Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study)

by Debabrata Barai | 2014 | 105,667 words

This page relates ‘Anyayoni (1): Pratibimbakalpa’ of the study on the Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara: a poetical encyclopedia from the 9th century dealing with the ancient Indian science of poetics and rhetoric (also know as alankara-shastra). The Kavya-mimamsa is written in eighteen chapters representing an educational framework for the poet (kavi) and instructs him in the science of applied poetics for the sake of making literature and poetry (kavya).

The poetic composition where the sense is almost the same as earlier work but the expressions are changed and different, thus it is called by pratibimbakalpa-kāvya (poetry) haraṇa.

C.f.

arthaḥ sa eva sarvo vākyāntaraviracanā paraṃ yatra |
tadaparamārthavibhedaṃ kāvyaṃ pratibimbakalpaṃ syāt || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 63

This is illustrated as following śloka:

te pāntu vaḥ paśupateralinīlabhāsaḥ kaṇṭhapradeśaghaṭitāḥ phaṇinaḥ sphu rantaḥ |
candrāmṛtāmbukaṇasekasukhaprarūḍhairyairaṅkurairiva virājati kālūkaṭaḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 63

And also:

jayanti nīlakaṇṭhasya nīlāḥ kaṇṭhe mahāhayaḥ |
galadgaṅgāmbusaṃsiktakālūkaṭāṅku rā iva || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 63

Here the second śloka is a pratibimbakalpa of the first śloka. Because, the sense of first śloka is presented in second śloka just a reflection on a mirror.

Regarding this type of kāvya-haraṇa, C. R. Devadhar says that:

“It is remarkable that we have no instance of ‘pratibimbakalpa’ a sort of imaging where the sense is the same entirely, though the setting in expression is slightly different so that the poem is not fundamentally different. This is rightly condemned as downright plagiarism”.[1]

In the Dhvanyāloka, Ānandavardhana says that, it is not-adoptability types of appropriation and classified into two parts. i.e.

  1. Ananyatma’ and
  2. Tatvikasarirasunya[2].

But Yāyāvarīya Rājaśekhara divided into eight parts i.e.

  1. Vyastaka,
  2. Khaṇḍa,
  3. Tailabindu,
  4. Naṭanepathya,
  5. Chandovinimaya,
  6. Hetuvyatyaya,
  7. Saṃkrāntaka and
  8. Sampuṭa.

Rājaśekhara advice to the kavi (poet) that at any costs these types of appropriation of sense should be avoided[3]. He also defines all the eight-types of pratibimbakalpa-haraṇa.

C.f.

(a) Vyastaka:

sa evārthaḥ paurvāparyaviparyāsādvcatyastakaḥ [paurvāparyaviparyāsād vyastakaḥ?]|”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 65

Means:

“When one and the same subject matter is delineated with an inversion of the regular order thus it is called by Vyastaka.”

For example as:

dṛṣṭ vā'nyebhaṃ chedamutpādya rajjvā yanturvācaṃ manyamānastṛṇāya |
gacchandadhre nāgarājaḥ kariṇyā premṇā tulyaṃ bandhanaṃ nāsti jantoḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 66

Another with the same sense as:

nirvivekamanaso'pi hi jantoḥ premabandhanamaśṛṅ khaladāma |
yatprati pratigajaṃ gajarājaḥ prasthitaściramadhāri kariṅyā || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 66

Here the same sense concerns with the elephants are described in both śloka. Thus, the second śloka is an example of Vyastaka, because here the sequence of sense has interchanged places with reference to the first śloka.

(b) Khaṇḍa:

In a poetic composition if the vast sense is broken into parts and adopted the partial of great subject matter, thus it is known as Khaṇḍa.

C.f.

bṛhato'rthasyārddhapraṇayanaṃ khaṇaḍam [khaṇḍam?] |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 66

For an example:

purā pāṇḍu prāyaṃ tadatu kapiśimnā kṛtapadaṃ tataḥ pākodvekādaruṇaguṇasaṃvaddhitavapuḥ |
śanaiḥ śoṣārambhe sthapuṭanijaviṣkambhaviṣamaṃ vane vātāmodaṃ badaramarasatvaṃ kalayati || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 66

And also:

pākakriyāparicayapraguṇīkṛtena saṃvaddhitāruṇaguṇaṃ vapuṣā nirjana |
āpāditasthapuṭasaṃsthitiśoṣāpoṣā - detadvane virasatāṃ badaraṃ babhārti || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 66

Here, in the first śloka the entire process of ripening of a fruit of a berry has been described but in the second śloka only a part of it has been described. There the second śloka all the steps are adopted from first śloka except the three stages i.e. ‘pāṇḍu prāyaṃ’, ‘kapiśimnā’, ‘kṛtapadaṃ’ and ‘vītāmodaṃ’ . Thus it is an example of Khaṇḍa types of pratibimbakalpa.

