Shalya, Śalya, Salya: 25 definitions


Shalya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śalya can be transliterated into English as Salya or Shalya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Śalya (शल्य).—A king who gave advice and leadership to the Kauravas. He ruled over the Madra or Bālhīka kingdom. Mādrī, wife of Pāṇḍu was Śalya’s sister. Yet, in the great war he stood firmly on the Kaurava side and died at Kurukṣetra. The following role he played in the Bhārata story.

At the instance of Bhīṣma he gave his sister Mādrī in marriage to Pāṇḍu. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 112). (See full article at Story of Śalya from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śalya (शल्य).—Appointed commander of the Kuru army after Karṇa's death, for half a day when Yudhiṣṭhira killed him. His army was defeated by Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa. Went to Syamantapañcaka for solar eclipse.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 15. 15; X. 78. [95 (V) 38]: 82. 25.

1b) A son of Vipracitti.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 21. 11.

1c) A son of Somadatta.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 20. 32.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Śalya (शल्य) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.6) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śalya) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Śalya (शल्य).—The King of Madras. His sister was Mādrī who was married to Pāṇḍu. He wanted to join the side of the Pāṇḍavas during the Kurukṣetra war, but was tricked by Duryodhana into offering him his services. He was killed by Yudhiṣṭhira during the Kurukṣetra war.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śalya (शल्य) refers to a type of fish (matsya) according to the Dhanvantari-nighaṇṭu 165.383-85. In the science of Āyurveda (ancient Indian healthcare), the meat of a fish is used and prepared in balanced diets. The Dhanvantarinighaṇṭu is a 10th-century medicinal thesaurus (nighaṇṭu) containing characteristics and synonyms of various herbal plants and minerals.

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Śalya (शल्य) refers to the Indian Porcupine (wild) (Himalayan Porcupire), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Salya was the brother of Madri, the mother of the Pandavas Nakula and Sahadeva. He was the king of the Madra kingdom.

He was very fond of his nephews, the Pandavas. When the call to arms for the great battle was sounded, he travelled with his retinue to join them, but was tricked into joining the army of the Kauravas instead. He was one of the greatest warriors of his age, and acquited himself nobly. Skilled in horse-lore, he was also charioteer to Karna for a while in the battle, till Karna's death.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Shalya (शल्‍य): Ruler of Madradesa and brother of Madri and uncle of the Pandavas who because of having received hospitality from Duryodhana went over to his side.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Śalya (शल्य, “arrow”) refers to one of the eight kinds of contemplations (anupaśyanā) among the Buddha’s disciples, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XVI). Accordingly, “for them, everything is impermanent (anitya), suffering (duḥkha), empty (śūnya), egoless (anātmaka), like a sickness (roga), an ulcer (gaṇḍa), like an arrow (śalya) stuck in one’s body, like an agony (agha)”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Google Books: Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies volume X: Jain Philosophy (Part 1)

Śalya (शल्य) is the generic name for three defects of character, viz., deceit, desire for worldly enjoyment in return for one’s pious performances, and wrong faith.

Source: Jaina Yoga

Śalya (शल्य).—Closely associated with samyaktva (right faith) is the category of the three śalyas which the Digambara writers Pūjyapāda (Sarvārtha-siddhi v7.18) generally define before discussing the vratas. These are the harmful stimuli or ‘stings’ which distract the person who has attained to right belief.

  1. māyā (deceit),
  2. nidāna (hankering for wordly pleasures and fame),
  3. mithyātva (false belief).

And, unless he rids himself of these śalyas, he cannot properly observe the vratas. The Śvetāmbaras do not seem to employ theterm śalya in this sense but Abhayadeva, in his commentary on the Upāsaka-daśāḥ, quotes a verse in which the śalyas seem to be equated with the aticāras of samyaktva.

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Śalya (शल्य) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Śalya] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śalya (शल्य).—n (S) A peg, a pin, a spike, a thorn, a stub or snag, any similar thing considered as a piercing body. Note. This is rather the proper or primitive than the common sense of the word. The following are the current senses and applications. 1 A splint, splinter, or fragment remaining in the flesh. 2 A dead fœtus remaining in the womb. 3 fig. An injury or insult rankling and festering; an occurrence or an act of which the remembrance is pungently painful; a troublesome or an afflictive occurrence; a plague, pest, bore: a thorn in all its figurative senses. 4 Any mischiefworking thing (as a corpse, a bone &c.) left below the ground on which a house is rising. This must be dug up, or the house will be haunted &c.

