Samata, Samatā, Samāta, Shamata, Śamatā: 26 definitions


Samata means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śamatā can be transliterated into English as Samata or Shamata, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Shamat.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Samatā (समता, “smoothness”) refers to one of the ten merits (guṇa) of a dramatic play (kāvya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17. They are characterised by their sweetness and depth of meaning. (Description): When alaṃkāras and guṇas match and illuminate one another it is called an instance of smoothness (samatā).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Samatā (समता) refers to “equality”, according to the Kularatnapañcakāvatāra verse 1.10cd-15.—Accordingly, “[...] Equality (samatā) (with respect to the opposites), a condition free of thought constructs, detachment in the midst of the objects of the senses, contentment because free of attachment and non-dual—such is liberation in this life. Knowledge of reality, contentment, realisation of the supreme Self, right action—this is the purification of the sources of transient emotions. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

See Samanga 1 above.

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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Samatā (समता, “equality”) refers to a set of “two equalities”, representing qualities acquired by the Bodhisattvas accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X. There are two kinds of equalities (samatā):

  1. equality toward beings (sattvasamatā),
  2. equality toward dharmas (dharmasamatā).
Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Samatā (समता) refers to the “sameness (of all the dharmas)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] The Bodhisattva Gaganagañja then sustained the jewel-canopy of ten thousand yojanas high over the Lord’s lion throne in the sky, joined the palms of his hands, saluted, and praised the Lord with these suitable verses: ‘[...] (12) By the wisdom of the concentration (samādhi) on the sameness of the dharmas (sarvadharma-samatā), you know the sameness of the superior, average or inferior [disciples]. But, staying in the sameness, you do not construct [any concept of] sameness. Thus the Victorious One (jīna) is concentrated (samāhita) without change (nirvikāra). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Samāta (समात) is the name of a Śrāvaka mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Samāta).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Samatā (समता) or Samatājñāna refers to the “gnosis of equality” and represents one of the “five gnoses” (pañcajñāna), according to the Nāmamantrārthāvalokinī by Vilāsavajra, which is a commentary on the Nāmasaṃgīti.—The five gnoses (pañcajñāna) in terms of various masteries are [e.g., samatā-jñāna (gnosis of equality), with the four vaiśāradya (confidences)]. [...] These associations are referenced to the Māyājālatantra in manuscript A (alone).

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Samatā (समता) or Samatājñāna (“the wisdom of equality”) refers to one of the “five wisdoms” (Pañcajñāna), according to the Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—The crown of five skulls symbolize the pañcajñāna, "The Five Wisdoms": 1) ādarśa-jñāna, "mirror-like wisdom", 2) samatā-jñāna, "the wisdom of equality", 3) pratyavekṣā-jñāna, "discriminating wisdom", 4) kṛtyanuṣṭhāna-jñāna, "the wisdom of action", 5) tathatā-jñāna, "the wisdom of thusness".

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Samatā (समता) or Samatājñāna refers to “knowledge of equality” and represents one of the “five knowledges” (jñāna) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 94). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., samatā). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Google Books: Foundations of Indian Psychology

Samatā (समता) or Samatājñāna refers to the “pristine wisdom of equality” which represents one of the five inseparable aspects of pristine wisdom in Buddhist Psychology.—The ‘pristine wisdom of equality’ (samatā-jñāna) is the wisdom sensing the happiness and suffering of all beings with one-taste, transcending beyond the ego-centric feelings of suffering and limited pleasures. Due to the absence of confused identities with suffering and pleasure, this leads to an even-minded quality of compassionate all-rounded enrichment. The aggregate of feeling dissolves into the realization of this pristine wisdom. The power that drives the affliction of pride (māna), and the ego-clinging nature of enriching one’s happiness, is transformed into an all-enriching attitude.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Samatā (समता) refers to the “absence of wrong faith”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Yogis continually drive away desire and dislike through equanimity [com.samatayā] or through the state of non-attachment , and they drive away wrong faith through the application of right faith. Those who know the self certainly destroy mental darkness, which is produced by the great quantity of ignorance [and] is a barrier to reality, with the sunbeams of knowledge”.