(c) Tailabindu:

saṃkṣiptārthavistareṇa tailabinduḥ|”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 66

In a poetic composition where the sense described in short in the śloka in detail in detail in one’s own composition thus it is known as Tailabindu-pratibimbakalpa types of haraṇa.

For example as:

yasya tantrabharākrāntyā pātālatalagāminī |
mahāvarāhadaṃṣṭrāyā bhūyaḥ sasmāra medinī || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 66

And also in the same sense:

yattantrāktāntimajjatpṛthulamaṇiśilāśalyavellatphaṇānte
  klānte patyāvahīnāṃ caladacalamahāstambhasambhārasīmā
|
sasmāra sphāracandradyuti punaravanistaddhiraṇyākṣavakṣaḥ-
sthūlāsthiśreṇiśāṇānikaṣaṇasitamapyāśu daṃṣṭrāgramugram
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 66

Here the sense briefly expressed in the first śloka is enlarging in the second śloka. Thus it is an example for Tilabindu types of pratibimbakalpa haraṇa.

(d) Natanepathya:

anyatamabhāṣānibaddhaṃ bhāṣāntare ṇa parivarttyata iti naṭanepathyam |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 66

Means:

“In a poetry, expressing the sense of an earlier poet in translating the essence in a language to another language called Natanepathyam types of pratibimbakalpa haraṇa.”

C.f.

necchai pāsāsaṃkī kāo diṇṇaṃ pi pahiaghariṇīe |
ohattakarayaloggaliyavalayamajjhaṭṭiaṃ piṇaḍaṃ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 66-67

And another with same sense:

dattaṃ piṇḍaṃ nayanasalilakṣālanādhautagaṇḍa dvāropānte kathamapi tayā saṅgamāśānubamdhāt |
vakragrīvaścalataśirāḥ pārśvasañcāricakṣuḥ pāśāśaṅkī galitavalayaṃ nainamaśnāti kākaḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 67

Here, in a composing poetry the poet of second śloka borrows the idea from the first Prākṛta śloka and deviates totally from the original language prākṛta to Sanskrit. Thus it is an example of Naṭanepathyam types of pratibimbakalpa haraṇa.

(e) Chandovinimaya:

In poetry if a poet described the same meaning or essence of a śloka expressed in a different metre from earlier metre thus it is called Chandovinimay types of pratibimbakalpa haraṇa.

C.f.

chandasā parivṛttiśchandovinimayaḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 67

For an example as:

kānte talpamupāgate vigalitā nīvī svayaṃ bandhanāt
  tadvāsaḥ ślathamekhalāguṇadhṛtaṃ kiñcinnitambe sthitam
|
etāvatsakhi vedmi ke valamahaṃ tasyāṅgasaṅge punaḥ
  ko'sau kā'smi rataṃ nu kiṃ kathamapi khalpā'pi me na smṛtiḥ
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 67

And another with same meaning:

dhanyāstu yāḥ kathayatha priyasaṅgame'pi visrabdhacāṭu kaśatāni ratāntare ṣu |
nīvīṃ prati praṇihitaśca karaḥ priyeṇa sakhyaḥ śapāmi yadi kiñcidapi smarāmi |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 67

Here, the same concepts are expressed in the first śloka and second śloka, but there are uses in a different metre from the former śloka. Thus it is called as Chandovinimaya types of pratibimbakalpa-haraṇa.

(f) Hetuvyatyaya:

kāraṇaparāvṛttyā hetuvyatyayaḥ|”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 67

Means:

“In a poetic composition, when the same meaning is expressed in a śloka but due to a different reason, it is known as Hetuvyatyaya types of pratibimbakalpaharaṇa.”

