Vishuddhi, Viśuddhi: 16 definitions
Vishuddhi means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Viśuddhi can be transliterated into English as Visuddhi or Vishuddhi, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: Chakras: Hinduism
Visha = impurity, poison; Shuddhi = purification. The Vishuddhi Chakra is located in the vicinity of the Larynx – and is therefore also known as the Throat Chakra. It is a centre of physical and spiritual purification. A story from the Purānas clearly illustrates the immense purificatory power of the Vishuddhi Chakra:
With the help of the Vishuddhi Chakra we can rid ourselves of the toxic substances that are absorbed from the environment, as well as mental impurities. An important and life-supporting function of the Chakra is the purification and detoxification of harmful substances that accumulate in the body and primarily come from the food we eat and the air we breathe. This detoxification is brought about by Udāna Prāna, which has its seat in the throat. Udāna Prāna enables us to swallow. The food that is broken down by saliva is purified of toxic substances by this Prāna and is then passed on to the digestive system. An active Vishuddhi Chakra united with a strong Udāna Prāna contributes substantially to the preservation of health.
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Viśuddhi (विशुद्धि) refers to the “purification (from sins)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.20. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] O sage, on hearing these words of Śiva I humbly bowed to Him repeatedly with palms joined in reverence and said:—‘[...] O lord Śiva, for the purification of men from sins (pāpa-viśuddhi) you will please stay for ever in this altar in this self-same form. O moon-crested God, I shall make my hermitage in its vicinity and perform penance to destroy my sin. If anyone visits this holy site on the thirteenth day in the bright half of Caitra (March-April) when the star is Uttarāphālgunī and the day is Sunday, may all his sins be quelled O Śiva; may his merits increase and may his ailments disappear’”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
The '7 stages of purification' (satta-visuddhi) form the substructure of Upatissa's Vimutti-Magga (The Path To Freedom), preserved only in Chinese, as well as of Buddhaghosa's monumental work, Visuddhi-Magga (The Path of Purification), based on the former work.
The only place in the Canon where these 7 kinds of purification are mentioned is M.24, "The Simile of the Stage-coach" (s. 'Path', §64), wherein their purpose and goal are illustrated. There it is said that the real and ultimate goal does not consist in purification of morality, or of mind, or of view, etc., but in total deliverance and extinction. Now, just as one mounts the first coach and travels to the second coach, then mounts the second coach and travels with it to the third coach, etc., in exactly the same way the goal of
(I) the purification of morality (sila-visuddhi) is (II) the purification of mind (citta-visuddhi); its goal: (III) the purification of view (ditthi-visuddhi); its goal: (IV) the purification by overcoming doubt (kankhāvitarana-visuddhi); its goal: (V) the purification by knowledge and vision of what is path and not-path (maggāmagga-ñānadassana-visuddhi); its goal: (VI) the purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress (patipadā-ñānadassana-visuddhi); its goal: (VII) the purification of knowledge and vision (ñānadassana-visuddhi); but the goal of this purification is deliverance freed from all clinging.
(I) "Purification of morality (sīla-visuddhi) consists of the 4-fold purity of morality (catu-pārisuddhi-sīla), namely: restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code (pātimokkhasamvara-sīla), sense-restraint (indriysamvara-sīla), purity of livelihood (ājīvapārisuddhi-sīla), morality with regard to the 4 requisites (paccaya-sannissita-sīla)" (Vis.M. XVIII). On these 4 terms, s. sīla. - In the case of a layman, it entails the observance of whatever moral rules (5 or more) he has taken upon himself.
(II) "Purification of mind (citta-visuddhi) is a name for the 8 attainments (= absorptions: jhāna, q.v.), as well as for neighbourhood-concentration (upacāra-samādhi; s. samādhi)." (ib.).
(III) "By purification of view (ditthi-visuddhi) is meant the understanding, according to reality, of mind and corporeality (nāmarūpa, q.v.)... which is founded on undeludedness (wisdom) as base, and which in manifold ways determines mind and corporeality after overcoming all belief in a persollality (attā: self, ego.)." (ib.).