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sāḷyā (साळ्या).—a C Epithet of the sesamum which is raised in the dry weather. Generally in plural; as sāḷē tīḷa. Whilst gōḍē tīḷa designates the monsoon-crop of sesamum, sāḷē tīḷa indicates the dry weather crop.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śalya (शल्य).—n A peg. A thorn. A dead fætus remaining in the womb.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śalya (शल्य).—[śal-yat]

1) A spear, javelin, dart.

2) An arrow, a shaft; शल्यं निखातमुदहारयतामुरस्तः (śalyaṃ nikhātamudahārayatāmurastaḥ) R.9.78; शल्यप्रोतम् (śalyaprotam) 9.75; अवगच्छति मूढचेतनः प्रयनाशं हृदि शल्यमर्पितम् (avagacchati mūḍhacetanaḥ prayanāśaṃ hṛdi śalyamarpitam) R.8.88; Ś.6.8; V.2.1.

3) A thorn, splinter.

4) A pin, peg, stake (said to be m. also in these four senses).

5) Any extraneous substance lodged in the body and giving it very great pain; आलातशल्यम् (ālātaśalyam) U.3. 35; अपनीताशेषशल्यः (apanītāśeṣaśalyaḥ) Dk.

6) (Fig.) Any cause of poignant or heart-rending grief; उद्धृतविषादशल्यः कथयिष्यामि (uddhṛtaviṣādaśalyaḥ kathayiṣyāmi) Ś.7.

7) A bone.

8) Difficulty, distress.

9) Sin, crime.

1) Poison.

11) Abuse, defamation.

12) Aegle Marmelos (bilva).

-lyaḥ 1 A porcupine, hedge-hog; Bhāg. 8.2.22.

2) The thorny shrub.

3) Extraction of splinters.

4) A fence, boundary.

5) The Bilva and Madana trees.

6) A kind of fish.

7) Name of a king of Madra and brother of Mādrī, the second wife of Pāṇḍu, and thus maternal uncle of Nakula and Sahadeva. (In the great war he at first intended to fight on the side of the Pāṇdavas, but he was artfully won over by Duryodhana and subsequently fought in his behalf. He acted as charioteer to Karṇa when he was generalissimo of the Kaurava forces, and after his death was appointed commander. He maintained the field for one day, but was at last slain by Yudhi- ṣṭhira).

-lyā A kind of dance (mentioned with lāsya and calita).

Derivable forms: śalyam (शल्यम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śalya (शल्य).—(m. or nt.; = Pali salla, see below), rope, as something that holds fast together; ship's cable, hawser: kṣānti-soratya-(= sau°) -smṛti-śalya-baddhā(ḥ) Kāśyapa Parivarta 153.5, (the ‘ship of the Doctrine’, dharmanāvā, line 2) that is moored (made fast) by the ropes of kṣānti, sauratya and smṛti; so Tibetan, bzod pa daṅ des pa daṅ dran pa ḥi sbyor kas (sbyor, connection, joining, fastening; instr.) legs par sbyar ba. Pali salla in a similar sense should be recognized in Therīg. 347 kāmā…sallabandhanā, desires which bind with cables (the usual meaning of salla, tho adopted in [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary] and Mrs. Rhys Davids' translation(s), clearly makes no sense); commentary 242.7 rāgādīnaṃ sallānaṃ bandhanato sallabandhanā (tatp., not dvandva; and if rāgādi could be called arrows or spears, kṣānti etc. of Kāśyapa Parivarta could not!).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śalya (शल्य).—mn.

(-lyaḥ-lyaṃ) A dart, a jevelin. n.

(-lyaṃ) 1. A bamboo rod or stake. 2. Any stake or thorn. 3. An arrow. 4. An iron crow. 5. Sin, crime. 6. Difficulty, embarrassment, distress. 7. An arrow, a thorn, or other extraneous substance which has lodged in the body, a dart, (lit.); but (fig.) any tormenting and heartrending sorrow. 8. Abuse, defamation. 9. Poison. 10. A bone. m.

