Samata, Samatā, Samāta, Shamata: 18 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Samata means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Shamat.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Samatā (समता, “smoothness”) refers to one of the ten merits (guṇa) of a dramatic play (kāvya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17. They are characterised by their sweetness and depth of meaning. (Description): When alaṃkāras and guṇas match and illuminate one another it is called an instance of smoothness (samatā).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

See Samanga 1 above.

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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Samatā (समता, “equality”) refers to a set of “two equalities”, representing qualities acquired by the Bodhisattvas accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X. There are two kinds of equalities (samatā):

  1. equality toward beings (sattvasamatā),
  2. equality toward dharmas (dharmasamatā).
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Samāta (समात) is the name of a Śrāvaka mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Samāta).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Samatā (समता) or Samatājñāna refers to “knowledge of equality” and represents one of the “five knowledges” (jñāna) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 94). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., samatā). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Samata.—(IE 8-1), corrupt form of saṃvat. Note: samata is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Samatā.—(CII 1), impartiality. Note: samatā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

samatā : (f.) equality; evenness; normal state.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Samatā, (fr. sama3) equality, evenness, normal state Vin. I, 183; A. III, 375 sq.; Miln. 351. (Page 682)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sāmatā (सामता).—m A carpenter's tool, a sort of drill or augre.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sāmatā (सामता).—m A sort of augre or carpenter's tool.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Samatā (समता).—

1) Sameness, identity; समेत्य ते मन्त्रयितुं समतागतबुद्धयः (sametya te mantrayituṃ samatāgatabuddhayaḥ) Rām.2.2.2.

2) Likeness, similarity.

3) Equality; स्वजातेः समतां गतम् (svajāteḥ samatāṃ gatam) Pt.2.87.

4) Impartiality, fairness. समतां नी (samatāṃ nī) 'to treat as equal'; पश्चाद्दृश्येत यत्किंचित्तत्सर्वं समतां नयेत् (paścāddṛśyeta yatkiṃcittatsarvaṃ samatāṃ nayet) Ms.9.218.

5) Equanimity.

6) Perfectness.

7) Commonness.

8) Evenness.

See also (synonyms): samatva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Samatā (समता).—a high number: Gaṇḍavyūha 106.6; 133.16; Mahāvyutpatti 7877 (cited from Gaṇḍavyūha) = Tibetan rtogs yas; = sadama, q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samatā (समता).—f.

(-tā) 1. Sameness, similarity, equality. 2. Equanimity. 3. Right decision. 4. Perfectness. E. sama equal, like, tal aff.: also samatva n.

(-tvaṃ).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samatā (समता).—[sama + tā], f. 1. Sameness, similarity. 2. Equality, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 90 (sva-jāti-samatāṃ gata, Grown equal to his kind). 3. State of a common (not pre-eminent) person, [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 42, M.M. 4. Equanimity, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 44. 5. Right decision, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 178. 6. Perfectness, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 83.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samatā (समता).—[feminine] samatva [neuter] [abstract] to 2 sama.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Samatā (समता):—[=sama-tā] [from sama] f. (sama-) sameness of level, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

2) [v.s. ...] equality, sameness, identity with ([instrumental case] [genitive case], or [compound]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] fairness, impartiality towards ([locative case] or [compound]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] equableness, normal condition (tāṃ-√nī, ‘to decide or settle equitably’), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Suśruta] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] equanimity, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

6) [v.s. ...] mediocrity, [Hitopadeśa]

7) [v.s. ...] benevolence, [Pañcarātra]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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