(IV) "By purification by overcoming doubt (kankhā-vitarana-visuddhi) is meant the understanding which, by grasping the conditions of this mind and corporeality, has escaped from all doubt with regard to the 3 times (past, present, future)." (ib. XIX)
(V) "By purification by knowledge and vision of what is path and not-path (maggāmagga-ñānadassana-visuddhi) is meant that understanding which knows the right path from the wrong path: 'This is the right path, that the wrong path.' " (ib. XX)
In order to attain this 5th stage of purification, one at first should develop methodical insight (naya-vipassanā), i.e. through contemplation of the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.). For whosoever does not yet possess a perfectly developed insight, to him such phenomena as effulgence of light, etc. (see below), arising during insight, may become impediments in the 3 kinds of full understanding here considered (s. pariññā).
'As soon as the manifold ways and characteristics of the 4 Truths (sacca) and the dependent origination (paticcasamuppāda) have become clear to the meditating disciple, he says to himself: Thus do these things never before arisen arise, and having arisen they disappear again. Thus do the formations of existence ever and again arise as something quite new. But not only are they something new, they are moreover also of limited duration, like a dew-drop at sunrise, like a bubble, like a line drawn with a stick in the water, like a mustard seed placed on the point of an arrow, or like a flash of lightning. Also as something unsubstantial and empty do they appear, as jugglery, as a mirage .... Merely something subject to vanishing arises, and having arisen disappears again.' "
During such insight practice, however, may arise the 10 imperfections (or defilements) of insight (vipassanūpakkilesa): effulgence of light (obhāsa), knowledge (ñāna), rapture (pīti), tranquillity (passaddhi), happiness (sukha), determination (adhimokkha), energy (paggaha), awareness (upatthāna), delight (nikanti). - See Vis.M. XX, 105f. (App.).
Excepting the last one, 'delight', they are not imperfections or defilements in themselves, but may become a basis for them through the arising of pride or delight or by a wrong conclusion that one of the holy paths has been attained. He, however, who is watchful and experienced in insight practice, will know that these states of mind do not indicate attainment of the true path, but are only symptoms or concomitants of insight meditation.
"Thus far the meditating disciple has determined 3 of the truths, namely while determining the corporeal and mental phenomena he has, through purification of view (ditthi-visuddhi), determined the 'truth of suffering'. While grasping the conditions he has, through purification by overcoming doubt (kankhā-vitarana-visuddhi), determined the 'truth of the origin of suffering'. While determining the right path, he has, through purification by knowledge and vision of what is path and not-path (maggāmagga-ñānadassana-visuddhi), determined the 'truth of the path' (leading to the extinction of suffering)."
(VI) Purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress (patipadā-ñānadassana-visuddhi) is the insight perfected in 8 kinds of knowledge, together with the 9th knowledge, the 'knowledge adapting itself to truth'.
By the 8 kinds of knowledge are here meant the following, which are freed from defilements, follow the right process, and are considered as insight, namely:
1. knowledge consisting in contemplation of rise and fall (udayabbayānupassanā-ñāna), 2. in contemplation of dissolution (bhangānupassanā-ñāna), 3. in awareness of terror (or the fearful) (bhayatūpatthānā-ñāna), 4. in contemplation of misery (ādīnavānupassanā-ñāna), 5. in contemplation of aversion (nibbidānupassanā-ñāna), 6. in the desire for deliverance (muccitu-kamyatā-ñāna), 7. in reflecting contemplation (patisankhānupassanā-ñāna), 8. in equanimity regarding all formations of existence (sankhārupekkhā-ñāna) - which is followed by 9. in adaptation to truth (saccānulomika-ñāna).
(1) consists in the meditative observation of the 3 characteristics of existence (impermanence, suffering, no self) in one's own bodily and mental processes. As long as the mind is still disturbed by the 10 imperfections (s. V), the 3 characteristics will not become fully clear in their true nature. Only when the mind is free from these imperfections can the characteristics be observed clearly.
(2) When through such repeated practice, knowledge and mindfulness have grown keen and the bodily and mental formations become apparent quickly, at that stage the phase of dissolution of these formations will become prominent.
"Consciousness with (e.g.) materiality as its object arises and dissolves. Having reflected on that object, he contemplates the dissolution of (reflecting) consciousness." (Pts.M. I, 57, quoted in Vis.M. XXI, 11).