(-lyaḥ) 1. A thorny shrub, (Vangueria spinosa.) 2. A porcupine. 3. A hedgehog. 4. A peg, a pin, &c. 5. A boundary. 6. Extraction of splinters, (in surgery.) 7. A king, the maternal uncle of Yudhist'Hira. E. śal to go, aff. yat or ya Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śalya (शल्य).—i. e. śala + ya, I. m. and n. 1. A dart, a javelin. 2. An arrow, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 46, 14; Chr. 30, 1 (m.). Ii. m. 1. A peg, a pin. 2. A porcupine. 3. A thorny shrub, Vangueria spinosa. 4. A boundary. 5. The name of a king, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 50, 98. Iii. n. 1. Any stake or thorn, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 97. 2. An iron crow. 3. Any extraneous substance which has lodged in the body, as an arrow or thorn. 4. Difficulty. 5. Poison. 6. Sin. 7. Abuse.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śalya (शल्य).—[masculine] [neuter] the point of a spear or an arrow, i.[grammar] thorn, sting (lit. & [figuratively]); blemish, fault, obstacle; [masculine] also = seq.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śalya (शल्य):—[from śal] a mn. (ifc. f(ā). ) a dart, javelin, lance, spear, iron-headed weapon (cf. upa-ś), pike, arrow, shaft (also the point of an arrow or spear and its socket), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] anything tormenting or causing pain (as a thorn, sting etc.), or (in med.) any extraneous substance lodged in the body and causing pain (e.g. a splinter, pin, stone in the bladder etc.; also applied to the fetus, and, as a branch of med°, to ‘the extraction of splinters or extraneous substances’), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc., [Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] a fault, defect, [Harivaṃśa] (cf. karma-ś)

4) [v.s. ...] m. a porcupine, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] a kind of fish, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] a fence, boundary, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Vanguieria Spinosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Aegle Marmelos, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of an Asura, [Harivaṃśa; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] of a king of Madra (maternal uncle of the sons of Pāṇḍu and [especially] of Nakula and Saha-deva, Madrī the wife of Pāṇḍu being sister to Śalya), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

11) [v.s. ...] of another king, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

12) Śalyā (शल्या):—[from śalya > śal] f. a kind of dance (mentioned together with lāsya and calita), [Kāvyādarśa i, 39] ([varia lectio] sāmya)

13) Śalya (शल्य):—[from śal] n. an iron crow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] poison, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] abuse, defamation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.],

16) b etc. See [column]1.

17) Salya (सल्य):—salyaka See vi-s.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śalya (शल्य):—[(lyaḥ-lyaṃ)] 1. m. A thorny shrub; a porcupine; a boundary; peg or pin; name of a king. n. Bambu rod; stake; thorn; arrow; iron crow; abuse; sin; distress; poison. m. n. Dart, javelin.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śalya (शल्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Salla, Sallā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shalya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Śalya (शल्य) [Also spelled shaly]:—(nm) a surgical instrument; a thorn; ~[karma/kriyā] surgery, a surgical operation; -[cikitsaka] a surgeon; -[cikitsā] surgical operation; surgery; -[vidyā/śāstra] surgery.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śalya (ಶಲ್ಯ):—[noun] a loose, ablong cloth to cover the upper portion of the body or worn loosely above the upper garment.

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Śalya (ಶಲ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] a long, stabbing weapon for thrusting or throwing, consisting of a shaft with a sharp-pointed head; a spear.

2) [noun] anything that has a pointed end (as a blade of grass, needle, thorn, etc.).

3) [noun] any of the parts of the skeleton of a vertebrate animal; a bone.

4) [noun] a porcupine.

5) [noun] an enclosure as a fence, cmpound, etc.

6) [noun] anything tormenting or causing pain.

7) [noun] the small-sized tree Xeromphis spinosa ( = Gardenia floribunda, Randia dumetorum) of Rubiaceae family.

8) [noun] a kind of hell.

9) [noun] a moral or religious transgression; a sin.

10) [noun] a substance with an inherent property that tends to destroy life or impair health; poison.

11) [noun] insulting or coarse language; abuse.

12) [noun] the tree Aegle marmelos of Rutaceae family; stone apple tree.

13) [noun] water.

14) [noun] a thin, emaciated body.

15) [noun] a piece, fragment.

16) [noun] infatuating attachment, affection.

17) [noun] (fig.) a painful, agonising condition.

18) [noun] a man who causes pain or suffering to; an inflictor; a tormentor.

19) [noun] name of the maternal uncle of Paṇḍavas and the king of Madra country.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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