As the nouns formed with that are all neuter, so all formed with this are masculine.

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pāna (पान).—n A leaf. The leaf of betel. The roll of this leaf with betelnut, spices, and lime, to be chewed. A leaf of a book. A sheet of paper. A leaf or plate of metal foil. A leaf-form ornament. A single dhotar, one of a pair. A petal of the flower kētakī. A single card of a pack. The blade of a weapon or tool. māhōṭyācēṃ pāna The cross-piece receiving the ends of the rafters. n Drinking. pānāvara pāna ṭākaṇēṃ- ghālaṇēṃ-ṭhēvaṇēṃ To suppress, hush up. pānāvara pāna ṭhēvaṇēṃ To conceal (tuja)-vāñcūna pāna hālata nāhīṃ Expresses the indispensableness or extreme importance of. pānēṃ pujaṇēṃ To serve or lay scanty victuals upon the dining leaves. puḍhalēṃ pāna ōḍhūṃ nayē or puḍhalyā pānāsa mātī ghālūṃ nayē Strive not to deprive another of his bread. puḍhēṃ vāḍhalēlyā pānāsa lātha māraṇēṃ To reject offers of kindness; to slight benefits in possession. To die suddenly in the prime of life and height of prosperity.

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pānā (पाना).—m Spanner.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paṇa (पण).—1 Playing with dice or for a stake.

2) A game played for a stake, bet, wager; सपणश्चेद्विवादः स्यात्तत्र हीनं तु दापयेत् (sapaṇaścedvivādaḥ syāttatra hīnaṃ tu dāpayet) Y.2.18; दमयन्त्याः पणः साधुर्वर्तताम् (damayantyāḥ paṇaḥ sādhurvartatām) Mb.

3) The thing staked.

4) A condition, compact, agreement; संधिं करोतु भवतां नृपतिः पणेन (saṃdhiṃ karotu bhavatāṃ nṛpatiḥ paṇena) Ve.1.15; 'a stipulation, treaty'; H.4.118,119.

5) Wages, hire.

6) Reward.

7) A sum in coins or shells.

8) A particular coin equal in value to 8 cowries; अशीतिभिर्वराटकैः पण इत्यभिधीयते (aśītibhirvarāṭakaiḥ paṇa ityabhidhīyate); ततोऽरिसैन्या- दानीतान् सौवर्णान् राजतान् पणान् (tato'risainyā- dānītān sauvarṇān rājatān paṇān) Śiva B.23.3.

9) Price.

1) Wealth, property; आरोपणेन पणमप्रतिकार्यमार्यस्त्रैयम्बकस्य धनुषो यदि नाकरिष्यत् (āropaṇena paṇamapratikāryamāryastraiyambakasya dhanuṣo yadi nākariṣyat) Mv.1.27.

11) A commodity for sale.

12) Business, transaction; निरस्य समयं सर्वे पणोऽस्माकं भविष्यति (nirasya samayaṃ sarve paṇo'smākaṃ bhaviṣyati) Mb.3.7.9.

13) A shop.

14) A seller, vendor.

15) A distiller.

16) A house.

17) Expense of an expedition.

18) A handful of anything.

19) An epithet of Viṣṇu.

Derivable forms: paṇaḥ (पणः).

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Pāṇa (पाण).—[paṇ bhāve ghañ]

1) Trade, traffic; समीक्ष्य च बहून् दोषान् संवासाद् विद्धि पाणयोः (samīkṣya ca bahūn doṣān saṃvāsād viddhi pāṇayoḥ) Mb.13.44.37.

2) A trader.

3) A game; a turn in game (Mar. ḍāva); एकपाणेन भद्रं ते प्राणयोश्च पणावहे (ekapāṇena bhadraṃ te prāṇayośca paṇāvahe) Mb.3.78.6.

4) A stake at play; दीव्यामहे पार्थिव मा विशङ्कां कुरुष्व पाणं च चिरं च मा कृथाः (dīvyāmahe pārthiva mā viśaṅkāṃ kuruṣva pāṇaṃ ca ciraṃ ca mā kṛthāḥ) Mb.2.59.8.

5) An agreement.

6) Praise.

7) The hand.

Derivable forms: pāṇaḥ (पाणः).

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Pāna (पान).—[pā-lyuṭ]

1) Drinking, quaffing, kissing (a lip); पयःपानम् (payaḥpānam); देहि मुखकमलमधुपानम् (dehi mukhakamalamadhupānam) Gīt.1.

2) Drinking spirituous liquors; नहि धर्मार्थसिद्ध्यर्थं पानमेव प्रशस्यते (nahi dharmārthasiddhyarthaṃ pānameva praśasyate) Rām. 4.33.46. Ms.7.5;9.13; द्यूतपानप्रसक्ताश्च जघन्या राजसी गतिः (dyūtapānaprasaktāśca jaghanyā rājasī gatiḥ) 12.45.

3) A drink, beverage in general; Ms. 3.227; पयःपानं भुजङ्गानां केवलं विषवर्धनम् (payaḥpānaṃ bhujaṅgānāṃ kevalaṃ viṣavardhanam) Pt.1.389.

4) A drinking vessel.

5) Sharpening; whetting.

6) Protection, defence.

7) A canal.

-naḥ 1 A distiller.

2) Breath, expiration. -a. (in comp.) Drinking, one who drinks; विश्वं युगान्ते वटपत्र एकः शेते स्म मायाशिशुरङ्घ्रिपानः (viśvaṃ yugānte vaṭapatra ekaḥ śete sma māyāśiśuraṅghripānaḥ) Bhāg.3.33.4.

Derivable forms: pānam (पानम्).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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