The 8 blessings of this knowledge are: abandoning the belief in eternal existence (bhava-ditthi), giving up attachment to life, constant right application (of mind to meditative endeavour), a purified livelihood, overcoming of anxiety, absence of fear, acquisition of forbearance and gentleness, conquest of discontent and sensual delight (Vis.M. XXI, 28).
(3) Knowledge consisting in awareness of terror (or fearfulness) is the seeing of terror in the conditions as well as the continuity of existence. For whoso considers the formations as impermanent, to him the conditions of existence (i.e. the karma-formations producing ever new existence) appear as terror, as driving towards death. Whoso considers the formations as misery, to him the continuity of existence appears as terror, as something oppressive. Whoso considers the formations as impersonal, to him the karmaformations, as well as the continuity of existence, appear as terror, as an empty village, as a mirage, etc.
(4) Contemplation of misery (or danger) is another aspect of the awareness of terror: "The origin (of existence) is terror ... continuance of existence is terror ... arising is suffering', such understanding in the awareness of terror is the knowledge of misery. 'Non-arising is bliss', this is knowledge of the peaceful state (Pts.M. I, 59); that is, the no-more-arising is safety, is happiness, is Nibbāna.
(5) Contemplation of aversion means: aversion for all formations as terror, therefore its name 'awareness of terror' has come into use. Because it has made known the misery of all these formations, therefore it has received the name of 'contemplation of misery' (ādīnavānupassanā). Because it has arisen through aversion for those formations, therefore it is known as 'contemplation of aversion' (nibbidānupassanā).
(6) Knowledge consisting in the desire for deliverance means: the desire for freedom and escape from all formations of existence.. For feeling aversion for all formations, becoming weary of them, finding no more delight in them, the mind does not cling to a single one of all these formations.
(7) Reflecting contemplation is the repeated meditative discernment of the formations of existence, attributing to them the 3 characteristics of existence, with the desire to find deliverance from all forms of existence.
(8) Equanimity regarding all formations: "When the meditator (through reflecting contemplation) has discerned the formations by applying the 3 characteristics to them and sees them as void, he abandons both terror and delight, and becomes indifferent and equanimous with regard to all formations; he neither takes them as I nor as 'mine'; he is like a man who has divorced his wife" (Vis.M. XXI, 61).
Now, while continuing to contemplate the 3 characteristics of existence and perceiving the tranquil lot of Nibbāna as the peace, this equanimity-knowledge becomes the triple gateway to liberation. As it is said (Pts.M. II, p. 48):
"Three gateways to liberation (vimokkha-mukha; s. vimokkha I) lead to escape from the world, namely: that the mind is contemplating all formations as limited, and is rushing forward to the condition less element (animitta-dhātu); that the mind is stirred with regard to all formations of existence, and is rushing forward to the desire less element (appanihita-dhātu); that the mind sees all things as something foreign, and is rushing forward to the void element (suññatā-dhātu)."
At this stage, and through the triple gateway, the diversification of path attainment takes place, according to the 7 kinds of noble persons (ariya-puggala, q.v.); on this see Vis.M. XXI, 74ff.
The 6th, 7th and 8th knowledge, according to Vis.M. XXI, form really only one single knowledge in its first, middle and final stages of development. This knowledge is also known as the 'insight leading to path ascent' (vutthāna-gāminī-vipassanā, q.v.).
(9) Adaptation to truth (or conformity with truth) is called that knowledge which, while contemplating impermanency, etc. adapts itself to the preceding 8 kinds of insight-knowledge, as well as to the immediately following supermundane path and to the 37 elements pertaining to enlightenment (bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, q.v.). It is identical with adaptation-knowledge (anulomañāna).
"Whosoever has cultivated, developed, and frequently practised 'equanimity regarding all formations' in him arises very strong faith known as determination (adhimokkha-saddhā) and his energy is better exerted, his mindfulness better established, his mind better concentrated, and a still stronger 'equanimity regarding the formations' arises. 'Now the path will reveal itself', thus thinking, the meditator contemplates with his equanimity-knowledge all formations as impermanent, etc., and thereafter that knowledge sinks into the subconscious stream of existence (s. bhavanga-sotā). Immediately afterwards there arises advertence at the mind-door (s. viññāna-kicca). And just like equanimity-knowledge, the adaptation-knowledge, too, takes as its object the formations, regarding them as something impermanent, miserable and impersonal. Thereupon, while continuing the uninterrupted continuity of consciousness (citta-santati), there arises the 1st impulsive moment (javana, q.v.), called 'preparation' (parikamma), taking the same formations as object. Immediately thereafter, with the same formations as object, there arises the 2nd impulsive moment, known as 'access' (upacāra). And again immediately after that, there arises the impulsive moment called 'adaptation' (anuloma)."