Synonyms: Samatva.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Samata.—(IE 8-1), corrupt form of saṃvat. Note: samata is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Samatā.—(CII 1), impartiality. Note: samatā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Shamata in India is the name of a plant defined with Butea monosperma in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Rudolphia frondosa Poir. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Cytologia (1989)
· Journal of Tree Sciences (1983)
· Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (1894)
· Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany (1996)
· Familles des Plantes (1763)
· Prodr. (DC.) (1825)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Shamata, for example side effects, diet and recipes, health benefits, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, chemical composition, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

samatā : (f.) equality; evenness; normal state.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Samatā, (fr. sama3) equality, evenness, normal state Vin. I, 183; A. III, 375 sq.; Miln. 351. (Page 682)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sāmatā (सामता).—m A carpenter's tool, a sort of drill or augre.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sāmatā (सामता).—m A sort of augre or carpenter's tool.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Samatā (समता).—

1) Sameness, identity; समेत्य ते मन्त्रयितुं समतागतबुद्धयः (sametya te mantrayituṃ samatāgatabuddhayaḥ) Rām.2.2.2.

2) Likeness, similarity.

3) Equality; स्वजातेः समतां गतम् (svajāteḥ samatāṃ gatam) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.87.

4) Impartiality, fairness. समतां नी (samatāṃ nī) 'to treat as equal'; पश्चाद्दृश्येत यत्किंचित्तत्सर्वं समतां नयेत् (paścāddṛśyeta yatkiṃcittatsarvaṃ samatāṃ nayet) Manusmṛti 9.218.

5) Equanimity.

6) Perfectness.

7) Commonness.

8) Evenness.

See also (synonyms): samatva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Samatā (समता).—a high number: Gaṇḍavyūha 106.6; 133.16; Mahāvyutpatti 7877 (cited from Gaṇḍavyūha) = Tibetan rtogs yas; = sadama, q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samatā (समता).—f.

(-tā) 1. Sameness, similarity, equality. 2. Equanimity. 3. Right decision. 4. Perfectness. E. sama equal, like, tal aff.: also samatva n.


Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samatā (समता).—[sama + tā], f. 1. Sameness, similarity. 2. Equality, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 90 (sva-jāti-samatāṃ gata, Grown equal to his kind). 3. State of a common (not pre-eminent) person, [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 42, M.M. 4. Equanimity, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 44. 5. Right decision, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 178. 6. Perfectness, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 83.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samatā (समता).—[feminine] samatva [neuter] [abstract] to 2 sama.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Samatā (समता):—[=sama-tā] [from sama] f. (sama-) sameness of level, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

2) [v.s. ...] equality, sameness, identity with ([instrumental case] [genitive case], or [compound]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] fairness, impartiality towards ([locative case] or [compound]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] equableness, normal condition (tāṃ-√nī, ‘to decide or settle equitably’), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Suśruta] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] equanimity, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

6) [v.s. ...] mediocrity, [Hitopadeśa]

7) [v.s. ...] benevolence, [Pañcarātra]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samatā (समता):—(tā) 1. f. Sameness, equality.

[Sanskrit to German]

Samata in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Śāmata (शामत) [Also spelled shamat]:—(nf) misfortune, ill-luck, affliction; ~[jadā] ill-fated; unfortunate, unlucky; —[śrānā/-sira para savāra honā] to be in for an affliction, to be in the grip of misfortune; —[kā mārā] ill-fated, unlucky, afflicted.

2) Samatā (समता) [Also spelled samta]:—(nf) equality, parity; equity, equanimity; similarity, likeness, resemblance; evenness; ~[vāda] equalitarianism; ~[vādī] equalitarianist(ic).

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