For example as:

tato'ruṇaparispandamandīkṛtaruciḥ śaśī |
dadhre kāmaparikṣāmakāminīgaṇḍapāṇḍu tām || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 67

Another example with the same meaning:

samaṃ ku sumacāpona garbhiṇīgaṇḍapāṇḍapāṇaḍu nā |
udayādriśiraḥsīmni nihitaṃ padamindunā || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 67

Here, in the first śloka the paleness of the moon is compared to the cheeks of the languished maiden and is the cause of the moon’s decline; but the second śloka is the same paleness is compared to the cheeks of a pregnant maiden and it is the cause of the rise of the moon. Those types of reversing of cause are the example for Hetuvyatyaya-pratibimbakalpa haraṇa.

(g) Saṃkrāntaka:

dṛṣṭasya vastuno'nyatra saṅkasitiḥ saṅkāntakam [saṅkrāntakam?] |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 67

Means:

“In a poetic composition, if a mentioned thing is transference in one śloka into another with reference to some other context thus it is called Samkrāntakam types of pratibimbakalpa-haraṇa.”

For an example:

snānārdārdaividhutakabarībandhalolairidānīṃ
  śroṇībhāraḥ kṛtaparicayaḥ pallavaiḥ ku ntalānām
|
apyetebhyo nabhasi patataḥ paṅkiśe vāribindūn
  sthitvodghrīvaṃ ku valayadṛśāṃ ke lipahaṃsāḥ pibanti
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 67

Another example with same sense:

sadyaḥsnātajapattapodhanajaṭāprāntastrutāḥ pronmukhaikhaḥ
  pīyante'mbukaṇāḥ ku raṅgaśiśubhistṛṣṇāvyathāviklabaiḥ
|
etāṃ premabharālasāṃ ca sahasā śuṣyanmukhīmāku laḥ
  śliṣyanrakṣati pakṣasampuṭakṛtacchāyaḥ śaku ntaḥ priyām
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 67

Here, the context of the swans is transferred to the dears in the second śloka. Thus it is an example of Samkrāntakam types of pratibimbakalpa haraṇa.

(h) Sampuṭa:

ubhayavākyārthopādānaṃ sampuṭaḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 68

Means: In a poetic composition when the essence of two different śloka is combining the sense of two ślokas of earlier poets in a concise manner in one śloka by a later poet, thus it is called Sampuṭa types of pratibimbakalpa haraṇa.

An example i.e.

vinadhyasyādreḥ parisaranadī narmadā subhru saiṣā
  yādobharttuḥ prathamagṛhiṇīṃ yāṃ viduḥ paścimasya
|
yasyāmantaḥsphu ritaśapharatrāsahāsāku lākṣī
  svairaṃ svairaṃ kathamapi mayā tīramuttāritā'si || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 68

And also:

nābhīguhābilaviśaccalavīcijātamañjudhvaniśrutikaṇatkalaku kku bhāni |
re vājalānyaviralaṃ grahilīkriyante lāṭāṅganābhiraparāhlanimajjaneṣu || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 68

Another example in same sense:

yadvargyābhirjagāhe guruśaku laku lāsphālanatrāsahāsa-
  vyasterustambhikābhirdiśi diśi saritāṃ digjayaprakrameṣu
|
ambho gambhīranābhīku
  harakavalanonmuktiparyāyalolatkallolābaddhamugdhadhvanicakitaraṇatkukku bhaṃ kāṇinaībhiḥ
|| ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 68

Here, the senses of first two ślokas are appropriated by the later third śloka. This is done by the author in a concise manner. Thus it is an example of Sampuṭa types of pratibimbakalpa haraṇa.

After discussing an anonymous śloka (verse) Rājaśekhara proves the nonadoptability of various pratibimbakalpa senses in poetic composition. Lastly his advices the entire poet that they are always pratibhā or creative genius should try to get rid of this type of borrowing at all costs.

C.f.

so'yaṃ kaverakavitvadāyī sarvathā pratibimbakalpaḥ pariharaṇīyaḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-XII, Pp- 68

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

C.R. Devdhar, ‘plagiarism its varieties and limits’ Annals of Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol-XXXV, 1954, p.214

[2]:

Dhvanyāloka of Ānandavardana: IV/13

[3]:

Kāvyamīmāṃsā Ed. By. C. D. Dalal and Pt. R. A. Sastry, Pp- 68 “so'yaṃ kaverakavitvadāyī sarvathā prativimvakalpaḥ pariharaṇīyaḥ|”

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