(VII) Purification of knowledge and vision (ñānadassana-visuddhi) is the knowledge associated with any of the 4 kinds of supermundane path-consciousness (s. ariyapuggala).
"Immediately upon this adaptation-knowledge there arises the 'maturity-knowlege' (gotrabhū-ñāna; s. gotrabhū) taking as object the Unconditioned, the standstill of existence, the absence of becoming, cessation, Nibbāna, while at the same time transcending the rank (gotta = gotra: lineage), designation and plane of the worldling (puthujjana, q.v.), and entering the rank, designation and plane of the Noble Ones (ariya), being the first turning towards Nibbāna as object, the first thinking of it, the first concentration on it, and the condition for the path ... forming the culmination of insight, and never as such coming back again.
''As the immediate continuation following upon that maturity knowledge (gotrabhū-ñāna), there arises the first path-consciousness (Stream-entrance) forever destroying the first 3 of the 10 fetters of existence (samyojana, q.v.), and closing the entrance to the lower worlds. Immediately after this path-knowledge, there arise, as its result, 2 or 3 path-produced states of consciousness, the fruitional consciousness (phala-citta). Immediately after the sinking of this consciousness into the subconscious stream of existence, the retrospective knowledge (paccavekkhana-ñāna, q.v.) arises, having the path-consciousness as its object" (Vis.M. XXI). For the 3 higher paths, s. ariya-puggala.
Each of the 4 kinds of path-consciousness performs at the one and the same time 4 functions, namely: the function of full understanding (pariññā, q.v.) of suffering, the function of overcoming (pahāna, q.v.) the origin of suffering, the function of realizing (sacchikiriyā) the extinction of suffering, the function of developing (bhāvanā, q.v.) the supermundane Noble Eightfold Path (magga, q.v.).
See Path of Purification, by Buddhaghosa, tr. by Ñyanamoli (BPS); Path of Freedom, by Upatissa (BPS).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
Viśuddhi (विशुद्धि, “purity”) refers to purity of soul, according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.24.—The state of the soul on the destruction cum subsidence of the kārmika veil covering its telepathy knowledge attribute is called purity (viśuddhi).
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Viśuddhi.—cf. viśuddhiṃ yāvat (LP), ‘till the account is clear’. Note: viśuddhi is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
viśuddhi (विशुद्धि).—f Cleansedness. Purity. Correct state.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
viśuddhi (विशुद्धि).—f S Cleansedness, cleansed or purified state. 2 Cleanness or purity. 3 Corrected or correct state, accurateness, rectitude, rightness.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
visuddhi : (f.) purity; holiness; splendour; excellency.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Visuddhi, (f.) (vi+suddhi) brightness, splendour, excellency; (ethically) purity, holiness, sanctification; virtue, rectitude Vin. I, 105 (visuddho paramāya visuddhiyā); D. I, 53; III, 214 (diṭṭhi°, sīla°), 288; M. I, 147; S. III, 69; A. I, 95 (sīla° & diṭṭhi°); II, 80 (catasso dakkhiṇā°), 195; III, 315; V, 64 (paramattha°); Sn. 813, 824, 840, 892; Dh. 16 (kamma°); Ps. I, 21 (sīla°, citta°, diṭṭhi°); II, 85 (id.); Nd1 138, 162; Vism. 2; SnA 188 (°divasa), PvA. 13 (°cittatā); Sdhp. 447. A class of divine beings (dogmatically the highest in the stages of development, viz. gods by sanctification) is called visuddhi-devā Nd2 307; J. I, 139; VvA. 18. See under deva. (Page 640)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Purification; तदङ्गसंसर्गमवाप्य कल्पते ध्रुवं चिताभस्मरजो विशुद्धये (tadaṅgasaṃsargamavāpya kalpate dhruvaṃ citābhasmarajo viśuddhaye) Ku.5.79; उपविश्यासने युञ्ज्याद्योगमात्म- विशुद्धये (upaviśyāsane yuñjyādyogamātma- viśuddhaye) Bg.6.12; Ms.6.69;11.53.
2) Purity, complete purity; हेम्नः संलक्ष्यते ह्यग्नौ विशुद्धिः श्यामिकापि वा (hemnaḥ saṃlakṣyate hyagnau viśuddhiḥ śyāmikāpi vā) R.1.1;12.48.
3) Correctness, accuracy.
4) Rectification, removal of error.
5) Similarity, equality.
6) (In alg.) A subtractive quantity.
7) Expiation, atonement; इयं विशुद्धिरुदिता प्रमाप्याकामतो द्विजम् (iyaṃ viśuddhiruditā pramāpyākāmato dvijam) Ms.11.89.
8) Settlement (of a debt).
9) Perfect knowledge.
Derivable forms: viśuddhiḥ (विशुद्धिः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ddhiḥ) 1. Purity, purification. 2. Equality, similarity. 3. Removal of doubt. 4. Correctness. 5. In Algebra, a subtractive quantity. E. vi before śuddhi purity.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Viśuddhi (विशुद्धि).—i. e. vi-śudh + ti, f. 1. Purity, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 67; 9, 9. 2. Correctness. 3. Purifying, purification, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 6, 12; [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 9, 17. 4. Sameness. 5. Removal of doubt.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Viśuddhi (विशुद्धि).—[feminine] purification, purity; p. mant.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Viśuddhi (विशुद्धि):—[=vi-śuddhi] [from vi-śudh] f. complete purification, purity (also [figuratively]). holiness, virtue, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] rectification, removal of error or doubt, [Horace H. Wilson]
3) [v.s. ...] settlement (of a debt), [Sāṃkhyakārikā] [Scholiast or Commentator]
4) [v.s. ...] retribution, retaliation (See vaira-v)
5) [v.s. ...] perfect knowledge, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
6) [v.s. ...] (in [algebra]) a subtractive quantity, [Bījagaṇita]
7) [v.s. ...] = sama, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Full-text (+114): Pariharavishuddhi, Vishuddhidarpana, Vishuddhimat, Vishuddhicakra, Desire For Deliverance, Seven Stages Of Purification, Maturity Knowledge, Vipassanupakkilesa, Pindavishuddhidipika, Gotrabhunana, Three Doors Of Deliverance, Madhudipani, Vairavishuddhi, Dakkhina Sutta, Muccitu Kamyata-nana, Kankha Vitarana Visuddhi, Magga, Arising And Vanishing, Pannavisuddhi, Deliverance.
Search found 33 books and stories containing Vishuddhi, Viśuddhi, Visuddhi, Vi-shuddhi, Vi-śuddhi, Vi-suddhi; (plurals include: Vishuddhis, Viśuddhis, Visuddhis, shuddhis, śuddhis, suddhis). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Vipassana Meditation (by Chanmyay Sayadaw)
Part 8 - Purification Of Knowledge < [Chapter 5 - The Seven Stages Of Purification]
Part 6 - Purification Of Knowledge < [Chapter 5 - The Seven Stages Of Purification]
Part 3 - Purification Of View < [Chapter 5 - The Seven Stages Of Purification]
A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas (by Sujin Boriharnwanaket)
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Part 12 - The Seven Purifications of a Buddha < [Chapter 7 - The Attainment of Buddhahood]
Part 10d - The method of fulfilling the Perfection of Wisdom (Paññā Pāramī) < [Chapter 7 - On Miscellany]
Part 7 - A Special Point to note [regarding the six attributes of the Dhamma] < [Chapter 42 - The Dhamma Ratanā]
Practicing Insight on Your Own (by Acharn Thawee Baladhammo)
A Heart Released (by Phra Ajaan Mun Bhuridatta Thera)
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
I.2. Pure and impure generosity (dāna) < [I. Puṇyakriyāvastu consisting of generosity]
II. Purely subjective result of this wish < [Part 4 - Assuring the continuity of the Buddha universes]
Act 7.3: Description of Paranirmitavaśavartin < [Chapter XIV - Emission of rays]